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(Vowels)
(Grammar)
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===Stress===
 
===Stress===
  
There is no fixed stress in Russian, except one case: a syllable with '''ё''' is always stressed. Stressed vowels in Russian dictionaries are always marked by an acute accent (a kind of diacritical marks), e.g. '''трамва́й'''.
+
There is no fixed stress in Russian, except one case: a syllable with '''ё''' is always stressed. Stressed vowels in Russian dictionaries are always marked by an acute accent (a kind of diacritical marks), e.g. '''трамва́й'''.
  
 
==Grammar==
 
==Grammar==
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*The second person pronoun '''вы''' is the plural of '''ты''' and is also used, as in French, for '''polite address''' to one person.
+
*The second person pronoun '''вы''' is the plural of '''ты''' and is also used, as '''''vous''''' and '''''usted''''' are in French and Spanish, respectively, for '''polite address''' to one person.
  
 
*Russian '''verbs and verb conjugation''' differ along three axes:
 
*Russian '''verbs and verb conjugation''' differ along three axes:
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:2) Verbs follow a simple pattern of temporal conjugation: past, present, and future, (e.g., '''подумал''' | '''думаю''' | '''подумаю'''). In the past tense, verbs also conjugate by gender, male, female, and neuter (e.g., '''подумал''' | '''подумала''' | '''подумало''').
 
:2) Verbs follow a simple pattern of temporal conjugation: past, present, and future, (e.g., '''подумал''' | '''думаю''' | '''подумаю'''). In the past tense, verbs also conjugate by gender, male, female, and neuter (e.g., '''подумал''' | '''подумала''' | '''подумало''').
  
:3) In the present and future tenses, pronouns can be ommitted due to context; however, the same is hardly said in the past tense, as the latter changes according to gender (masculine, feminine and neutral) and number (singular and plural). (Example at right)
+
:3) In the present and future tenses, pronouns can and are often ommitted due to context; however, the same is hardly said in the past tense, as the latter changes according to gender (masculine, feminine and neutral) and number (singular and plural). (Example at right)
  
  
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===Basics===
 
===Basics===
  
; Hello. : Здравствуйте. (''ZDRAHST-vooy-tyeh'') (Sometimes considered bad luck to say this to the same person twice in one day.)
+
; Hello. : Здравствуйте. (''ZDRAHST-vooy-tyeh'')  
 
; Hello. (''informal'') : Привет. (''pree-VYEHT''), Здорово. (''Zduh-ROH-vuh'') (Shorter version of the above greeting.)
 
; Hello. (''informal'') : Привет. (''pree-VYEHT''), Здорово. (''Zduh-ROH-vuh'') (Shorter version of the above greeting.)
 
; How are you? : Как дела? (''kahg dee-LAH?'')
 
; How are you? : Как дела? (''kahg dee-LAH?'')
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; Yes. : Да. (''dah'')
 
; Yes. : Да. (''dah'')
 
; No. : Нет. (''nyeht'')
 
; No. : Нет. (''nyeht'')
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') : Извините. (''eez-vee-NEET-yeh'')
+
; Excuse me. (''getting attention or begging pardon'') : Извините. (''eez-vee-NEET-yeh'')
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') : Простите. (''prah-STEET-yeh'')
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') : Простите. (''prah-STEET-yeh'')
 
; I'm sorry. : Простите. (''prah-STEET-yeh'')
 
; I'm sorry. : Простите. (''prah-STEET-yeh'')
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Russian nouns have a paucal form, used with 2, 3, and 4, as well as singular and plural. Singular quantities and any quantities that end in 1 (21, 301, etc.) use the nominative singular: одна минута, двадцать один час. Quantities 2–4 use the genitive singular: две минуты, три минуты, четыре минуты. Quantities greater than four use the genitive plural:  пять минут, одиннадцать минут, тринадцать минут, etc.
 
Russian nouns have a paucal form, used with 2, 3, and 4, as well as singular and plural. Singular quantities and any quantities that end in 1 (21, 301, etc.) use the nominative singular: одна минута, двадцать один час. Quantities 2–4 use the genitive singular: две минуты, три минуты, четыре минуты. Quantities greater than four use the genitive plural:  пять минут, одиннадцать минут, тринадцать минут, etc.
  
; 1 : один (''ah-DEEN'') ''m'', одна (''ahd-NAH'') ''f'', одно (''ahd-NOH'') ''n''
+
; 1 : один (''ah-DEEN'') ''m'', одна (''ahd-NAH'') ''f'', одно (''ahd-NOH'') ''n'' (one can say раз (raz) when counting smthng)
 
; 2 : два (''dvah'') ''mn'', две (''dvyeh'') ''f''
 
; 2 : два (''dvah'') ''mn'', две (''dvyeh'') ''f''
 
; 3 : три (''tree'')
 
; 3 : три (''tree'')
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; twelve o'clock : двенадцать часов (''dvee-NAHD-zut’ chuh-SOV'')
 
; twelve o'clock : двенадцать часов (''dvee-NAHD-zut’ chuh-SOV'')
 
; noon : полдень (''POHL-dyehn’'')
 
; noon : полдень (''POHL-dyehn’'')
; midnight : полночь (''POHL-noch'')
+
; midnight : полночь (''POHL-nohch'')
 
; half an hour : полчаса (''pohl-chuh-SAH'')
 
; half an hour : полчаса (''pohl-chuh-SAH'')
  
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; afternoon : день (''dyehn’'') (noon to 5 p.m.)
 
; afternoon : день (''dyehn’'') (noon to 5 p.m.)
 
; evening : вечер (''VYEH-chuhr'') (5 p.m. to midnight)
 
; evening : вечер (''VYEH-chuhr'') (5 p.m. to midnight)
; night : ночь (''noch'')(midnight to 5 a.m.)
+
; night : ночь (''nohch'') (midnight to 5 a.m.)
  
  
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; Can I just pay a fine now? : Я могу заплатить штраф сейчас? (''yah mah-GOO zah-plah-TEET’ shtrahf say-CHAHS?'') (This phrase indicates that you want to pay a bribe to get out of trouble.)
 
