Persian is an ancient language of Indo-European family. You can spot many grammatical similarities between Persian and other Indo-European languages, especially Romance languages like French and Spanish. However, Persian is similar more to its coeval languages like Latin than to relatively newer languages. For example, both Latin and Persian have a SOV word order (they both have free word order, though), which is uncommon among most modern European languages (even the descendants of Latin).
Today, Persian is mainly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Bahrain. It has official status in the first three countries but was once the official, court, or literary language of many more places ranging from Turkey through India. There are many people in Iran and neighboring countries who know Persian fluently even though it's not their mother tongue. It's because Iran (formerly "Persia" until 1935) was much bigger until 200 years ago when it lost many territories, especially to its neighbor Russia (for more information, see Wikipedia: Greater Iran). After the 1979 revolution, many Iranians migrated to the West and as a result, there are numerous Persian-speaking communities throughout the world, particularly in USA.
The local name of the language is Farsi (officially, Fârsiyè Dari (Dari Persian), which means "official/court Persian"). The word Farsi has also entered English mainly because West-migrated Iranians didn't know about the native English name of their language and began to use Farsi. Persian has three main dialects: Iranian Persian, Afghanistani Persian and Tajikistani Persian. They are all mutually intelligible and in fact, written language is almost the same.
Note - Although you can use the contents of this page in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and other countries but this page is directed towards Iranian Persian and Afghanistani Persian and Tajikistani Persian should have their own pages for a closer coverage.
The Persian writing system derives from that of Arabic, extended with four letters to denote the sounds not found in Arabic. Persian writing system is not an alphabet but an abjad. An abjad writing system has only characters for denoting consonant sounds. Vowels have no specific character and are either indicated by certain diacritics or by certain consonant characters. Additionally, most letters change shape when they are followed by another letter.
Vowels and diphthongs
|| as a in ant
|| as o in hot
|| as e in egg
|| as i in eagle
|| as o in forty
|| as u in flute
|| as ow in American English show but shorter
|| as ey in they
Regarding their indication in the Persian script:
- The sounds a, e, o can be indicated with certain diacritics but they are virtually only used in elementary-school books. The vowel o is sometimes denoted with the consonant و (v).
- The sounds â is always indicated: with آ at word initial and with ا elsewhere.
- The sounds i and ey are indicated with ای at word initial and with the consonant ی (y) elsewhere.
- The sounds u and ow are indicated with او at word initial and with the consonant و (v) elsewhere.
- at word initial can denote: a, e, o; elsewhere: â
- at word initial when followed by ی can denote: i (mostly) and ey
- at word initial when followed by و can denote: u (mostly), ow and ave
|| as o in hot
|| as in bob
|| as in put
|| as in tea
|| as in sad
|| as in job
|| as in cheese
|| as in head
|| as ch in Scottish loch, German Buch
|| similar to r in Spanish reloj
|| as in zoo
|| as s in vision, pleasure, French j in jardin
|| as in sad
|| as in sheet
|| as in sad
|| as in zoo
|| as in tea
|| as in zoo
|| glottal stop
|| similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben
|| as in feet
|| similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben
|| as in keep
|| as in go
|| as in leave
|| as in moon
|| as in noon
|| as in van; also used to denote some vowel sounds
|| as in yet; also used to denote some vowel sounds
|| as in head
As you may note, there are characters that represent identical sounds e.g. ظ ,ض, ز are all pronounced z. It's because Persian has preserved the spelling of Arabic loanwords. Each of these characters have distinguished sounds in Arabic but they are all pronounced the same in Persian.
Persian has the following syllable patterns (C = Consonant, V = Vowel):
||na, to, ke, mâ, xu, si, u
||kar, pol, del, kâr, mur, sir, az, in, âb
||kard, goft, zešt, kârd, xošk, rixt, farš, ârd, abr
These patterns can be encapsulated in CV(C)(C). According to the patterns:
- A syllable always begins with a consonant sound. Please note that syllables which visually begin with a vowel sound, have a preceding glottal stop merged with their sound. For instance, u (he, she) is actually said øu and ârd (flour) is actually said øârd.
- The second component of any syllable is a vowel sound.
- Each syllable can only have one vowel sound. Therefore, each vowel indicates a syllable.
