Earth : Asia : Southeast Asia : Malaysia : Sabah
Sabah is divided into divisions, a legacy of the British North Borneo days. The divisions are in turn divided into districts. The divisions are:
Sabah, which was known as North Borneo before it joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963, was part of the Sultanate of Brunei in the 16th century while the north-eastern coast of the state became part of the Sultanate of Sulu which was centered in the southern islands of the Philippines. The the mid 18th century, Europeans began making an appearance and the British managed to open a trading post on Pulau Balambangan off the northern tip of Sabah. This post however failed to take off.
In 1865, the American Consul for Brunei, Claude Lee Moses obtained a lease over North Borneo. The lease ownership was passed to an American company which tried to set up a post in what is today Kimanis. That also turned out to be a failure and was abandoned. The lease was then sold to Baron von Overbeck, the Austrian Consul in Hong Kong which he then transferred to Alfred Dent who in 1882 formed the British North Borneo Company to develop the colony. The capital was first established in Kudat, then transfered to Sandakan. North Borneo became a protectorate of Great Britain in 1888 but administration and control over the colony remained in the hands of the Company ruled until 1942 when the Japanese invaded. There were of course resistance to the company's rule, including by Mat Salleh in the late 1890s and the Muruts in the early 1900s.
The Japanese occupation between 1942 and 1945 was brutal and this was when the infamous Death Marches by British and Allied soldiers forced by the Japanese took place. British Military Administration took over when the Japanese surrendered and in 1946, North Borneo became a British Crown Colony. Jesselton (now Kota Kinabalu), which suffered Allied bombing, was rebuilt and chosen to replace Sandakan as the capital.
On September 16, 1963, North Borneo together with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore formed the Federation of Malaysia and from then on it became known as Sabah.
Sabah is one of the most culturally diverse states in Malaysia. Its population of about 2.5 million is a mix of native groups (who are usually divided into Muslim and non-Muslim groups), Chinese, and other smaller ethnic groups such as Indians and Eurasians. The main native groups are the Kadazandusun, Murut, Bajau, Suluk, Bisaya and Orang Sungai. Most of the Chinese who migrated to the state during the British era, belong to the Hakka dialect group although there are also large numbers of Cantonese especially in Sandakan. There are also many Filipinos and Indonesians, many of whom entered Sabah illegally and later became naturalised under a controversial state policy.
The most important festival among the non-Muslim native groups of Sabah is Kaamatan or Harvest Festival. This usually takes place in May and the last two days of the month are public holidays in the state. The most popular event is the unduk ngadau or Harvest Queen in Kadazan, where girls throughout the state compete for the crown. A lot of drinking and general merry-making accompanies the festival.
Most people in Sabah understand English (some of them can even speak the language fluently) and practically all Sabahans understand and can speak Malay language (in the form of Sabahan Malay dialect). Major Chinese dialects are spoken in most urban areas. In the rural areas, Kadazan-Dusun and Murut language are mainly spoken.
Sabah maintains autonomy on immigration rules, mostly so that non-Sabahans cannot freely immigrate and swamp the state. Malaysians from Peninsular Malaysia and neighbouring Sarawak are subjected to some level of immigration control, such as showing their identity cards, and are restricted to a stay of 90 days at a time. Foreigners need to fill out a second immigration form. Nevertheless, for most travellers this is just a formality and an interesting extra stamp in their passport. See Malaysia | Get in for details.
Kota Kinabalu International Airport  (IATA: BKI ICAO: WBKK) is now a major air hub for the Borneo states of Malaysia. The main airlines are Malaysia Airlines  and AirAsia  providing the main links with Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and as several regional destinations like Clark in Angeles City (80km north of Manila), Bangkok, Singapore, Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Kaohsiung, Taipei, Seoul, Tokyo, Osaka and Macau. Other airlines which service Kota Kinabalu are Dragonair  (between KK and Hong Kong), Silkair  (Singapore), Royal Brunei Airlines  (Bandar Seri Begawan) and Asiana  (Seoul). Malaysia Airlines subsidiary MASWings  provides the rural air service links with several minor airports in Sarawak as well as within Sabah. The airport has two terminals - the main one for full fare flights, and a second terminal for budget carriers like AirAsia. For flight details and how to get to the airport terminals, see Kota Kinabalu's "Get in" section.
