In the early Middle Ages Podlaskie was disputed between the Kingdom of Poland, Ruthuania and Baltic tribes. After the Union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Duchy of Lithuania in 1385, Podlaskie became the central part of the Jagiellonian state with major trade routes from the Vistula towns to Vilnius crossing it. Beautiful Baroque palaces, churches and synagogues were built during the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Besides Roman and Greek Catholics, Orthodox and Jews, also the Moslem Tatars settled here since the 17th century. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795 most of its territory was annexed by Prussia and Russia, but partly became independent as part of the Duchy of Warsaw between 1807-1815. After the Congress of Vienna it became part of the Kingdom of Poland, ruled by the Russian Tsar, or directly part of the Russian empire. After World War I Podlaskie became part of the Second Polish Republic, but was occupied by Nazi-Germany and the Soviet Union between 1939 and 1944. After World War II it again became part of Poland. Nowerdays it is situated quite in the east of the country, although it used to be in the center between the two capitals Kraków and Vilnuis during the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Podlaskie boarders two other Polish voivodships