As opposed to English and many other languages, Persian does not allow two or more consonants to begin a syllable. Therefore, loanwords with such a characteristic are always Persianized:
To help you understand it better, here are some basic words along with their syllabification:
The stress is on the last syllable. However, there are a few adverbs that do not follow this regularity. In addition, Persian has a number of enclitics, which simply put, are unstressed endings (English example: 's in Peter's book). Enclitics do not change the stress position of the word to which they attach. Therefore, the stress position does not shift to the last syllable e.g. pe.dar + enclitic -am = pe.da.ram (rather than expected pe.da.ram)
Note - As an aid, the grave accent can be placed on the first vowel of enclitics to make them distinguishable from suffixes and final letters of words. This method is used here for the genitive enclitic (è / yè), indefinite enclitic (ì / yì) and enclitic form of "and" (ò).
Persian has a relatively easy and mostly regular grammar. So, it is relatively easy to gain a basic knowledge of the Persian grammar.
Persian is a gender-neutral language. That is, it refers to masculine, feminine and neuter genders with identical pronouns, adjectives, etc. For example, Persian has one word for both English "he" and "she", "him" and "her", "his" and "her".
There is no definite article in Persian. A bare noun indicates a definite noun (which includes common and generic nouns) e.g. mâšin dar pârking ast: the car is in the garage (literally: car, in garage, is); az mâr mitarsam: I'm afraid of snakes (literally: from snake fear-I)
Indefiniteness is expressed with the enclitic -ì (or -yì after vowels). It is for both singular and plural nouns. English does not have an exact equivalent for the Persian's plural indefinite article. It's often translated as "some" or "a few" or is simply omitted. The indefinite enclitic is added to the end of the noun phrase: mâšinì (a car, some car), mâšinhâyì (some cars)
Nouns are pluralized with the suffix -hâ. It's the only plural suffix used in spoken Persian. In written Persian, there's another plural suffix -ân (-gân after the vowel e and -yân after other vowels) which can only be used for animates and human beings in particular. It is especially useful to restrict the meaning to human beings. For example:
- sar means "head", sarhâ means "heads" and sarân means "chiefs, heads, leaders"
- gozašte means "past", gozaštehâ means "the past (events, etc.)" and gozaštegân means "the people of the past"
Arabic loanwords have usually brought their irregular plural forms (technically referred to as "broken plurals") into Persian but they can be avoided and you can use -hâ to pluralize them. In spoken Persian, broken plurals are never used except for very few cases where the broken plural has found an extended meaning. Regarding written Persian of today, the use of broken plurals has greatly decreased and it's prevalent to pluralize words with -hâ.
Note - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when preceded by numbers because the number itself indicates quantity e.g. yek ketâb (one/a book), do/se/panjâh ketâb (two/three/fifty books).
In Persian, the genitive case relates two or more words to each other. The genitive case is marked with the enclitic -è (or -yè after vowels). The genitive enclitic is added to all the words that are connected to the head word and complement it. Look at the following examples:
||the father of Ali, Ali's father
||the prophet of Islam
||the name of the book, book's name
||the country of Iran
||north of Tehran
The accusative case is indicated with the enclitic râ (which, despite being an enclitic, it is written apart from the host word in the Persian script) e.g. dar râ bastam (I closed the door).
Adjectives have only one form. They agree neither in gender nor in number with the noun they modify. They come after the noun and are related to it with the genitive enclitic: pesarè xub: good boy (mold: boy-è good), doxtarhâyè xub: good girls (mold: girl-hâ-yè good). As stated before, the indefinite article is added to the end of the noun phrase, so: pesarè xubì (a/some good boy), doxtarhâyè xubì ((some) good girls).
Demonstrative adjectives come before nouns and like other adjectives, they have only one form. In Persian, we don't say "these books" but "this books". The plural form itself indicates that we are pointing to a plural noun. Basic demonstrative adjectives are ân (that, those) and in (this, these).
A pronoun (pro-noun) substitutes a noun phrase therefore the quantity (singular or plural) must be indicated. Consequently, demonstrative pronouns have plural forms, which is made with the plural suffix -hâ: ân (that), ânhâ (those), in (this), inhâ (these). Demonstrative pronouns are also used as subjective pronouns. For example, the Persian word for "they" is ânhâ. Distal pronouns (ân, ânhâ) are either used neutrally (i.e. not denoting distance from the speaker) or natively (i.e. indicating remoteness) but proximal pronouns (in, inhâ) are always used natively and indicate proximity to the speaker. English doesn't have such a feature.