; Can I just pay a fine now? : Я могу заплатить штраф сейчас? (''yah mah-GOO zah-plah-TEET’ shtrahf say-CHAHS?'') (This phrase indicates that you want to pay a bribe to get out of trouble.)
  
 +
==Learning more==
  
 +
* [http://academic.ru/ Online Russian dictionaries]
 +
* [http://russian.lingualift.com/ Russian LinguaLift] —  Learn, review, and practice Russian in one easy to use package.
 +
* [http://gramota.ru/ Gramota.ru] — Russian grammar reference
 +
* [http://russian.lingualift.com/blog/best-russian-learning-resources/ 100 top resources to learn Russian]
  
 
[[de:Sprachführer Russisch]]
 
[[de:Sprachführer Russisch]]
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[[WikiPedia:Russian language]]
 
[[WikiPedia:Russian language]]
  
{{starnomination}}
 
 
{{related|Russia}}
 
{{related|Russia}}
 
{{phrasebookguide}}
 
{{phrasebookguide}}

Revision as of 01:21, 7 July 2014

Russian language distribution

Russian is a Slavic language spoken by 300+ million people world-wide. Most people living in Russia use it as a first language, and many other people in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe know it as a second language. It holds official status in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, as well as the unrecognized states of Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Transnistria.

In countries lacking official designation for Russian, such as Ukraine and the Baltic States (where schooling in Russian was mandatory under the Soviet regime), a solid majority of residents may speak it as a second language, in addition to having significant native-speaker minorities. Russian also remains the lingua franca of choice throughout the rest of the former Soviet Central Asian states and the Caucasus, where it is effectively the language of commerce, government, and travel (despite lacking official status).

It is, to a lesser extent, an important language in Mongolia, where it is a compulsory second language after English in the schools, and where signs remain in Cyrillic. Surprisingly enough, Russian has also become the third most widely spoken language in Israel, owing to a massive exodus of Jews from Eastern Europe in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Russian remains perhaps the most important Eurasian travel language because English is very rarely spoken throughout the Russophone countries.


Contents

Pronunciation guide

Russian print and cursive

Consonants and vowels in Russian (and Slavic generally) are soft (palatalized) or hard. Consonants are pronounced soft if followed by a soft vowel or the soft sign, else hard. Some consonants are always soft or always hard, regardless of the following vowel.

One important note: the cursive Russian alphabet looks very different from the printed alphabet. The printed alphabet is rarely used when writing by hand. (The same goes to other Cyrillic-written languages.) On the upside, though, as a traveler, you are quite unlikely to have to read much handwritten Russian!

Vowels

a ah 
like father if stressed; if not, pronounced like 'u' as in hut
e yeh 
like yesterday if stressed, before a stressed syllable pronounced as "ee" as in eel, or if after a stressed syllable and in only one syllable, pronounced like "eh" as in "tell"
ё yoh 
like yore; always stressed; pronounced "o" only after ч, ш, щ and ж.
и ee 
like seen or the i in Machine
o oh 
like score when stressed; when unstressed, it is a hard a in Hakeem (syllable before stress) or the o in Gibson (elsewhere).
у oo 
like cartoon, lips rounded as with French ou
ы yh 
like sit, hit, but pronounced far further down the throat, as if being punched in the stomach
э eh 
like end (also pronounced further down the throat, as if being punched in the stomach)
ю yoo 
like you or Yugoslavia if stressed; if not, pronounced "oo" like cartoon
я yah 
like Yacht when stressed; before a stressed syllable pronounced as "ee" as in eel, or if after a stressed syllable and in only one syllable, pronounced like "eh" as in "tell"

The vowels are listed in alphabetical order. Please notice that these vowels also occur in hard/soft pairs: a/я, э/e, o/ё, ы/и, y/ю.

Unfortunately, vowel ё is very often written as е, which can cause problems for non-native speakers, since some Russian words have a different meaning depending on е or ё usage. Fortunately special books (like dictionaries, grammar books, literature for foreigners, etc.) always include ё.

Consonants

б b 
like boy
в v 
like very
г g 
like go; in genitive (possesive) endings ого/его like avoid, e.g., "Dostoevsky's" = Достоевского (duh-stah-YEHV-skuh-vuh)
д d 
like do
ж zh 
like measure; always hard
з z 
like zoo
й y 
like boy
к k 
like keep
л l 
like leak or look
м m 
like seem
н n 
like noodle; pronounced ny (palatalized, like a Spanish ñ) before ь, и, e, я, and ю.
п p 
like spigot
р r 
heavily rolled as in Spanish rr in perro
с s 
like seem
т t 
like tattoo
ф f 
like French
х kh 
voiceless velar fricative as in the Scottish loch or German Bach
ц ts 
like boots; always hard
ч ch 
like cheap; always soft
ш sh 
like shot; always hard (pronounced with the tip of the tongue further back in the mouth, almost a retroflex)
щ sh 
similar to sheet; always soft: unlike ш, щ is palatalized, meaning that the tip of the tongue rests on the back of the lower teeth, and the sh sound is pronounced with the middle of the tongue. Don't worry about this too much, as you'll be understood in context. (Note that though щ is often transliterated as shch, it is not pronounced similar to "harsh choice"—there is no ch sound in this Russian consonant)

When consonants are soft (they are either always soft or are soft because they are followed by a soft vowel), they become palatalized. This means that the consonant is pronounced while sticking the tip of your tongue behind your lower front teeth while raising the middle of your tongue to your palate.

Although Russian is pronounced as it is spelled, stress is very unpredictable and stressing the wrong syllable (or even missing a soft/hard sign) can lead to misinterpretation; for that reason, almost every book and dictionary concerning the Russian language put an accent on the tonic syllable, so read the phrases carefully, and then try to re-write them by putting an accent mark. the same rule applies for others that use the Cyrillic script such as Ukrainian and Bulgarian.

Signs

These used to be vowels (pronounced like the unstressed vowels above), but aren't any more. They indicate whether the preceding consonant is hard or soft.

