Romanian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Romania and Moldova, as well as in some parts of Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine. It is useful to know the language if travelling in Romania, especially in rural areas.
Romanian may or may not be difficult for speakers of other languages. It is very similar to Italian, and, to a similiar extent, other Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, etc.), so speakers of these languages are more at an advantage.
Note that in Romanian, there is a formal and informal form when addressing people. The informal is tu (you, singular) or voi (you, plural) and the formal is dumneavoastra. There is also a formal way of speaking about other people, not just when addressing them. When referring to she use dumneaei; for he use dumnealui; and for them use dumnealor. Note that the formal form should be used with the plural form of the verb, at the appropriate person. This is similar to the construction in most other Romance languages, and, to an extent, German, although Germans usually make less use of the informal forms. Use tu when addressing friends or people you know well. When addressing strangers or speaking about strangers, use the formal forms.
Romanian should not be confused with Romani or Romany, which is the language of the European Gypsies, or Roma. The similarity is coincidental; the English word for the European Gypsy stems from an Indian/Sanskrit root. The name Romania or Rumania and its derivatives come from the Latin word 'Romanus', and are etymologically related to Rome, the capital city of the Roman empire and now the capital city of Italy.
In the past, Romania had a sizable German minority population, although nowadays the number of native German speakers is dwindling. However, the German language is still widely studied in Romania as a foreign language, and, due to the residual German cultural influence, it is used as a second (or third) official language in many parts of Transylvania.
Romanian tends to be easy for speakers of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan to learn, since all these languages share a common root and influences and are all written as they are pronounced. Romanian is sometimes challenging because of the influx of loanwords, mostly Slavic words as well as a few Hungarian, German and Turkish ones, even though most of these have fallen out of use for a very long time. Neologisms have been imported en masse from French, Italian, German, and recently English. The slang has either French, German or Gypsy origin. The language uses the Latin alphabet, and the Latinate roots can help tourists to understand some signs, such as Alimentara (a place where you can buy aliments, food) Farmacie (Pharmacy, Drugstore), and Poliţie (Police). Some signs, however, are false cognates or 'false friends' - for example Librărie means a bookstore rather than a lending library (as it does in French); Teatru means a stage theatre rather than a cinema (as in British English); and so on, although if you have a decent conversation guide you can avoid such funny confusions. Coincidentally, these "false friends" also apply in all its sister languages.
Hungarian is used in Eastern Transylvania and in some cities like Miercurea-Ciuc, Targu-Mures, Oradea, Cluj-Napoca, Satu-Mare; if you know it, then you are at an advantage. Hungarian is widely used as a first language in counties such as Mures, Covasna and Harghita.
The Romanian language is generally seen as a language with somewhat complicated grammar, but far simpler for speakers of Germanic languages than any of its Slavic neighbours or even Hungarian. Romanian is a phonetic language so a person can look at a word and know how it is pronounced. Romanian is abundant in vowels, and it can have series of diphthongs and even triphthongs, that gives the language a melodious sound and makes it very musical.
A foreigner trying to learn or speak Romanian can expect mostly positive reactions from native speakers. Most Romanian people will certainly love you for it and will strongly appreciate the fact that you are making an effort to speak their language. Others, however, may sneer at you for not properly being able to speak what they see as a very easy phonetic language. The Romanian alphabet is nearly exactly the same as the English alphabet, except for five additional accented letters, or 'diacriticals': ă (like the 'a' in English word 'musical'), ş (pronounced as 'sh'), ţ (pronounced 'ts'), â, î (have the same reading, like a short ă).
English has effectively become a requirement for getting a somewhat better job, and it is usually the second most popular non-Romance language spoken (on par with German). Consequently, it is usually good to ask before starting to speak English, but more often than not it will be safe to go ahead. Other Romance languages (especially French, Spanish and Italian) are also learnt by most people in schools and are therefore spoken with a pretty good level of fluency by many people, but make sure you ask before you start speaking to people in foreign tongues. In general, Romanians prefer speaking other Romance languages than the others. Globalization and the fact that Romania joined the Latin Union (Uniunea Latină), a linguistic association created in 1954, has made these closely-related languages more attractive.