- Hello, Hi
- Salâm (سلام)
- How are you?
- Hâlè šomâ chetor ast (حالِ شما چطور است), less formal: chetorid? (چطورید), xubid? (خوبید)
- Fine, thank you.
- xubam, xeyli mamnun (خوبم خیلی ممنون)
- What is your name?
- esmetân chi'st? (اسمتان چيست)
- My name is ~ .
- esmam ~ ast (اسمم ~ است)
- Nice to meet you.
- xošbaxtam (خوشبختم)
- lotfan (لطفا)
- Thank you.
- xeyli mamnun (خیلی ممنون), mersi (مرسی)
- Note - xeyli mamnun literally means "many thanks" but it's the normal way of saying "thank you"
- You're welcome.
- xâheš mikonam (خواهش میکنم)
- bale (بله)
- na (نه)
- Excuse me (getting attention or begging pardon)
- bebaxšid (ببخشید), maøzerat mixâham (معذرت میخواهم)
- I'm sorry.
- bebaxšid (ببخشید), maøzerat mixâham (معذرت میخواهم)
- xodâhâfez (خداحافظ)
- See you
- formal: mibinametân (میبینمتان), informal: mibinamet (میبینمت)
- I can't speak Persian [well].
- Nemitavânam [xub] Fârsi harf bezanam (نمیتوانم خوب انگلیسی حرف بزنم)
- Do you speak English?
- Mitavânid Engelisi harf bezanid? (میتوانید انگلیسی حرف بزنید)
- Is there someone here who speaks English?
- Injâ kasi Engelisi midânad? (اینجا کسی انگلیسی میداند)
- komak! (کمک)
- Look out
- formal: Movâzeb bâšid (مواظب باشید), informal: Movâzeb bâš (مواظب باش)
- Good morning.
- sobh bexeyr (صبح بخیر)
- Good evening.
- asr bexeyr (عصر بخیر)
- Good night.
- šab bexeyr (شب بخیر)
- I don't understand.
- nemifahmam (نمیفهمم), motevajjeh nemišavam (متوجه نمیشوم)
- Where is the toilet?
- dastšuyi kojâ'st? (دستشویی کجاست)
- Leave me alone.
- Mixâham tanhâ bâšam (میخواهم تنها باشم)
- Don't touch me!
- Be man dast nazanid (به من دست نزنید)
- I'll call the police.
- Polis râ xabar mikonam (پلیس را خبر میکنم)
- Polis (پلیس)
- Stop! Thief!
- Âhây dozd! (آهای دزد)
- I need your help.
- Be komaketân niyâz dâram (به کمکتان نیاز دارم)
- It's an emergency.
- zaruri'st (ضروریست)
- I'm lost.
- gom šodeam (گم شدهام)
- Go away!
- Boro kenâr! (برو کنار)
- I lost my bag.
- sâkam râ gom kardeam (ساکم را گم کردهام)
- I lost my wallet.
- kifam râ gom kardeam (کیفم را گم کردهام)
- I'm sick.
- Hâlam bad ast (حالم بد است)
- I've been injured.
- Zaxmi šodeam (زخمی شدهام)
- I need a doctor.
- Doktor mixâham (دکتر میخواهم)
- Can I use your phone?
- Mišavad az telefonetân estefâde konam (میشود از تلفنتان استفاده کنم)
Note - There are two ways to express "and" in Persian. One is with the enclitic ò (or yò after vowels) and the other is with the word va. The enclitic ò is the common way (and the sole way in spoken Persian).
