San Juan/Old San Juan
Old San Juan (Viejo San Juan) is the historic core of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Although this eight block by eight block district is part of the San Juan, it is quite geographically and culturally distinct from the rest of the city. As a tourist destination, English is relatively common, but not universally spoken.
Founded in 1509, San Juan became a walled city protected by multiple forts. It guarded an important entrance into the Spanish Main, and withstood multiple attacks by the British and Dutch (some partially successful). It was considered the Gibraltar of the West Indies. Due to its military significance, the government kept the growing population within the city walls until 1897, when a few bastions were demolished. The forts received some naval bombardment during the Spanish American War (1898). Much of district is intact architecturally, including the impresive fortifications.
Many tourists are caught unaware by the sun exposure received from simply walking around the sites of this tropical city. Sunblock is available at many stores in town. Around the perimeter of the district the tradewinds make it suprisingly comfortable, but along the interior streets it is much hotter. Brief showers are quite common.
Tourists should be aware that a neighborhood, La Perla, between the northern city wall and the ocean is a notorious illegal drug market. Vistors are recommended to avoid this area for their own safety. However, it is not easy to accidentally wander into La Perla, as there are only a few access points through or over the city walls. Individuals on the street selling handmade "flowers" made of palm fronds are often collecting the money to buy drugs, and they usually get the palms by stripping and often ultimately killing trees planted by city or commonwealth.
Old San Juan is one of the largest cruise ship ports in the Caribbean, with the docks within walking distance just south of the city walls. It is a $20 cab ride from San Juan/Luis Muños Marin Airport. There is also ferry service from across the harbor. Although one can easily drive to Old San Juan, it is not easy to drive or park within the district due to the narrow streets.
The city offers a "trolley car" bus looping the district. Most distances are walkable, although due to the often hilly topography and climate, one should allow proper time for getting around Old San Juan.
Multiple tourist shops are located near the cruise ship docks and along Calle San Francisco.
For those staying in Old San Juan, day trips to other sights in Puerto Rico can be arranged through most hotels.