ъ ’’ 
hard sign (very rarely used since 1918)
ь ’ 
soft sign


Stress

There is no fixed stress in Russian, except one case: a syllable with ё is always stressed. Stressed vowels in Russian dictionaries are always marked by an acute accent (a kind of diacritical marks), e.g. трамва́й.

Grammar

Unless you intend to seriously study the language, learning Russian grammar on your trip is not realistic. But it can help to at least recognize that the following verb conjugations and noun/adjective declensions are used.


  • The second person pronoun вы is the plural of ты and is also used, as vous and usted are in French and Spanish, respectively, for polite address to one person.
  • Russian verbs and verb conjugation differ along three axes:
1) Verbs come in perfective and imperfective pairs (e.g., думать | подумать). Imperfective verbs indicate ongoing or uncompleted action; Perfective verbs indicated one-off or completed action. Conjugated perfective verbs are also used to indicated the future tense (future imperfective requires conjugation of the verb to be (быть) + imperfective infinitive). As a general rule (but only a very general rule), perfective verb forms are created by adding a prefix to the relevant imperfective verb.
Singular Plural
1st Person Я думаю Мы думаем
2nd Person Ты думаешь Вы думаете
3rd Person Он думает Они думают
2) Verbs follow a simple pattern of temporal conjugation: past, present, and future, (e.g., подумал | думаю | подумаю). In the past tense, verbs also conjugate by gender, male, female, and neuter (e.g., подумал | подумала | подумало).
3) In the present and future tenses, pronouns can and are often ommitted due to context; however, the same is hardly said in the past tense, as the latter changes according to gender (masculine, feminine and neutral) and number (singular and plural). (Example at right)



  • Nouns and adjectives have six cases, depending on their general grammatical role in a sentence:
Case Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Prepositional Instrumental
Use Subject of sentence Direct object Possessive (of) Indirect object (to/for) Location (at) Instrumental (by/with)
Example Город красив Я читал книгу Центр города Я дал ему еду Музей в городе Я шёл с ним
Translation The city is pretty I read the book Center of the city I gave him food A museum in the city I walked with him

Phrase list

See Wikitravel:Pseudo-phoneticization guide for guidance on the phoneticizations below

Basics

Hello. 
Здравствуйте. (ZDRAHST-vooy-tyeh)
Hello. (informal
Привет. (pree-VYEHT), Здорово. (Zduh-ROH-vuh) (Shorter version of the above greeting.)
How are you? 
Как дела? (kahg dee-LAH?)
Fine, thank you. 
Хорошо, спасибо. (khah-rah-SHOH spah-SEE-buh)
What is your name? 
Как Вас зовут? (kahk vahs zah-VOOT?)
My name is ______ . 
Меня зовут ______ . (mee-NYAH zah-VOOT ___)
Nice to meet you. 
Очень приятно. (OH-cheen' pree-YAHT-nuh)
Please. 
Пожалуйста. (pah-ZHAH-luh-stuh)
Thank you. 
Спасибо. (spuh-SEE-buh)
You're welcome. 
Не за что. (NYEH-zuh-shtoh) (Literally "It's nothing", can use "Пожалуйста" again)
Yes. 
Да. (dah)
No. 
Нет. (nyeht)
Excuse me. (getting attention or begging pardon
Извините. (eez-vee-NEET-yeh)
Excuse me. (begging pardon
Простите. (prah-STEET-yeh)
I'm sorry. 
Простите. (prah-STEET-yeh)
Goodbye 
До свидания. (duh svee-DAH-nyah.)
Goodbye (informal
Пока. (pah-KAH)
I can't speak Russian [well]. 
Я не говорю по-русски (хорошо). (yah nee guh-vah-RYOO pah ROO-skee [khah-rah-SHOH])
Do you speak English? 
Вы говорите по-английски? (vyh guh-vah-REE-tyeh pah ahn-GLEES-kee?)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
Кто-нибудь здесь говорит по-английски? (KTOH-nee-bood' zdyehs guh-vah-REET pah an-GLEES-kee?)
Help! 
Помогите! (puh-mah-GEE-tyeh!)
Look out! 
Осторожно!! (uhs-tah-ROH-zhnuh!)
Good morning. 
Доброе утро. (DOH-bruh-yeh OO-truh)
Good evening. 
Добрый вечер. (DOH-bryh VYEH-chuhr)
Good night (to sleep
Спокойной ночи! (spah-KOY-nuy NOH-chee)
I don't understand. 
Я не понимаю. (ya nee puh-nee-MIGH-yoo)
I don't know. 
Я не знаю. (ya nee ZNAH-yoo)
Where is the toilet? 
Где туалет? (gdyeh too-ah-LYEHT?)

Problems

Leave me alone. 
Отстань. (aht-STAHN’!)
Don't touch me! 
Не трогай меня! (nee-TROH-guy mee-NYAH!)
I'll call the police! 
Я вызову полицию! (yah VYH-zah-voo poh-LEE-tsyh-yoo!)
Police!
Полиция! (poh-LEE-tsyh-yah!)
Stop! Thief! 
Держите вора! (deer-ZHEE-tyeh VOH-rah!)
I need your help. 
Мне нужна ваша помощь. (mnyeh noozh-NAH VAH-shah POH-muhsh)
It's an emergency. 
Это срочно!. (EH-tuh SROHCH-nuh)
I'm lost. 
Я заблудился/заблудилась - (m/f). (yah zah-bloo-DEEL-suh / zah-bloo-DEE-luhs’)

Below (а) is for feminine:

I lost my bag. 
Я потерял(а) свою сумку. (yah puh-teer-YAHL(-ah) svah-YOOH SOOM-kooh)
I lost my wallet. 
Я потерял(а) свой бумажник. (yah puh-teer-YAHL(-ah) svoy boo-MAHZH-neek)
I'm sick. 
Я болен (m.) / Я больна (f.) (yah-BOH-leen (masculine) / yah-bahl’-NAH (feminine))
I've been injured. 
Я ранен(а) (yah RAH-neen(-ah))
I need a doctor. 
Мне нужен врач. (mnyeh NOO-zhyhn vrahch)
Can I use your phone? 
Можно от вас позвонить? (MOH-zhnuh aht vahs puhz-vah-NEET’?)
(this can be used only for stationary phone, not for mobile. Asking a mobile phone from unknown person is not polite.)