|| sefr (صفر)
|| pânzdah (پانزده)
|| šastò šeš (شصت و شش)
|| šešsad (ششصد)
|| yek (یک)
|| šânzdah (شانزده)
|| haftâd (هفتاد)
|| haftsad (هفتصد)
|| do (دو)
|| hefdah (هفده)
|| haftâdò haft (هفتاد و هفت)
|| haštsad (هشتصد)
|| se ()
|| hejdah (هجده)
|| haštâd (هشتاد)
|| nohsad (نهصد)
|| chahâr (چهار)
|| nuzdah (نوزده)
|| haštâdò hašt (هشتاد و هشت)
|| hezâr (هزار)
|| panj (پنج)
|| bist (بیست)
|| navad (نود)
|| hezârò yek (هزار و یک)
|| šeš (شش)
|| bistò yek (بیست و یک)
|| navadò noh (نود و نه)
|| hezârò sad (هزار و صد)
|| haft (هفت)
|| bistò do (بیست و دو)
|| sad (صد)
|| do hezâr (دو هزار)
|| hašt (هشت)
|| si (سی)
|| sadò dah (صد و ده)
|| do hezârò hašt (دو هزار و هشت)
|| noh (نه)
|| siyò se (سی و سه)
|| devist (دویست)
|| dah hezâr (ده هزار)
|| dah (ده)
|| chehel (چهل)
|| devistò bistò do (دویست و بیست و دو)
|| bist hezâr (بیست هزار)
|| yâzdah (یازده)
|| chehelò chahâr (چهل و چهار)
|| sisad (سیصد)
|| sad hezâr (صد هزار)
|| davâzdah (دوازده)
|| panjâh (پنجاه)
|| sisadò siyò se (سیصد و سی و سه)
|| yek milyun (یک میلیون)
|| sizdah (سیزده)
|| panjâhò panj (پنجاه و پنج)
|| chahârsad (چهارصد)
|| do milyun (دو میلیون)
|| chahârdah (چهارده)
|| šast (شصت)
|| pânsad (پانصد)
|| yek milyârd (یک میلیارد)
- number ~ (train, bus, etc.)
- šomâreye ~ (شمارهی ~)
- nesf (نصف)
- kamtar (کمتر)
- bištar (بیشتر)
- aløân (الآن)
- baødan (بعدا)
- qablan (قبلا)
- sobh (صبح)
- baød-az-zohr (بعدازظهر)
- qorub (غروب)
- šab (شب)
- one o'clock AM
- yekè sobh (یک صبح)
- two o'clock AM
- doè sobh (دو صبح)
- zohr (ظهر)
- one o'clock PM
- yekè baød-az-zohr (یک بعدازظهر)
- two o'clock PM
- doè baød-az-zohr (دو بعدازظهر)
- nimešab (نیمهشب)
- ~ minute(s)
- daqiqe(hâ) (دقیقهها))
- ~ hour(s)
- sâat(hâ) (ساعتها)
- ~ day(s)
- ruz(hâ) (روزها)
- ~ week(s)
- hafte(hâ) (هفتهها)
- ~ month(s)
- mâh(hâ) (ماهها)
- ~ season(s)
- fasl(hâ) (فصلها)
- ~ year(s)
- sâl(hâ) (سالها)
Tip - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when a number precedes them. The plurality is clear from the "number". Therefore, we say, for example:
- one/three/fifty day: yek/se/panjâh ruz (یک/سه/پنجاه روز)
- three to five week: se tâ panj hafte (سه تا پنج هفته)
- emruz (امروز)
- diruz (دیروز)
- fardâ (فردا)
- this week
- in hafte (این هفته)
- last week
- hafteyè gozašte (هفتهی گذشته)
- next week
- hafteyè âyande (هفتهی آینده)
- yekšanbe (یکشنبه)
- došanbe (دوشنبه)
- sešanbe (سهشنبه)
- chahâršanbe (چهارشنبه)
- panjšanbe (پنجشنبه)
- jomøe (جمعه)
- šanbe (شنبه)
Tip - In Iran, weeks being with "Saturday" and end with "Friday". So, the holiday is "Friday" and the weekend starts from "Thursday".
Iran uses a solar calendar with the new year on the vernal equinox (March 21 on the Gregorian calendar). So, years begin with "spring" and end with "winter". The first six months have 31 days, and the last five have 30 days each. The final month has 29 or 30 depending on whether or not it is a leap year. Leap years are not as simply calculated as in the Gregorian calendar, but typically there is a five year leap period after every 7 four year cycles. Year 0 of the calendar corresponds to 621 in Gregorian.
||Farvardin (31 days)
||21 Mar. – 20 Apr.
||Ordibehešt (31 days)
||21 Apr. – 21 May
||Xordâd (31 days)
||22 May – 21 June
||Tir (31 days)
||22 June – 22 July
||Mordâd (31 days)
||23 July – 22 Aug.
||Šahrivar (31 days)
||23 Aug. – 22 Sep.
||Mehr (30 days)
||23 Sep.– 22 Oct.
||Âbân (30 days)
||23 Oct.– 21 Nov.
||Âzar (30 days)
||22 Nov.– 21 Dec.
||Dey (30 days)
||22 Dec.– 19 Jan.
||Bahman (30 days)
||20 Jan. – 18 Feb.
||Esfand (29/30 days)
||19 Feb. – 20 Mar.
