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'''Persian''' is a language spoken in [[Iran]], [[Tajikistan]], [[Afghanistan]] and neighbouring countries; there are also numerous Persian speaking communities throughout the world. Sometimes the language is also refered to as '''Farsi'''.
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==Introduction==
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'''Persian''' is an ancient language of Indo-European family. You can spot many grammatical similarities between Persian and other Indo-European languages, especially Romance languages like French and Spanish. However, Persian is similar more to its coeval languages like Latin than to relatively newer languages. For example, both Latin and Persian have a SOV word order (they both have free word order, though), which is uncommon among most modern European languages (even the descendants of Latin).
  
It is an Indo-European language, so there are many similarities to English, French, Russian and many other languages you might be more familiar with.  
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Today, Persian is mainly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Bahrain. It has official status in the first three countries but was once the official, court, or literary language of many more places ranging from Turkey through India. There are many people in Iran and neighboring countries who know Persian fluently even though it's not their mother tongue. It's because Iran (formerly "Persia" until 1935) was much bigger until 200 years ago when it lost many territories, especially to its neighbor Russia (for more information, see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Iran Wikipedia: Greater Iran]). After the 1979 revolution, many Iranians migrated to the West and as a result, there are numerous Persian-speaking communities throughout the world, particularly in USA.
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The local name of the language is '''Farsi''' (officially, ''Fârsiyè Dari'' (Dari Persian), which means "official/court Persian"). The word ''Farsi'' has also entered English mainly because West-migrated Iranians didn't know about the native English name of their language and began to use ''Farsi''. Persian has three main dialects: Iranian Persian, Afghanistani Persian and Tajikistani Persian. They are all mutually intelligible and in fact, written language is almost the same.
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'''Note''' - Although you can use the contents of this page in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and other countries but this page is directed towards Iranian Persian and [[Afghanistani_Persian_phrasebook | Afghanistani Persian]] and [[Tajikistani_Persian_phrasebook | Tajikistani Persian]] should have their own pages for a closer coverage.
  
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
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|}
 
|}
  
To help you understand it better, here are some basic words along with their syllabication:
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To help you understand it better, here are some basic words along with their syllabification:
  
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"
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===Stress===
 
===Stress===
 
The stress is on the last syllable. However, there are a few adverbs that do not follow this regularity. In addition, Persian has a number of enclitics, which simply put, are unstressed endings (English example: <i>'s</i> in <i>Peter's book</i>). Enclitics do not change the stress position of the word to which they attach. Therefore, the stress position does not shift to the last syllable e.g. ''pe.'''dar''''' + enclitic ''-am'' = ''pe.'''da'''.ram'' (rather than expected ''pe.da.'''ram''''')
 