Numbers

Russian nouns have a paucal form, used with 2, 3, and 4, as well as singular and plural. Singular quantities and any quantities that end in 1 (21, 301, etc.) use the nominative singular: одна минута, двадцать один час. Quantities 2–4 use the genitive singular: две минуты, три минуты, четыре минуты. Quantities greater than four use the genitive plural: пять минут, одиннадцать минут, тринадцать минут, etc.

один (ah-DEEN) m, одна (ahd-NAH) f, одно (ahd-NOH) n (one can say раз (raz) when counting smthng)
два (dvah) mn, две (dvyeh) f
три (tree)
четыре (chee-TYH-ree)
пять (pyaht’)
шесть (shehst’)
семь (syeem’)
восемь (VOH-seem’)
девять (DYEH-veet’)
10 
десять (DYEH-suht’)
11 
одиннадцать (ah-DEEN-nuhd-zuht’)
12 
двенадцать (dvee-NAHD-zuht’)
13 
тринадцать (tree-NAHD-zuht’)
14 
четырнадцать (chee-TYHR-nuhd-zuht’)
15 
пятнадцать (peet-NAHD-zuht’)
16 
шестнадцать (shyhst-NAHD-zuht’)
17 
семнадцать (seem-NAHD-zuht’)
18 
восемнадцать (vuh-seem-NAHD-zuht’)
19 
девятнадцать (dee-veet-NAHD-zuht’)
20 
двадцать (DVAHD-zuht’)
21 
двадцать один (DVAHD-zuht’ ah-DEEN)
22 
двадцать два (DVAHD-zuht’ dvah)
23 
двадцать три (DVAHD-zuht’ tree)
30 
тридцать (TREED-zuht’)
40 
сорок (SOH-ruhk)
50 
пятьдесят (pee-dee-SYAHT)
60 
шестьдесят (shyhs-SYAHT)
70 
семьдесят (SYEM’-ee-seet)
80 
восемьдесят (VOH-seem-deeh-seet’)
90 
девяносто (dee-vee-NOH-stuh)
100 
сто (stoh)
150 
полтораста (puhl-tuh-RAHS-tuh)
200 
двести (DVYEH-stee)
300 
триста (TREE-stuh)
400 
четыреста (chee-TYHR-ee-stuh)
500 
пятьсот(peet-SOHT)
1000 
тысяча (TYH-see-chuh)
2000 
две тысячи (dvyeh TYH-see-chee)
5000 
пять тысяч (pyaht’ TYH-seech)
1,000,000 
миллион (mee-lee-OHN)
1,000,000,000 
миллиард (mee-lee-ART)
Number _____ (train, bus, etc.
номер _____ (NOH-meer)
half 
половина (puh-lah-VEE-nuh)
less 
меньше (MYEHN’-sheh)
more 
больше (BOHL’-sheh)

Time

now 
сейчас (see-CHAHS)
later 
позже (POH-zhuh)
earlier 
раньше (RAHN’-shyeh)
morning 
утро (OOH-truh)
afternoon 
день (dyehn’) (literally 'day')
evening 
вечер (VYEH-chuhr)
night 
ночь (nohch)

Clock time

one o'clock 
час (chahs)
two o'clock 
два часа (dvah chuh-SAH)
three o'clock 
три часа (TREE chuh-SAH)
four o'clock 
четыре часа (chee-TYHR-ree chuh-SA)
five o'clock 
пять часов (pyaht’ chuh-SOHV)
six o'clock 
шесть часов (shest’ chuh-SOHV)
seven o'clock 
семь часов (syem’ chuh-SOHV)
eight o'clock 
восемь часов (VOH-seem’ chuh-SOHV)
nine o'clock 
девять часов (DYEH-veet’ chuh-SOHV)
ten o'clock 
десять часов (DYEH-syuht’ chuh-SOV)
eleven o'clock 
одинадцать часов (ah-DEEN-nad-zut’ chuh-SOV)
twelve o'clock 
двенадцать часов (dvee-NAHD-zut’ chuh-SOV)
noon 
полдень (POHL-dyehn’)
midnight 
полночь (POHL-nohch)
half an hour 
полчаса (pohl-chuh-SAH)

Russians do not use A.M. and P.M. Instead they divide the day up roughly as follows:

morning 
утро (OOH-truh) (5 a.m. to noon)
afternoon 
день (dyehn’) (noon to 5 p.m.)
evening 
вечер (VYEH-chuhr) (5 p.m. to midnight)
night 
ночь (nohch) (midnight to 5 a.m.)


Duration

Note: Russian uses different endings depending on the quantity. The first ending is for quantities of one, the second for quantities of 2–4, and the third for quantities five or greater.

_____ minute 
_____ минута/минуты/минут (mee-NOOT-ah / mee-NOOT-yh / mee-NOOT)
_____ hour(s) 
_____ час/часа/часов (chahs / chuh-SAH / chuh-SOHF)
_____ day(s) 
_____ день/дня/дней (dyehn’ / dnyah / dnyay)
_____ week(s) 
_____ неделя/неделю/недель (nee-DYEHL-yuh / nee-DYEHL-yee / nee-DYEHL’)
_____ month(s) 
_____ месяц/месяца/месяцев (MYEH-seets / MYEH-seets-ah / MYEH-seets-ohf)
_____ year(s) 
_____ год/года/лет (goht / GOH-duh / lyeht) (лет also means "summers")

