Peterhof (Russian: Петергоф, Petergof) is the ensemble of palaces and gardens situated on the Gulf of Finland west of Saint Petersburg, designed and built by Peter the Great to be a summer residence. It is also the name of an adjacent town of 82,000 people. The area was extensively damaged during World War II during occupation by Nazi Germany. Reconstruction efforts began almost immediately following the war, and they are still underway.
Peterhof is a Dutch word meaning "Peter's Court". Peter was fascinated by the West and took on many of its customs in his court, switched to the Julian calendar, and so on. European influence is abound in the Peterhof, called the Russian Versailles. Peter played an active role in the layout and design of the Peterhof ensemble, although it continued to be developed after his death.
New and Old Peterhof
Sometimes it is useful to speak of New Peterhof (Russian: Новый Петергоф, Novy Peterhof) and Old Peterhof (Russian: Старый Петергоф, Stary Peterhof). New Petergof is in the area with the palaces and parks. Old Petergof is that area to the west, on the way to Lomonosov.
World War II
Before the German occupation of Peterhof, attempts were made to remove or bury Peterhof's treasures. The efforts were somewhat successful. Despite the attempts, the area was extensively looted, vandalized, and damaged during the war. It was renamed Petrodvorets (Russian: Петродворец, Peter's Palace) following World War II because of anti-German sentiment. In 1997, it was renamed back to Петергоф.
Visitors on a tour package are likely to have Peterhof on their itenerary. Nonetheless, there are several methods for travlers to visit Peterhof.
Visitors can take a hydrofoil between Peterhof and Saint Petersburg. Tickets can be bought behind the Hermitage museum (also known as the Winter Palace) on the Neva River. The time to Peterhof is roughly 45 minutes. It is the fastest and most expensive (about $20 or 535 RUR for a ticket) way to get from Saint Petersburg to Peterhof. The trip is often touted as offering great views. Some, however, find this a disappointing overstatement.
Buses run from Baltisky station to Peterhof. Bus numbers are this an that. Tickets are inexpensive and buses run frequently.
These are the yellow minivans. They are small and pack as many passengers as possible inside them.
Could be expensive, however.
Highway A121 (several local names) which goes east-west.
Walking is the practical way to get around Peterhof.
There is a gas station in Old Peterhof (near the old watch factory).
Peterhof  offers the visitor a suburban atmosphere with plenty of parks, gardens, fountains, and palaces to see.
The Peterhof ensemble
Upper Park. Also known as the Upper Gardens. This area forms the land approach to the ensemble. Originally, the upper park was somewhat functional: vegetables were grown and ponds were stocked with fish. By the middle of the 18th century, however, it would become more like a formal garden. The paths of the upper park are decorated with statues and arbored trellises. The area was extensively damaged during the German occupation in the early 1940s. Visiting the upper park is free.
Lower Park. Also known as the Lower Gardens. Visitors arriving by hydrofoil from Saint Petersburg will arrive at a pier at the end of the sea channel and approach the great palace from the lower park. In the lower park is the centerpiece of the whole ensemble. A small ridge forms the southern boundary and the Gulf of Finland forms the northern boundary. The fundamental principle of the design is symmetry. In the middle is the great palace, great cascade, and sea channel going to the Gulf dividing the park into eastern and western sections. On the east side is the Monplaisir ensemble and on the west side is the Marly palace. Visitors to the lower park must pay admission. Russian visitors pay admission fees substantially less than non-Russian visitors. Hours and days of operation vary, however, almost everything is closed on the last Tuesday of each month.
Many of the palaces are now museums. Hours and days of operation vary, however, almost everything is closed on the last Tuesday of each month.
Great Peterhof Palace. The three storey great palace sits on top of the ridge that separates the upper and lower parks. What is seen now is what was seen in Peter the Great's time. In his time there was only a small royal mansion at the site. Only after his death (and over two centuries) was the site expanded, altered, and improved to become what is seen today.
Marly Palace. This is the main structure of the lower park. Three avenues radiate from the palace, one crossing the Sea Channel.
Monplaisir Palace. Monplaisir means my pleasure in French. It is located near the Gulf. It also has three avenues radiating from it. This palace greets visitors arriving by hydrofoil. The Peterhof ensemble began with the construction of this palace. Peter the Great sketched its design and gave it its name.
Great cascade. Directly below the palace is an artificial grotto which has five arches. Decorated stairs are on each side and go up to the grotto. The great cascade starts here and goes into the Sea Channel, which goes out into the Gulf of Finland.