The stress is on the last syllable. However, there are a few adverbs that do not follow this regularity. In addition, Persian has a number of enclitics, which simply put, are unstressed endings (English example: <i>'s</i> in <i>Peter's book</i>). Enclitics do not change the stress position of the word to which they attach. Therefore, the stress position does not shift to the last syllable e.g. ''pe.'''dar''''' + enclitic ''-am'' = ''pe.'''da'''.ram'' (rather than expected ''pe.da.'''ram''''')
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'''Note''' - As an aid, the grave accent can be placed on the first vowel of enclitics to make them distinguishable from suffixes and final letters of words. This method is used here for the genitive enclitic (è / yè), indefinite enclitic (ì / yì) and enclitic form of "and" (ò).
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 +
==Basic grammar==
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Persian has a relatively easy and mostly regular grammar. So, it is relatively easy to gain a basic knowledge of the Persian grammar.
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===Gender===
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Persian is a gender-neutral language. That is, it refers to masculine, feminine and neuter genders with identical pronouns, adjectives, etc. For example, Persian has one word for both English "he" and "she", "him" and "her", "his" and "her".
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 +
===Articles===
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There is no definite article in Persian. A bare noun indicates a definite noun (which includes common and generic nouns) e.g. ''mâšin dar pârking ast'': the car is in the garage (literally: car, in garage, is); ''az mâr mitarsam'': I'm afraid of snakes (literally: from snake fear-I)
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Indefiniteness is expressed with the enclitic ''-ì'' (or ''-yì'' after vowels). It is for both singular and plural nouns. English does not have an exact equivalent for the Persian's plural indefinite article. It's often translated as "some" or "a few" or is simply omitted. The indefinite enclitic is added to the end of the noun phrase: ''mâšinì'' (a car, some car), ''mâšinhâyì'' (some cars)
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===Plural===
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Nouns are pluralized with the suffix ''-hâ''. It's the only plural suffix used in spoken Persian. In written Persian, there's another plural suffix ''-ân'' (''-gân'' after the vowel ''e'' and ''-yân'' after other vowels) which can only be used for animates and human beings in particular. It is especially useful to restrict the meaning to human beings. For example:
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*''sar'' means "head", ''sarhâ'' means "heads" and ''sarân'' means "chiefs, heads, leaders"
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*''gozašte'' means "past", ''gozaštehâ'' means "the past (events, etc.)" and ''gozaštegân'' means "the people of the past"
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Arabic loanwords have usually brought their irregular plural forms (technically referred to as "broken plurals") into Persian but they can be avoided and you can use ''-hâ'' to pluralize them. In spoken Persian, broken plurals are never used except for very few cases where the broken plural has found an extended meaning. Regarding written Persian of today, the use of broken plurals has greatly decreased and it's prevalent to pluralize words with ''-hâ''.
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'''Note''' - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when preceded by numbers because the number itself indicates quantity e.g. ''yek '''ketâb''''' (one/a book), ''do/se/panjâh '''ketâb''''' (two/three/fifty books).
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===Genitive case===
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In Persian, the genitive case relates two or more words to each other. The genitive case is marked with the enclitic ''-è'' (or ''-yè'' after vowels). The genitive enclitic is added to all the words that are connected to the head word and complement it. Look at the following examples:
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{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"
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|-
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!To designate
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!Persian
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!English
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!Mold
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|-
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|rowspan="4"|possession
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|pedarè Ali
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|the father of Ali, Ali's father
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|father&ndash;è Ali
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|-
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|mâdarè man
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|my mother
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|mother&ndash;è I
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|-
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|payâmbarè Eslâm
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|the prophet of Islam
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|prophet&ndash;è Islam
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|-
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|nâmè ketâb
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|the name of the book, book's name
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|name&ndash;è book
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|-
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|rowspan="2"|attribute
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|dustè xub
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|good friend
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|friend&ndash;è good
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|-
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|Âmrikâyè jonubi
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|South America
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|America&ndash;yè south(ern)
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|-
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|rowspan="4"|other relations
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|kešvarè Irân
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|the country of Iran
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|country&ndash;yè Iran
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|-
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|sâlè 2008
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|year 2008
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|year&ndash;è 2008
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|-
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|bâlâyè miz
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|above table
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|top&ndash;è table
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|-
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|šomâlè Tehrân
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|north of Tehran
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|north&ndash;è Tehran
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|}
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===Accusative case===
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The accusative case is indicated with the enclitic ''râ'' (which, despite being an enclitic, it is written apart from the host word in the Persian script) e.g. ''dar râ bastam'' (I closed the door).
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===Adjective===
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Adjectives have only one form. They agree neither in gender nor in number with the noun they modify. They come after the noun and are related to it with the genitive enclitic: ''pesarè xub'': good boy (mold: boy-è good), ''doxtarhâyè xub'': good girls (mold: girl-hâ-yè good). As stated before, the indefinite article is added to the end of the noun phrase, so: ''pesarè xubì'' (a/some good boy), ''doxtarhâyè xubì'' ((some) good girls).
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===Demonstratives===
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Demonstrative adjectives come before nouns and like other adjectives, they have only one form. In Persian, we don't say "these books" but "this books". The plural form itself indicates that we are pointing to a plural noun. Basic demonstrative adjectives are ''ân'' (that, those) and ''in'' (this, these).
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A pronoun (pro-noun) substitutes a noun phrase therefore the quantity (singular or plural) must be indicated. Consequently, demonstrative pronouns have plural forms, which is made with the plural suffix ''-hâ'': ''ân'' (that), ''ânhâ'' (those), ''in'' (this), ''inhâ'' (these). Demonstrative pronouns are also used as subjective pronouns. For example, the Persian word for "they" is ''ânhâ''. Distal pronouns (ân, ânhâ) are either used neutrally (i.e. not denoting distance from the speaker) or natively (i.e. indicating remoteness) but proximal pronouns (in, inhâ) are always used natively and indicate proximity to the speaker. English doesn't have such a feature.
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
  