Gregorian month names are borrowed from French.
- Žânviye (ژانویه)
- Fevriye (فوریه)
- Mârs (مارس)
- Âvril (آوریل)
- Me (مه), also Mey (می)
- Žuan (ژوئن)
- Žuiye (ژوئیه), also Julây (جولای)
- Ut (اوت), also Âgust (آگوست)
- Septâm(b)r (سپتامبر)
- Oktobr (اکتبر)
- Novâm(b)r (نوامبر)
- Desâm(b)r (دسامبر)
Writing time and date
The staring point of the Iranian solar calendar is Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD. Short date format is yyyy/mm/dd (or yy/mm/dd) and the long date format is dddd, dd MMMM yyyy. For example, today (Monday, August 11, 2008) is:
- short date format: 1387/05/21 (or 87/05/21)
- long date format: došanbe, 21 Mordâd 1387
Time is written like English e.g. 8:34 (۸:۳۴).
- siyâh (سیاه), also meški (مشکی)
- sefid (سفید)
- xâkestari (خاکستری)
- qermez (قرمز), also sorx (سرخ)
- âbi (آبی)
- zard (زرد)
- sabz (سبز)
- nârenji (نارنجی)
- arqavâni (ارغوانی)
- qahvei (قهوهای)
Bus and train
- How much is a ticket to ~?
- belitè ~ cheqadr ast? (بلیط ~ چقدر است)
- One ticket to ~, please.
- lotfan yek belit barâye ~ (لطفا یک بلیط برای ~ )
- Where does this train/bus go?
- in qatâr/otobus kojâ miravad? (این قطار/اتوبوس کجا میرود)
- Where is the train/bus to ~?
- qatârè/otobusè ~ kodâm ast? (قطار/اتوبوس ~ کدام است)
- Does this train/bus stop in ~?
- in qatâr/otobus dar ~ miistad? (این قطار/اتوبوس در ~ میایستد)
- When does the train/bus for ~ leave?
- qatârè/otobusè ~ key harkat mikonad? (قطار/اتوبوس ~ کی حرکت میکند)
- When will this train/bus arrive in ~?
- in qatâr/otobus key be ~ miresad? (این قطار/اتوبوس کی به ~ میرسد)
- How do I get to ~ ?
- chetor beravam be ~ (چطور بروم به)
- ...the train station?
- istgâhè qatâr (ایستگاه قطار)
- ...the bus station?
- istgâhè otobus (ایستگاه اتوبوس)
- ...the airport?
- forudgâh (فرودگاه)
- markazè šahr (مرکز شهر)
- ...the youth hostel?
- mehmânxâne (مهمانخانه)
- ...the ~ hotel?
- hotel (هتل)
- ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate?
- sefâratè Âmrikâ/Kânâdâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelestân (سفارت آمریکا/کانادا/استرالیا/انگلستان)
- Where are there a lot of...
- kojâ ~ ziyâd peydâ mišavad? (کجا ~ زیاد پیدا میشود)
- hotel (هتل)
- resturân (رستوران)
- NOT FOUND IN IRAN
- ...sites to see?
- jâyè didani (جای دیدنی)
- Can you show me on the map?
- mišavad ruyè naqše nešân bedahid? (میشود روی نقشه نشان بدهید)
- xiyâbân (خیابان)
- Turn left.
- bepichid dastè chap (بپیچید دست چپ)
- Turn right.
- bepichid dastè râst (بپیچید دست راست)
- chap (چپ)
- râst (راست)
- straight ahead
- mostaqim (مستقیم)
- towards the ~
- be tarafè (به طرف)
- past the ~
- baød az (بعد از)
- before the ~
- qabl az (قبل از)
- Watch for the ~.