Some people feel that Romanian is an extremely easy language to learn if you already speak a Latin-based language such as Spanish, French, Portuguese, Catalan or Italian. This is especially so in contrast to Romania's Slavic and Hungarian neighbors. However, speakers of slavic languages will find quite a few familiar words, especially in the more basic vocabulary of Romanian, for example "trebuie" ("need" - cf. Polish "trzeba"); "iubi" (love - cf. Czech lubi) etc.
Romanian pronunciation is very phonetic. The accent and sounds are almost identical to Italian and other Romance languages (with very few, if any, Slavic influences), so remember to sound every letter clearly. Also, sounds very rarely differ between words (i.e. the letter i is always pronounced the same, every time, unlike in English or even French).
Like English, Romanian has secondary stresses in words. We have not attempted to represent those here. Stress usually falls on the second-last syllable if it ends in a vowel, and last if it ends in a consonant. If you know another Romance language, you shouldn't worry as the stress partterns are usually the same in similar-sounding words.
Questions in Romanian that end with a verb often use a rising tone on the last syllable or two.
in between 'e' of "dress" and 'a' of "face". However, it is not a diphthong like the vowel in "face" is in most accents of English. When the word begins with an 'e' and it is a form of "a fi" (to be) or a pronoun it is like 'ye' in "yell" Hear the sound for e
like 'ee' in "beep" when in the middle or start of a word. When at the end, it is barely sounded - for example, in the word Bucureşti, it is pronounced Boo-KOO-resht with a very short and slight i - never pronounce it as Boo-KOO-reshtee. The terminal "i" causes a slight "softening" of the preceding consonant. (If this is too hard, don't pronounce the i at all.) The few Romanian words with a very strong terminal "i" sound are spelled with a double "i" ("ii"). Hear the sound for i
like 'a' in "digital". This sound is usually mispronounced (people tend to pronounce it like 'u' in 'cup', but in fact, this sound is frequently found in English.) When seeing ă always think of the sound in the rather than in bra. Similar to French 'e' in word 'je'. Hear the sound for ă
no precise English equivalent - it's best to hear it being spoken. â and î are the same sound in Romanian. î is used at the beginning and at the end of words, â in all other cases. The closest American English sound is the ""oo"" in "book", but it's a bit shifted toward a "soft 'i'", as in "it". Similar to French 'u' in word 'rue'. Hear the sound for â, î
like 'b' in "bed"
like 'ch' in "cheese" (like Italian 'c') when followed by 'e' or 'i', otherwise like 'k'
like 'd' in "dog"
like 'f' in "federation"
like 'g' in "gym" when followed by 'e' or 'i', otherwise like 'g' in "gear"
diphthong beginning with a short Romanian "e" sound and ending with the Romanian "a" sound. These two sounds are pronounced smoothly and quickly together as one syllable. However, this letter pair is not always a diphthong.
diphthong beginning with a short Romanian "o" sound and ending with the Romanian "a sound. These two sounds are pronounced smoothly and quickly together as one syllable.
like 'c' in "collar" (hard sound). This is always followed by an e or i
like 'g' in "giving". Can only be used before an e or i
same as in French and Italian gn or Spanish ñ, although it is less often used than the aforementioned languages
NOTE: The pronunciation guides in brackets beside each word only act as guides, due to the fact that they will make the Romanian word have a strong English accent. To get a better pronunciation, it is generally better to look at the Pronunciation Guide above and learn the right pronunciation for each letter (this is easier than it sounds). Throughout the following, "ooh" is pronounced roughly as in "oo" in "book"; "oo" without the "h" is as in "boot".
How are you?
"Ce mai faci?" (cheh my FAHTCH)
Fine, thank you.
"Mulţumesc, bine." (mool-tzu-MESK BEE-neh).
What is your name? (formal)
"Cum vă numiţi? (coom vuh noo-MEETZ)
What's your name? (informal)
"Cum te cheamă? (coom teh KYAHM-uh)
What are you up to? (informal)
"Ce faci?" (cheh FAHTCH)
My name is ______.
"Numele meu e ______." (NOO-meh-leh MEH-oo yeh ______.)
Nice to meet you.
"Încântat" (oohn-koohn-taht) or "Îmi pare bine" (OOHM pah-reh BEE-neh)
"Vă rog" (vuh ROHG; usually follows the request.)
"Mulţumesc" (mool-tzoo-MESK). "Mersi" is also popularly used.
