Pudong International Airport
Pudong is intended to be the main international airport for Shanghai. The airport is new relatively modern and not yet at capacity.
The arrival process is fairly quick and easy, though if you are arriving without much of a command of the Chinese language or characters you should allow some time for yourself to get used to your new environment.
Customs and immigration tends to be a little unfriendly, so make sure that all of your forms are filled out correctly.
If you are staying at one of the bigger hotels you will probably find it helpful to copy (or photocopy) its name in Chinese characters, so that you can compare it with the destinations listed above the bus stops outside. It's also a good idea to try to learn to say the name of the hotel. It is also useful to bring a phrase book which you can use to point to English phrases and have the listener read the Chinese.
A cab is another option. Chinese cabdrivers seem to be honest, but can sometimes be a bit frightening on the highway, with high speed lane changes and other stunt-man maneuvers. If you do hail a cab remember that a single passenger rides in front with the driver. Tipping is unnecessary and may confuse the cabdriver.
A word of warning: transit as such does not exist for international flights.
If you are changing planes here from from one country and departing for a third country you must clear customs, pick up and recheck your bags, pay a 90 yuan usage fee, and even submit to a temperature screening and fill out a health form for SARS. Not all airline or airport staff in other countries are familiar with these requirements.
For example, if you check in at Bangkok International with Narita as your final destination via Pudong International, the local staff may try to check your bags all the way through to your final destination. This will probably result in your bags being misdirected and significant confusion in Shanghai.
As with arrivals, customs and immigration tends to be a little unfriendly, so make sure that all of your forms are filled out correctly.