- donbâlè ~ begardid (دنبال ~ بگردید)
- chahârrâh (چهارراه)
- šomâl (شمال)
- jonub (جنوب)
- šarq (شرق)
- qarb (غرب)
- sarbâlâyi (سربالایی)
- sarpâyini (سرپایینی)
- tâksi (تاکسی)
- Take me to ~, please.
- lotfan marâ bebar ~ (لطفا مرا ببر ~)
- How much does it cost to get to ~?
- tâ ~ cheqadr mišavad? (تا ~ چقدر میشود)
- Take me there, please.
- lotfan marâ bebar ânjâ (لطفا مرا ببر آنجا)
- Do you have any rooms available?
- otâqè xâli dârid? (اتاق خالی دارید)
- How much is a room for one person/two people?
- otâq barâye yek/do nafar chand ast? (اتاق برای یک/دو نفر چند است)
- Does the room come with ~
- otâq ~ dârad (اتاق ~ دارد)
- ~ bedsheets?
- malâfe (ملافه)
- ~ a bathroom?
- hammâm (حمام)
- ~ a telephone?
- telefon (تلفن)
- ~ a TV?
- televizyun (تلویزیون)
- May I see the room first?
- mišavad avval otâq râ bebinam? (میشود اول اتاق را ببینم)
- Do you have anything quieter?
- jâyè ârâmtarì dârid? (جای آرامتری دارید)
- ~ bigger?
- bozorgtar (بزرگتر)
- ~ cleaner?
- tamiztar (تمیزتر)
- ~ cheaper?
- arzântar (ارزانتر)
- OK, I'll take it.
- bâše, hamin râ migiram. (باشه، همین را میگیرم)
- I will stay for ~ night(s).
- ~ šab mimânam (~ شب میمانم)
- Can you suggest another hotel?
- mišavad hotelè digarì râ pišnahâd konid? (میشود هتل دیگری را پیشنهاد کنید)
- Do you have a safe?
- sandoqè amânât dârid? (صندوق امانات دارید)
- ~ lockers?
- komodè qofldâr? (کمد قفلدار)
- Is breakfast/supper included?
- hazine šâmelè sobhâne/šâm ham mišavad? (هزینه شامل صبحانه/شام هم میشود)
- What time is breakfast/supper? sobhâne/šâm che sâatì ast? (صبحانه/شام چه ساعتی است)
- Please clean my room.
- lotfan otâqam râ tamiz konid (لطفا اتاقم را تمیز کنید)
- Can you wake me at ~?
- mišavad marâ sâatè ~ bidâr konid? (میشود مرا ساعت ~ بیدار کنید)
- I want to check out.
- mixâham tasviye konam (میخواهم تسویه کنم)
- Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars?
- Dolârè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Kânâdâ qabul mikonid? (دلار آمریکا/استرالیا/کانادا قبول میکنید)
- Do you accept British pounds?
- Pondè Engelis qabul mikonid? (پوند انگلیس قبول میکنید)
- Do you accept credit cards?
- kârtè eøtebâri qabul mikonid? (کارت اعتباری قبول میکنید)
- Can you change money for me?
- mitavânid pulam râ cheynj konid? (میتوانید پولم را چینج کنید)
- Where can I get money changed?
- Kojâ mitavânam pulam râ cheynj konam? (کجا میتوانم پولم را چینج کنم)
- Can you change a traveler's check for me?
- mitavânid terâvel râ barâyam naqd konid? (میتوانید تراول را برایم نقد کنید)
- Where can I get a traveler's check changed?
- Kojâ mitavân terâvel naqd kard? (کجا میتوان تراول نقد کرد)
- What is the exchange rate?
- nerxè arz cheqadr ast? (نرخ ارز چقدر است)
- Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?
- âberbânk kojâ'st? (عابربانک کجاست)
- A table for one person/two people, please.
- Yek miz barâye yek/do nafar, lotfan. (یک میز برای یک/دو نفر)
- Can I look at the menu, please?
- mitavânam menu râ bebinam? (میتوانم منو را ببینم)
- Can I look in the kitchen?
- mitavânam âšpazxâne râ bebinam? (میشود آشپزخانه را ببینم)
- Is there a house specialty?
- qazâye xânegi dârid? (غذای خانگی دارید)
- Is there a local specialty?
- qazâye mahalli dârid? (غذای محلی دارید)
- I'm a vegetarian.