Days

Note: A week starts with Monday and ends with Sunday.
today 
сегодня (see-VOHD-nyuh)
yesterday 
вчера (fcheeh-RAH)
tomorrow 
завтра (ZAHF-truh)
this week 
на этой неделе (nah EH-tuy nee-DYEHL-yee)
last week 
на прошлой неделе (nah PROSH-luy nee-DYEHL-yee)
next week 
на следующей неделе (nah SLYED-oo-yoo-shee nee-DYEHL-yeh)
Sunday 
воскресенье (vuhs-kree-SYEHN’-yuh)
Monday 
понедельник (puh-nee-DYEHL’-neek)
Tuesday 
вторник (VTOHR-neek)
Wednesday 
среда (sree-DAH)
Thursday 
четверг (cheet-VYEHRK)
Friday 
пятница (PYAHT-nee-tsuh)
Saturday 
суббота (soo-BOHT-uh)

Months

January 
январь (yeen-VAHR’)
February 
февраль (feev-RAHL’)
March 
март (mahrt)
April 
апрель (ahp-RYEHL’)
May 
май (migh)
June 
июнь (ee-YOON’)
July 
июль (ee-YOOL’)
August 
август (AHV-goost)
September 
сентябрь (seen-TYABR’)
October 
октябрь (ahk-TYABR’)
November 
ноябpь (nah-YABR’)
December 
декабрь (dee-KAHBR’)

Writing time and date

Dates are written as day.month.year (where day, month and year are numbers) or as day month year (where day and year are numbers and month is written in the genitive). E.g., May 24th, 2009 should be writed as 24.05.2009 or as 24 мая 2009 года. Times always use the 24-hour format, e.g., 5:20PM should be written as 17:20.

Colors

black 
чёрный (CHOHR-nyh)
white 
белый (BYEH-lyh)
gray 
серый (SYEH-ryh)
red 
красный (KRAHS-nyh)
blue (dark-blue or navy)
синий (SEE-nyh)
blue (light-blue or cyan) 
голубой (guh-loo-BOY) - use carefully; in Russian slang, this also means "homosexual"!
yellow 
жёлтый (ZHOL-tyh)
green 
зелёный (zee-LYOH-nyh)
orange 
оранжевый (ah-RAHN-zhee-vy)
purple 
фиолетовый (fee-ah-LYET-uh-vyh)
brown 
коричневый (kah-REECH-nee-vyh)
pink 
розовый (ROH-zuh-vyh)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
Сколько стоит билет в _____? (SKOL’-kuh STOH-eet bee-LYEHT v _____?)
One ticket to _____, please. 
Один билет в _____, пожалуйста. (ah-DEEN bee-LYEHT v_____ puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh)
Where does this train/bus go? 
Куда идёт этот поезд/автобус? (koo-DAH ee-DYOHT EH-tuht POH-eest / ahf-TOH-boos?)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
Где поезд/автобус до_____? (gdyeh POH-eest / ahf-TOH-boos duh _____)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
Этот поезд/автобус останавливается в _____? (EH-tuht POH-eest / ahf-TOH-boos uhs-tuh-NAHV-lee-vuh-eet-suh v _____?)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
Когда отходит поезд/автобус в _____ ? (kahg-DAH aht-KHOH-deet POH-eest / ahf-TOH-boos v _____?)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
Во сколько этот поезд/автобус приходит в_____? (vah SKOHL’-kuh EH-tuht POH-eest / ahf-TOH-boos pree-KHOH-deet v _____?)

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
Как добраться до_____ ? (kahk dah-BRAH-tsuh duh ___?)
...the train station? 
...вокзала? (vah-GZAH-luh)
...the bus station? 
...автовокзала? (ahf-tuh-vah-GZAH-luh)
...the airport? 
... аэропорта? (ah-ehr-ah-POHR-tuh)
...downtown? 
...центра? (TSEHN-trah)
...the youth hostel? 
...молодёжного общежития? (muh-lah-DYOH-zhnuh-vuh ahp-shee-ZHYH-tee-ya)
...the _____ hotel? 
...гостиницы ______? (gahs-TEE-nee-tsyh)

eg.:

...the Mosfilm hotel? 
...гостиницы Мосфильм? (gahs-TEE-nee-tsyh MOHS-feel’m)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
...американского/канадского/австралийского/английского консульства? (uh-mee-ree-KAHNS-kuh-vuh / kuh-NAHTS-kuh-vuh / uhfs-truh-LEES-kuh-vuh / ahng-LEES-kuh-vuh KOHN-sool’-stvuh)
Where are there a lot of... 
Где есть много... (gdyeh yehst’ MNOH-ghh)
...hotels? 
...гостиниц? (gahs-TEE-neets?)
...restaurants? 
...ресторанов? (rees-tah-RAHN-uhf?)
...bars? 
...баров? (BAHR-uhf)
...sites to see? 
...достопримечательностей? (duhs-tuh-pree-mee-CHAH-teel’-nuhs-tyay)
Please can you show me on the map? 
Пожалуйста Вы можете показать на карте? (puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh vyh MOH-zhyh-tee puh-kuh-ZAHT’ nuh KAHR-tyeh)
street 
улица (OO-lee-tsuh)
Turn left. 
Поверните налево. (puh-veer-NEE-tyeh nuh-LYEH-vuh)
Turn right. 
Поверните направо. (puh-veer-NEE-tyeh nuh-PRAH-vuh)
left 
налево (nuh-LYEH-vuh)
right 
направо (nuh-PRAH-vuh...)
straight ahead 
прямо (PRYAH-muh)
towards the _____ 
к _____ (k)
past the _____ 
мимо _____ (MEEH-mah)
before the _____ 
перед _____ (PYEH-reet)
Watch for the _____. 
Ищите _____. (ee-SHEE-tyeh)
intersection 
перекрёсток (pee-ree-KRYOH-stuhk)
north 
север (SYEH-veer)
south 
юг (yook)
east 
восток (vahs-TOHK)
west 
запад (ZAH-puht)
uphill 
вверх (VVYEHR-kh)
downhill 
вниз (vnees)

Taxi

Taxi! 
Такси! (Tahk-SEE!)
Take me to _____, please. 
Довезите меня до _____, пожалуйста. (duh-vee-ZEE-tyeh mee-NYAH duh _____, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh.')
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
Сколько стоит доехать до ______? (SKOHL’-kuh STOH-eet dah-YEH-khut’ duh ____?)
Take me there, please. 
Довезите меня туда, пожалуйста. (duh-vee-ZEE-tyeh meenyah too-DAH, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh.)