 
===Basics===
 
===Basics===
 
 
; Hello, Hi
 
; Hello, Hi
 
: Salâm (سلام)  
 
: Salâm (سلام)  
 
; How are you?  
 
; How are you?  
: Hâle šomâ chetor ast (حالِ شما چطور است)  
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: Hâlè šomâ chetor ast (حالِ شما چطور است), less formal: chetorid? (چطورید), xubid? (خوبید)  
: informal: hâlet chetor'e (حالت چطوره), chetori (چطوری)
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; Fine, thank you.  
 
; Fine, thank you.  
 
: xubam, xeyli mamnun (خوبم خیلی ممنون)   
 
: xubam, xeyli mamnun (خوبم خیلی ممنون)   
 
; What is your name?  
 
; What is your name?  
: esme šomâ chi'st (اسم شما چيست), or "esmetân chi'st" (اسمتان چيست)
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: esmetân chi'st? (اسمتان چيست)
: informal: esmet chi'e (اسمت چيه)
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; My name is ~ .  
 
; My name is ~ .  
: esme man ~ ast (اسم من ~ است)  or "esmam ~ ast" (اسمم ~ است)
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: esmam ~ ast (اسمم ~ است)  
: informal: esmam ~ 'e (اسمم ~ ه)  
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; Nice to meet you.  
 
; Nice to meet you.  
 
: xošbaxtam (خوشبختم)  
 
: xošbaxtam (خوشبختم)  
; Please.  
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; Please.
: lotfan (لطفا), bizahmat (بی‌زحمت)
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: lotfan (لطفا)
 
; Thank you.  
 
; Thank you.  
: xeyli mamnun (خیلی ممنون), mersi (مرسی) (Note: "xeyli mamnun" literllay means "many thanks" but it's the normal way of saying "thank you")
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: xeyli mamnun (خیلی ممنون), mersi (مرسی)  
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: '''Note''' - ''xeyli mamnun'' literally means "many thanks" but it's the normal way of saying "thank you"
 
; You're welcome.  
 
; You're welcome.  
 
: xâheš mikonam (خواهش می‌کنم)
 
: xâheš mikonam (خواهش می‌کنم)
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; See you
 
; See you
 
: formal: mibinametân (می‌بینمتان), informal: mibinamet (می‌بینمت)
 
: formal: mibinametân (می‌بینمتان), informal: mibinamet (می‌بینمت)
; I can't speak English [well].  
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; I can't speak Persian [well].  
: Nemitavânam [xub] Engelisi harf bezanam (نمی‌توانم خوب انگلیسی حرف بزنم)
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: Nemitavânam [xub] Fârsi harf bezanam (نمی‌توانم خوب انگلیسی حرف بزنم)
 
; Do you speak English?  
 
; Do you speak English?  
 
: Mitavânid Engelisi harf bezanid? (می‌توانید انگلیسی حرف بزنید)
 
: Mitavânid Engelisi harf bezanid? (می‌توانید انگلیسی حرف بزنید)
 
; Is there someone here who speaks English?  
 