- giyâhxâr hastam (گیاهخوار هستم)
- I don't eat pork.
- guštè xuk nemixoram (گوشت خوک نمیخورم)
- I don't eat beef.
- guštè gâv nemixoram (گوشت گاو نمیخورم)
- I only eat kosher food.
- faqat guštè halâl mixoram (فقط گوشت حلال میخورم)
- Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)
- mišavad kamcharbaš konid (میشود کمچربش کنید)
- fixed-price meal
- qazâ bâ qeymatè sâbet (غذا با قیمت ثابت)
- à la carte
- qazâ bâ qeymate jodâ jodâ (غذا با قیمت جدا جدا)
- sobhâne (صبحانه)
- nâhâr (ناهار)
- tea (meal)
- asrâne (عصرانه)
- šâm (شام)
- I want ~ .
- ~ mixâham (میخواهم)
- I want a dish containing ~ .
- qazâyi mixâham ke ~ dâšte bâšad (غذایی میخواهم که ~ داشته باشد)
- morq (مرغ)
- guštè gâv (گوشت گاو)
- mâhi (ماهی)
- žâmbonè xuk (ژامبون خوک)
- sosis (سوسیس)
- panir (پنیر)
- toxmemorq (تخممرغ)
- sâlâd (سالاد)
- (fresh) vegetables
- sabziyè tâze (سبزی تازه)
- (fresh) fruit
- miveyè tâze (میوهی تازه)
- nân (نان)
- nânè tost (نان تست)
- rešte (رشته)
- berenj (برنج)
- lubiyâ (لوبیا)
- May I have a glass of ~ ?
- yek livân ~ mixâstam. (یک لیوان ~ میخواستم)
- May I have a cup of ~ ?
- yek fenjân ~ mixâstam. (یک فنجان ~ میخواستم)
- May I have a bottle of ~ ?
- yek botri ~ mixâstam. (یک بطری ~ میخواستم)
- qahve (قهوه)
- tea (drink)
- chây (چای)
- âbmive (آبمیوه)
- (bubbly) water
- âb sodâ (آب سودا)
- âb (آب)
- âbjo (آبجو) (NOTE: There is no alcohol beer in restaurants)
- red/white wine
- šarâbè sorx/sefid (شراب سرخ/سفید) (NOTE: There is no alcohol wine in restaurants)
- May I have some ~ ?
- kamì ~ mixâstam (کمی ~ میخواستم)
- namak (نمک)
- black pepper
- felfelè siyâh (فلفل سیاه)
- kare (کره)
- Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
- bebaxšid (ببخشید)
- I'm finished.
- xordanè man tamâm šod (خوردن من تمام شد)
- It was delicious.
- xošmazze bud (خوشمزه بود)
- Please clear the plates.
- lotfan bošqâbhâ râ tamiz konid (لطفا بشقابها را تمیز کنید)
- The check, please.
- surathesâb lotfan (صورتحساب لطفا)
Remember that the possession, sale and service in Iran is illegal.
- Do you serve alcohol?
- Do you serve alcohol? (mashroob serv mikonin?)
- Is there table service?
- Is there table service? (Sefaaresh migirin?)
- A beer/two beers, please.
- A beer/two beers, please. (yek/do taa Aabjo lotfan!)
- A glass of red/white wine, please.
- A glass of red/white wine, please. (yek gilas sharaab-e ghermez/sefid lotfan)
- A pint, please.
- A pint, please. (yek livan lotfan)
- A bottle, please.
- A bottle, please. (yek shishe lotfan)
- _____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please.
- _____ and _____, please. (...)
- whiskey (veeski)
- vodka (vodkaa)
- rum (rum)
- water (aab)
- club soda
- club soda (shnaaps)
- tonic water
- tonic water (aab-e gaazdaar)
- orange juice
- orange juice (aab portaghaal)
- Coke (soda)
- Coke (kokaa)
- Do you have any bar snacks?
- Do you have any bar snacks? (mazze daarin?)
- One more, please.
- One more, please. (yeki dige lotfan)
- Another round, please.
- Another round, please. (yek dore dige lotfan)
- When is closing time?
- When is closing time? (saa'at-e chand mibandin?)
- Do you have this in my size?
- Do you have this in my size? (ino andaazeye man daarin?)