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
У вас есть свободные комнаты? (oo vash YEHST’ svah-BOD-nyh-yeh KOHM-nuh-tyh)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
Сколько стоит комната на одного человека/двух человек? (SKOHL’-kuh STOH-eet KOM-nuh-tuh nah uhd-nah-VOH chee-lah-VYEH-kuh / dvookh chee-lah-VYEHK )
Does the room come with... 
В этой комнате есть... (VEH-tuy KOHM-nuh-tyeh yest’...)
...bedsheets? 
...простыни? (...PROHS-tee-nee)
...a bathroom? 
...ванная? (...VAHN-nah-yuh)
...a telephone? 
...телефон? (...tee-lee-FOHN)
...a TV? 
...телевизор? (...tee-lee-VEE-zuhr)
May I see the room first? 
Могу я сначала посмотреть комнату? (mah-GOOH yah znuh-CHAH-luh puhs-mah-TRYEHT’ KOHM-nah-too)
Do you have anything quieter? 
У вас есть что-нибудь потише? (oo vah yehst’ CHTOH-nee-boot’ pah-TEE-shyh?)
...bigger? 
...побольше? (pah-BOHL’-shyh)
...cleaner? 
...почище? (pah-CHEE-sheh)
...cheaper? 
...подешевле? (puh-dee-SHEHV-lyeh)
OK, I'll take it. 
Хорошо, я беру. (khah-rah-SHOH yah bee-ROO)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
Я останусь на _____ ночь (ночи/ночей). (yah ahs-TAH-noos’ nah _____ nohch’ (NOH-chee/nah-CHYAY)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
Вы можете предложить другую гостиницу? (vy MOH-zhee-te pred-la-ZHYHT’ droo-GOO-yoo gahs-TEE-nee-tsoo)
Do you have a safe? 
У вас есть сейф? (oo vahs yest’ syayf)
...lockers? 
...индивидуальные сейфы? (een-dee-vee-doo-AHL’-nyh-yeh SYAY-fee)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
Завтрак/ужин включен? (ZAHF-truhk / OO-zhyhn fklyoo-CHON)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
Во сколько завтрак/ужин? (vuh SKOHL’-kuh ZAH-ftruhk / OO-zhyhn)
Please clean my room. 
Уберите в моей комнате, пожалуйста. (oo-bee-REE-tyeh vmah-YAY KOHM-nuh-tyeh, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh)
Can you wake me at _____? 
Не могли бы вы разбудить меня в _____? (nee mah-GLEE byh vyh rahz-boo-DEET’ mee-NYAH v _____? )
I want to check out. 
Дайте счёт. (DIGH-tyeh shyoht)

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
Вы принимаете американские/австралийские/канадские доллары? (vyh pree-nee-MAH-ee-tyeh uh-mee-ree-KAHN-skee-yeh / uhv-struh-LEE-skee-yeh / kuh-NAHD-skee-yeh DOH-luhr-yh)
Do you accept British pounds? 
Вы принимаете английские фунты? (vyh pree-nee-MAH-ee-tyeh ahn-GLEE-skee-yeh FOON-tyh)
Do you accept credit cards? 
Вы принимаете кредитные карты? (vyh pree-nee-MAH-ee-tyeh kree-DEET-nyh-yeh KAHR-tyh)
Can you change money for me? 
Не могли бы вы обменять мне деньги? (nyeh mah-GLEE byh vyh uhb-meen-YAHT’ mnyeh DYEHN’-gee)
Where can I get money changed? 
Где я могу обменять деньги? (gdyeh yah mah-GOO uhb-meen-YAHT’ DYEHN’-gee)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
Вы можете обменять мне дорожный чек? (vyh MOH-zhyh-tyeh uhb-meen-YAHT’ mnyeh dah-ROHZH-nyh chyehk)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
Где я могу обменять дорожный чек? (gdyeh yah mah-GOO uhb-meen-YAHT’ dah-ROHZH-nyh chyehk)
What is the exchange rate? 
Какой курс обмена? (kah-KOY koors ahb-MYEHN-uh)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
Где здесь банкомат? (gdyeh zdyes’ bahn-kuh-MAHT)