Marly cascade. Also known as the Golden Hill cascade and is located on the western side.
The fountains operate from May to mid-October every day of the week from 11AM-5PM.
Adam and Eve fountains. Along the Sea Channel is Adam on the east side and Eve on the west side.
Dragon and chessbord cascade. This is located in the eastern section of the lower park. The water cascades over black and white marble arranged as on a chessboard. The ten statues lining the cascade were buried to keep them safe from the German occupation during World War II.
Faun and a Kid Cloche fountains. These are located in the Monplaisir Garden.
Fable fountain. This is sort of hidden and seems to be a mops chasing ducks, apparently inspired by La Fontaine's fable The Ducks and the Poodle (French: Les Canes et le barbet).
Menager fountains. These use comparatively little water with big effect due to the design of the nozzle. These fountains are located in front of the Marly cascade.
Midway fountain. Located in the upper park.
Neptune fountain. Located in the upper park.
Nymph and Danaid fountains. Located in the north-western and north-eastern corners of the flower beds are two female figures. The eastern side is a copy of Christian Daniel Rauch's Danaid. The western side is the Classical statue of Nymph.
Orangery Fountain. In the center of the Orangery Garden, this fountain depicts Triton fighting a seamonster. The fountain was completed destroyed during World War II and recreated in 1956.
Oak fountain. Located in the upper park.
Pyramind fountain. This fountain is made up of 505 jets that form a large pyramid of water. This fountain was severely damaged in World War II, but was back in operation in 1953.
Roman fountains. Destroyed during World War II. Some of it was restored, the rest had to be recreated.
Samson fountain. This depicts Samson opening the jaw of a lion and symbolizes Russia's victory over Sweden in the Great Northern War. The lion is a part of the Swedish coat of arms, and one of the victories during the war was won on St. Samson's Day.
Settee fountain. Located in the Monplaisir Garden. This is one of the trick fountains.
Sheaf fountain. This fountain is found in the center of the Monplaisir Garden.
Shell fountain. This fountain are in the Chinese Garden.
Square Pools foutains. Located in the upper park. These small fountains surround figures in the middle of the pools.
Sun fountain. This fountain, a large disc, is located in the center of the Menagerie Pool.
Triton Cloche fountains. There are four of these fountains of Triton holding a large disc over his head.
Umbrella fountain. Another trick fountain.
Voronikhin Colonnades fountains. Located on the roof.
Whale fountain. Another fountain in the western part using the same nozzle as the Menager fountains. Surrounding this fountain are four small dolphin fountains.
Alexandria Park. Building began in 1826. The park is located east of the Lower Park and on the Gulf of Finland. The park includes a small palace and church built in a neo-Gothic style. A favorite spot for Tsar Nicolas II.
Strelna Park. Another of Peter the Great's projects.
World War II memorial
This memorial is known locally as The Cannons. The memorial is located in Old Peterhof at the T-intersection of A121 and Petergofskaya Ulitsa (Russian: Петергофская Улица, Peterhof Street). On the east side is a small graveyard and obelisk and on the west side are some disabled artillery pieces.
Walk up and down the street to Saint Petersburg and see the palace, gardens, and fountains for which Peterhof is known.
Магнит (Russian: magnet), a convenience/grocery store chain on the road to Saint Petersburg in New Peterhof.
Большая Оранжерея (Russian: The great greenhouse), +7 812 427 9106, . This cafe is located in the lower park of the Peterhof ensemble in the greenhouse.
Двойка, Санкт-Петербургский проспект, д. 49/9, +7 812 450 6093. A small cafe and bar with a strange name (dvoika, which is a fairly low mark in Russian schools). Menu has English, but some of the translations are strange. Dvoika is located on the road to Saint Petersburg.
Most, likely all, kiosks along your way and near the bus stops offer alcoholic drinks.
Kopore. A small town west of Peterhof where a crumbling fortress hundreds of years old is located along side the road. The fortress can be completely explored in less than an hour, however, a visit could last longer. A sign (in Russian) at the ticket booth gives a brief history of the fortress. Local legend says there are catacombs underneath.
Lomonosov. The namesake of Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. The town is located to the west of Peterhof. It is also the birthplace of Igor Stravinsky. You can get there by train, bus, or car. The town used to be Orangebaum (German for orange tree) and one may still hear it refered as such.