- How much is this?
- How much is this? (chande?)
- That's too expensive.
- That's too expensive. (kheili geroone!)
- Would you take _____?
- Would you take _____? (____ ghabool mikonin?)
- expensive (geroon)
- cheap (arzoon)
- I can't afford it.
- I can't afford it. (vos'am nemirese!)
- I don't want it.
- I don't want it. (nemikhaamsh)
- You're cheating me.
- You're cheating me. (daarin saram kolaah mizarin)
- I'm not interested.
- I'm not interested. (delam nemikhad)
- OK, I'll take it.
- OK, I'll take it. (baashe, mikharamesh)
- Can I have a bag?
- Can I have a bag? (yek kise/saak khedmatetoon hast?)
- Do you ship (overseas)?
- Do you ship (overseas)? (be khaarej post mikonin?)
- I need...
- I need... (... mikhaam)
- ...toothpaste. (khamir dandoon)
- ...a toothbrush.
- ...a toothbrush. (mesvaak)
- ...tampons. (tampon)
- ...soap. (saaboon)
- ...shampoo. (shaampoo)
- ...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen)
- ...pain reliever. (mosakken (aaspirin))
- ...cold medicine.
- ...cold medicine. (darooye sarmaakhordegi)
- ...stomach medicine.
- ...stomach medicine. (daarooye del-dard)
- ...a razor.
- ...a razor. (teegh-e rish taraashi)
- ...an umbrella.
- ...an umbrella. (chatr)
- ...sunblock lotion.
- ...sunblock lotion. (kerem-e zedde aaftaab)
- ...a postcard.
- ...a postcard. (kaart postal)
- ...postage stamps.
- ...postage stamps. (tamr-e post)
- ...batteries. (baatri)
- ...writing paper.
- ...writing paper. (kaaghaz yaad daasht)
- ...a pen.
- ...a pen. (ghalam (ballpoint: khod-kaar))
- ...English-language books.
- ...English-language books. (ketaab be engilisi)
- ...English-language magazines.
- ...English-language magazines. (majaleye engilisi)
- ...an English-language newspaper.
- ...an English-language newspaper. (rooznaameye engilisi)
- ...an English-English dictionary.
- ...an English-English dictionary. (loghatnaameye engilisi be engilisi)
Notice: in Iran there are no car rental agencies. Most of the time, you would need to rent a car with a driver from an "aajaans" (taxi agency) who will drive you around. The agencies often have set daily/weekly rental prices which you should make sure to ask for!
- I want to rent a car.
- I want to rent a car. (mikhaam maashin ejaare konam)
- Can I get insurance?
- Can I get insurance? (beemeh ham mikhaam)
- stop (on a street sign)
- stop (IST ايست!)
- one way
- one way (يک طرفه)
- yield (...)
- no parking
- no parking (paark mamnoo'پارک ممنوع)
- speed limit
- speed limit (sor'ate mojaaz...سرعت مجاز)
- gas (petrol) station
- gas station (pomp-e benzin...پمپ بنزين)
- petrol (benzin...بنزين)
- diesel (deezel...ديزل)
- I haven't done anything wrong.
- I haven't done anything wrong. (maan kaar-e khalaafi nakardam)
- It was a misunderstanding.
- It was a misunderstanding. (eshtebaah shode)
- Where are you taking me?
- Where are you taking me? (mano kojaa mibarin?)
- Am I under arrest?
- Am I under arrest? (aaya dar togheef-am?)
- I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
- I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. (man emrikayi/ostoraaliyaayi/engilisi/kaanaadaayi hastam)
- I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
- I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. (mikhaam baa sefaarat/konsoolgariye Emrika/Ostoraaliya/Engelestan/Kanaadaa tamaas begiram)
- I want to talk to a lawyer.
- I want to talk to a lawyer. (ehtiyaaj be yek vakil daaram)
- Can I just pay a fine now?
- Can I just pay a fine now? (mitoonam jarime-am ro bepardaazam?)
By falling in love with a Persian you can express your feelings in many ways.
- I love you. (Duset daram/Asheghetam)
- I want to be with you (Mikham ba to basham)
- Kiss me (Boosam kon)
- You are my sweatheart (To delbare mani)
- Why did you leave me alone? (Chera tanham gozoshti)
- Darling (Azizam)