Thank you very much
"Mulţumesc mult." (mool-tzoo-MESK moolt)
"Cu plăcere" (koo pluh-CHAIR-eh)
Excuse me. (Getting attention)
"Pardon" (pahr-DOHN) or "Vă rog" (vuh ROHG)
Excuse me. (begging pardon, moving through crowd)
"Îmi pare rău" (oohm pah-reh RUH-OH)
"La revedere" (lah reh-veh-DEH-reh)
"Pa" (PAH); in informal occasions in Transylvania - "Servus" [sehr-VOOS])
"Pot să utilizez telefonul tău?" (poht suh ohh-tee-LEE-zehz teh-leh-FOHN-ool TUH-oo) Alternative: "Pot utiliza telefonul tău" (in both formal and informal phrases are correct and do not create misunderstandings, albeit the first one is more common. The same applies to the formal one)
unsprezece (OON-spreh-zeh-cheh, usually shortened to just unşpe, OON-shpeh even in formal speech; similarly, for all numbers up to 19)
douăzeci (DOH-uh ZETCH)
douăzeci şi unu (DOH-uh ZETCH shee OO-nu)
douăzeci şi doi (DOH-uh ZETCH shee DOY)
douăzeci şi trei (DOH-uh ZETCH shee TRAY)
treizeci (TRAY ZETCH)
patruzeci (PAH-troo ZETCH)
cincizeci (CHEENCH ZETCH, but often more like CHEEN-zetch)
şaizeci (SHAH-ee ZETCH)
şaptezeci (SHAHP-teh ZETCH)
optzeci (OHPT zetch)
nouăzeci (NO-uh ZETCH)
o sută (OH SOO-tuh)
o sută cinci (OH SOO-teh CHEENCH)
două sute (DOH-uh SOO-teh)
trei sute (TRAY SOO-teh)
patru sute (PAH-troo SOO-teh)
cinci sute (CHEENCH SOO-teh)
şase sute (SHAH-seh SOO-teh)
şapte sute (SHAHP-teh SOO-teh)
opt sute (OHPT SOO-teh)
nouă sute (NOH-uh SOO-teh)
o mie (oh MEE-eh)
două mii (DOH-uh MEE)
un milion (OON mee-LEE-ohn)
number _____ (train, bus, etc.)
numărul _____ (nu-MUH-rool)
jumătate (joo-muh-TAH-teh, often shortened to joo-MAH-teh)
mai puţin (MY poo-TZEEN)
mai mult (my moolt)
mai târziu (my toohr-ZEE-oo)
înainte de (oohn-I-een-teh deh)
după amiază (DOO-puh ah-MYA-zuh)
Although 12-hour clocks are common in Romania, time is almost always stated according to the 24-hour clock.
Normally, to say "at" a time, one precedes the same form given above with "la", thus:
la prânz (lah PROOHNZ)
one o'clock PM
la treisprezece/treişpe ore (....) - still, you'll find used more often "la unu după amiază" (lah OO-noo DOO-puh ah-mee-AH-zuh)
la miezul nopţii (lah mee-EZ-ool NOHP-tzee)
un minut (oon meen-OOT)
_____ minute (_____ meen-OOT-eh)
o oră (OH OHR-uh)
_____ ore (OHR-eh)
o zi (OH ZEE)
_____ zile (_____ ZEE-leh)
o săptămână (OH suhp-tuh-MOOHN-uh)
_____ săptămâni (_____ suhp-tuh-MOOHN)
o lună (OH LOO-nuh)
_____ luni (LOON; the last syllable almost vanishes)
un an (oon AHN)
_____ ani (AHN; the last syllable almost vanishes)
Note: For all of the above, the correct, literary way to express duration is by saying una oră, una ziuă, una săptămână... instead of o oră, o ziuă, o săptămână, but this is never really used in speech, even if the context is very formal. Therefore, it is much easier to learn that o is used to express one or a in the case of minute, hour, month, etc, not una. This is because all of these nouns are feminine. With year, which is masculine, un is used (as in, un an - one year)
The above "note" is false. UNA dose not exist in romanian, the "o" is used for the feminine, and "un" for masculine. The confusion was made due to the text written on the banknotes - like "UNA SUTA LEI" (instead of "O SUTA DE LEI"), which sounds extremely formal, but it is incorrect.