The only place where you can travel overland into Sabah is from Sarawak through the border crossing at Merapok near Lawas. Those who are not citizens of Sabah or Sarawak will have to go through immigration checks here. The road between Kota Kinabalu and the border is sealed all the way and in good condition. If you are planning to do the overland trail from Sarawak to Sabah, it is possible to get from Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei - or with a bit of a stretch, from Miri - to Kota Kinabalu within a day. See Kota Kinabalu to Brunei in a day for details.
You can enter Sabah by boat from the Malaysian Federal Territory of Labuan, Zamboanga in the southern Philippine, and from Nunukan in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, there are no passenger boat services between Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia.
MASWings , operates the rural air service, linking Kota Kinabalu, Kudat, Lahad Datu, Sandakan and Tawau. Flights use Fokkers and turboprop aircraft. MASWings took over the rural air services network from FlyAsian Express on October 1, 2007, which in turn took the service over from Malaysia Airlines 14 months before that.
Sabah's road network is not as developed as that in Peninsular Malaysia and there are large areas of the interior, such as the Kinabatangan River basin, which are not connected by road. The main road most useful to travellers are those running along the West Coast from the Sabah-Sarawak border at Sindumin through Sipitang, Beaufort and Papar to Kota Kinabalu (called Route A2) and northwards from Kota Kinabalu to Kota Belud and ending at Kudat near the northern tip of Sabah (Route A1). The main road into the West Coast interior runs from Kota Kinabalu to Tambunan, Keningau and Tenom.
The main road to the East Coast (Route A4) branches off Route A1 near Tuaran, about 30km north of Kota Kinabalu. It passes the foot of Mount Kinabalu and Ranau right through to Sandakan. The main road to Tawau and the southeastern parts of Sabah (Route A5) branches off from Route A4 about 55km west of Sandakan or 285km from Kota Kinabalu.
A road is being constructed from Keningau through the isolated Pensiangan and Kalabakan districts to Tawau at the southeastern corner of Sabah. Once completed, the road will enable those travelling from Kota Kinabalu to Tawau to cut travelling time and distances significantly without needing to use the KK-Sandakan road.
Long distance express buses operate between major cities in Sabah. Most of these are air-conditioned and quite comfortable. There are also non-aircon stage buses running between towns which stop to pick-up and let down passengers along the way. They may be cheaper but take forever to get anywhere.
A lot of short-distance inter-town travel in Sabah is also done by minibuses and minivans. These are either small buses or vans which are converted to take in passeners. They charge the same fare as buses but carry fewer passengers. Most operate in the morning and will only leave when they are full. But once they get going, the journey can be quite fast. You can make long distance journeys with minibuses and minivans but you'll have to change along the way.
The North Borneo Railway  is the only railway network on Borneo. The network is small (134km), linking Kota Kinabalu to Beaufort along the west coast, and then inland along the Padas River to Tenom, which is the more interesting and popular stretch for travellers. The new Kota Kinabalu to Beaufort service opened in Feb 2011. Beaufort to Tenom remains only once a day. See the respective city pages for train details.
Sabah can be said to be one of the best states in Malaysia when it comes to things to see and do. Its attractions range from the breath-taking natural wonders such as mountains, jungles, islands and flora and fauna, to the colourful cultures of its multi-ethnic inhabitants.
Most of the attractions have their own pages. The list below provides the links.
Hand-in-hand with the many attractions, Sabah is also a place where you will not run out of things to do. You'll have a choice of mountain climbing, diving, white-water rafting and jungle trekking as well as many other more sedate activities.
For the less intrepid explorer who do not know, or do not care for the trouble of finding out, Sabah can be a difficult region to get round independently, in terms of cost and reliable transport. To have everything pre-arranged for you, it's best to contract the services of a tour operator of which there is no short supply in Sabah. If you’re on a shoestring budget you can find good reliable freelance guides at Sabah’s Tourism Board , whose price can be considerably lower than a fixed package.
Ngiu Chap(Beef Noodle), Fresh Seafood, Local Kadazan Cuisine
Lime juice, mango juice, and other fresh fruit juices. Cheap liquors are very widely available at most supermarkets and mini markets in the state. Other alcoholic drinks such as beer and whisky are also widely available.
Most towns of Sabah are generally safe, but the general rule of not showing off your wealth openly in the public is advisable as pick-pocketing is a danger especially in poorer areas while robbery is rare. You can still shop safely around the towns and cities.