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
Столик на одного человека/двух человек, пожалуйста. (STOH-leek nah uhd-nah-VOH chee-lah-VYEH-kah/dvookh chee-lah-VYEHK)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
Могу я посмотреть меню? (mah-GOO yah puhs-mah-TRYEHT’ meen-YOO'')
Can I look in the kitchen? 
Я могу посмотреть на кухню? (yah mah-GOO puh-smah-TRYEHT’ nah KOOKH-nee-yoo)
Is there a house specialty? 
Какое у вас фирменное блюдо? (kah-KOY-yeh oo vahs feer-MYEHN-noy-yeh BLYOO-duh)
Is there a local specialty? 
Какое у вас местное фирменное блюдо? (kah-KOY-yeh oo vahs myehst-NOY-yeh feer-MYEHN-noy-yeh BLYOO-duh)
I'm a vegetarian. 
Я вегетарианец/вегетарианка. (yah vee-gee-tuh-ree-YAHN-eets/vee-gee-tuh-ree-YAHN-kah)
I don't eat pork. 
Я не ем свинину. (yah nee yehm svee-NEEN-oo)
I don't eat beef. 
Я не ем говядину. (yah nee yehm gahv-YAH-deen-oo)
I only eat kosher food. 
Я принимаю только кошерную пищу. (yah pree-nee-MAH-yoo TOHL’-kuh kah-SHERH-noo-yoo PEE-shoo.)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
Сделайте, пожалуйста, поменьше жира. (SDYEH-ligh-tyeh, puh-zhahl-uh-stuh, pah-MYEHN'-shyh zhyh-RAH)
fixed-price meal 
комплексный обед (KOHM-plyehks-nyh ah-BYEHT)
à la carte 
карта вин (KAHR-tah veen)
breakfast 
завтрак (ZAHF-truhk)
lunch 
обед (ah-BYEHT)
tea (meal
полдник (POHLD-neek)
supper 
ужин (OO-zhyhn)
I want _____. 
Я хочу _____. (yah khah-CHOO) (use first form below)
I want a dish containing _____. 
Я хочу блюдо с _____. (yah khah-CHOO BLYOO-duh s _____) (use second form)
chicken 
курицу/ой (KOO-reet-soo / KOO-reet-suy)
beef 
говядину/ой (gahv-YAH-dee-noo / gahv-YAH-dee-nuy)
fish 
рыбу/ой (RYH-boo / RYH-boy)
ham 
свинину/ой (svee-NEE-noo / svee-NEE-nuy)
sausage 
колбасу/ой (kuhl-bah-SOO / kuhl-bah-SOY)
cheese 
сыр/ом (syhr / SYH-ruhm)
eggs 
яйца/ами (YIGH-tsah / YIGH-tsah-mee)
salad 
салат/ом (sah-LAHT / sah-LAHT-ohm)
(fresh) vegetables 
(свежие/ими) овощи/ами ((SVYEH-zhyh-yeh / SVYEH-zhyh-mee OH-vuh-shee/ uh-vuh-SHAH-mee)
(fresh) fruit 
(свежие/ими) фрукты/ами ((SVYEH-zhyh-yeh / SVYEH-zhyh-mee FROOK-tyh / FROOK-tuh-mee)
bread 
хлеб/ом (khlyep / KHLYEH-buhm)
toast 
тост/ом (tohst / TOHST-uhhm))
noodles 
лапша/ой (LAHP-shuh / lahp-SHOY)
pasta 
макароны/онами (mah-kah-ROH-nyh / mah-kah-ROH-nah-mee)
rice 
рис/ом (rees / REE-suhm)
beans 
фасоль/фасолью (fah-SOHL’ / fah-SOHL-yoo)
May I have a glass of _____? 
Дайте, пожалуйста, стакан _____? (DIGH-tyeh, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh, stah-KAHN _____?)
May I have a cup of _____? 
Дайте, пожалуйста, чашку _____? (DIGH-tyeh, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh, CHAHSH-koo)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
Дайте, пожалуйста, бутылку _____? (DIGH-tyeh, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh, boo-TYHL-koo)
...coffee 
...кофе (KOH-feh)
...tea (drink
...чая (CHAH-yuh)
...juice 
...сока (SOH-kah)
...(bubbly) water 
...минеральной воды (mee-nee-RAHL'-nuy vah-DYH)
...water 
...воды (vah-DYH)
...beer 
...пива (PEE-vuh)
...red/white wine 
...красного/белого вина (KRAH-snuh-vuh / BYEH-luh-vuh vee-NAH)
May I have some _____? 
Дайте, пожалуйста _____. (DIGH-tyeh, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh)
salt 
соль (sohl’)
black pepper 
чёрный перец (CHYOHR-nyh PYEH-reets)
butter 
масло (MAHS-luh)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
Официант!/Девушка! (uh-fee-TSAHNT! / DYEH-voosh-kuh!) The former is very polite and gender neutral, the latter only for female servers, and should not be used in a nice restaurant.
I'm finished. 
Я наелся/наелась. (yah nah-YEHL-syuh/yah nah-YEH-las’)
It was delicious. 
Это было великолепно. (EH-tuh BYH-luh vyeh-lee-kah-LYEHP-nuh)
Please clear the plates. 
Можете убрать со стола. (MOH-zhyh-tyeh oo-BRAHT’ suh stuh-LAH)
The check, please. 
Счёт, пожалуйста. (shyoht, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh)

Bars

Do you serve alcohol? 
Вы продаёте алкогольные напитки? (VYH pruh-dah-YOH-tyeh ahl-kuh-GOHL’-nyh-yeh nah-PEET-kee?)
Is there table service? 
Здесь есть официант? (zdyehs’ yehst’ ah-fee-TSANT)
A beer/two beers, please. 
Будьте добры, одно пиво/два пива. (BOOT’-tyeh dah-BRYH, ad-noh PEE-vuh / dvah PEE-vah)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
Будьте добры, бокал красного/белого вина. (BOOT'-tyeh dah-BRYH, bah-KAHL KRAHZ-nuh-vuh / BYEH-luh-vuh vee-NAH)
A pint, please. 
Будьте добры, одну пинту. (BOOT’-tyeh dah-BRYH, ahd-NOO PEEN-too)
A bottle, please. 
Будьте добры, одну бутылку. (BOOT’-tyeh dah-BRYH, ahd-NOO boo-TYHL-koo)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
Будьте добры, _____ (hard liquor) с _____ (mixer in ablative form). (...)
whiskey 
виски (VEE-skee)
vodka 
водка (VOHT-kah)
rum 
poм (rohm)
water 
вода/ой (vah-DAH / vah-DOY)
club soda 
газированная/ой вода/ой (газировка/ой) (guh-zee-ROH-vuhn-nuh-yuh / guh-zee-ROH-vuhn-nuy vah-DAH / vah-DOY)
tonic water 
тоник/ом (TOH-neek/TOH-neek-uhm)
orange juice 
апельсиновый/ым сок/ом (uh-peel’-SEE-nuh-vyh / uh-peel’-SEE-nuh-vyhm sohk / SOHK-uhm)
Coke (soda
кола/ой (лимонад/ом) (KOH-lah / KOH-luy)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
Здесь есть буфет? (zdyehs’ yehst’ boo-FYEHT)
One more, please. 
Ещё одну, пожалуйста. (yee-SHYOH ahd-NOOH, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh)
Another round, please. 
Повторите, пожалуйста. (puhf-tah-REEH-tye, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh)
When is closing time? 
Когда вы закрываетесь? (kahg-DAH vyh zuh-kryh-VAH-ee-tyehs’?)

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
У вас есть это моего размера? (oo vahs yehst’ EH-tuh ma-ee-VOH rahz-MYEH-ruh)
How much is this? 
Сколько это стоит? (SKOHL’-kuh EH-tuh STOH-eet)
That's too expensive. 
Это слишком дорого. (EH-tuh SLEESH-kuhm DOH-ruh-guh)
Would you take _____? 
Вы примете _____? (vyh PREE-mee-tyeh _____?)
expensive 
дорого (DOH-ruh-guh)
cheap 
дёшево (DYOH-shyh-vuh)
I can't afford it. 
Я не могу себе этого позволить. (yah nee mah-GOOH see-BYEH EH-tuh-vuh paz-VOH-leet’)
I don't want it. 
Я это не хочу. (yah EH-tuh nee khah-CHOO)
You're cheating me. 
Вы меня обманываете. (vyh mee-NYAH ab-MAH-nyh-vah-ee-tyeh)
I'm not interested. 
Мне это не интересно.. (mnyeh EH-tuh nee een-tee-RYEHS-nuh)
OK, I'll take it. 
Хорошо, я возьму. (khah-rah-SHOH, yah vahz’-MOO)
Can I have a bag? 
Дайте, пожалуйста, пакет. (DIGH-tyeh, puh-ZHAH-luh-stuh, pah-KYEHT)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
У вас есть доставка (за границу)? (oo vahs yehst’ dahs-TAHF-kah (zah grah-NEET-sooh)
Give me two (items of something)
Давайте две. (dah-VIGH-tyeh DVYEH)
I need... 
Мне нужен/нужна/нужно/нужны... (mnyeh NOO-zhehn / nooh-ZHNAH / NOOZH-nuh / nooh-ZHNYH)
...toothpaste. 
...зубная паста. (ZOOB-nuh-yuh PAHS-tuh)
...a toothbrush. 
...зубная щётка. (ZOOB-nuh-yuh SHYOHT-kuh)
...tampons. 
...тампоны. (tahm-POH-nyh)
...soap. 
...мыло. (MYH-luh)
...shampoo. 
...шампунь. (shahm-POON’)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
...обезболивающее. (ah-beez-BOH-lee-vah-yoo-shee-yeh)
...cold medicine. 
...лекарство от простуды. (lee-KAHR-stvah aht prah-STOO-dyh)
...stomach medicine. 
...лекарство от живота. (lee-KAHR-stvah aht zhyh-VOH-tuh)
...a razor. 
...бритва. (BREET-vuh)
...an umbrella. 
...зонтик. (ZOHN-teek)
...sunblock lotion. 
...лосьон от загара. (luhs’-YOHN ahd zah-GAH-ruh)
...a postcard. 
...открытка. (aht-KRYHT-kah)
...postage stamps. 
...почтовые марки. (pahtch-TOH-vyh-yeh MAHR-kee)
...batteries. 
...батарейки. (bah-tah-RAY-kee)
...writing paper. 
...бумага. (boo-MAH-guh)
...a pen. 
...ручка. (ROOCH-kuh)
...English-language books. 
...книги на английском языке. (KNEE-gee nah ahn-GLEE-skuhm yuh-zee-KYEH)
...English-language magazines. 
...журналы на английском языке. (zhoor-NAH-lyh nah ahn-GLEE-skuhm yuh-zyh-KYEH)
...an English-language newspaper. 
...газета на английском языке. (gah-ZYEH-tah nah ahn-GLEE-skuhm yuh-zyh-KYEH)
...a Russian-English dictionary. 
...русско-английский словарь. (ROO-skuh ahn-GLEE-skee slah-VAHR’)

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
Я хочу взять машину напрокат. (yah khah-CHOO vzyaht’ mah-SHYH-noo nuh-prah-KAHT)
Can I get insurance? 
Я могу взять страховку? (yah mah-GOO vzyaht’ strah-KHOHF-koo)
Stop (on a street sign
СТОП (stohp)
One way 
одностороннее движение (uhd-nuh-stah-ROHN-nee-yeh dvee-ZHEH-nee-yeh)
Yield 
уступите дорогу (oo-stoo-PEE-tyeh dah-ROH-goo)
No parking 
парковки нет (pahr-KOHF-kee nyeht)
Speed limit 
ограничение скорости (ah-grah-nee-CHEH-nyh-yeh SKOH-ruh-stee)
Gas (petrol) station 
(авто)заправка ((AHF-tuh) zah-PRAHF-kuh)
Petrol 
бензин (been-ZEEN)
Diesel 
ДТ (дизельное топливо) (deh teh (DEE-zehl’-nuh-yeh TOH-plee-vuh)

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
Я ничего плохого не делал(а). (yah nee-chee-VOH plah-KHOH-vuh nee DYEH-luhl/luh-luh)
It was a misunderstanding. 
Мы друг друга не поняли. (myh droog DROO-guh nee POHN-yuh-lee)
Where are you taking me? 
Куда вы меня везёте? (koo-DAH vyh myh-NYAH vee-ZYOH-tyeh?)
Am I under arrest? 
Я арестован(а)? (yah ah-ryehs-TOH-vuhn/vuh-nah?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
Я гражданин/гражданка Америки/Австралии/Великобритании/Канады. (yah grazh-dah-NEEN/grazh-DAHN-kah ah-MYEH-ree-kee / ahf-STRAH-lee-yeh / vee-lee-kuh-bree-TAH-nee-yeh / kah-NAH-dyh)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
Я хочу поговорить с посольством/консульством Америки/Австралии/Великобритании/Канады. (yah khah-CHOO puh-guh-vah-REET s pah-SOL’ST-vuhm / s KOHN-sool’-stvuhm ah-MEH-ree-kee / ahf-STRAH-lee-yeh/ vee-lee-kuh-bree-TAH-nee-yeh / kah-NAH-dyh)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
Я хочу поговорить с адвокатом. (yah hah-CHOO puh-guh-vah-REET s ahd-vuh-KAH-tuhm)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Я могу заплатить штраф сейчас? (yah mah-GOO zah-plah-TEET’ shtrahf say-CHAHS?) (This phrase indicates that you want to pay a bribe to get out of trouble.)

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