; Is there someone here who speaks English?  
: Kasi inja Engelisi midânad? (کسی اینجا انگلیسی می‌داند)
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: Injâ kasi Engelisi midânad? (اینجا کسی انگلیسی می‌داند)
 
; Help!  
 
; Help!  
 
: komak! (کمک)
 
: komak! (کمک)
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: nemifahmam (نمی‌فهمم), motevajjeh nemišavam (متوجه نمی‌شوم)
 
: nemifahmam (نمی‌فهمم), motevajjeh nemišavam (متوجه نمی‌شوم)
 
; Where is the toilet?  
 
; Where is the toilet?  
: dastšui kojâ'st? (دستشویی کجاست)
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: dastšuyi kojâ'st? (دستشویی کجاست)
 
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===Problems===
 
===Problems===
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===Numbers===
 
===Numbers===
Note: There are two ways to express "and" in Persian. One is with the enclitic '''o''' (or '''yo''' after vowels) and the other is with the word '''va'''. The enclitic '''o''' is the common way and the sole way in spoken Persian. To help you recognize it, it is marked with the grave accent: ò / yò.
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'''Note''' - There are two ways to express "and" in Persian. One is with the enclitic '''ò''' (or '''''' after vowels) and the other is with the word '''va'''. The enclitic '''ò''' is the common way (and the sole way in spoken Persian).
  
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0"
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{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"
 
! #
 
! #
 
! Persian
 
! Persian
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===Colors===
 
===Colors===
; black : black (''Siaah'')
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;black : siyâh (سیاه), also meški (مشکی)
; white : white (''Sefeed'')
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;white : sefid (سفید)
; gray : gray (''Khakestari'')
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;gray : xâkestari (خاکستری)
; red : red (''Ghermez'' or ''Sorkh'')
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;red : qermez (قرمز), also sorx (سرخ)
; blue : blue (''Aabee'')
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;blue : âbi (آبی)
; yellow : yellow (''Zard'')
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;yellow : zard (زرد)
; green : green (''Sabz'')
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;green : sabz (سبز)
; orange : orange (''Narenji'')
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;orange : nârenji (نارنجی)
; purple : purple (''Banafsh'')
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;purple : arqavâni (ارغوانی)
; brown : brown (''Ghahveie'')
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;brown : qahvei (قهوه‌ای)
  
 
===Transportation===
 
===Transportation===
  
 
====Bus and train====
 
====Bus and train====
; How much is a ticket to _____? : How much is a ticket to _____? (''Gheimat e bleet be _____ chande?'')
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; How much is a ticket to ~? : belitè ~ cheqadr ast? (بلیط ~ چقدر است)
; One ticket to _____, please. : One ticket to _____, please. (''Yek bleet be _____ lotfan'')
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; One ticket to ~, please. : lotfan yek belit barâye ~ (لطفا یک بلیط برای ~ )
; Where does this train/bus go? : Where does this train/bus go? (''In Ghatar/Autobous be koja miravad?'')
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; Where does this train/bus go? : in qatâr/otobus kojâ miravad? (این قطار/اتوبوس کجا می‌رود)  
; Where is the train/bus to _____? : Where is the train/bus to _____? (''Ghatar e/Autobous e _____ koja ast?'')
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; Where is the train/bus to ~? : qatârè/otobusè ~ kodâm ast? (قطار/اتوبوس ~ کدام است)
; Does this train/bus stop in _____? : Does this train/bus stop in _____? (''Aya in Ghatar/Autobous dar _____ mi istad?'')
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; Does this train/bus stop in ~? : in qatâr/otobus dar ~ miistad? (این قطار/اتوبوس در ~ می‌ایستد)
; When does the train/bus for _____ leave? : When does the train/bus for _____ leave? (''Ghatar/Autobous key harekat mikonad?'')
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; When does the train/bus for ~ leave? : qatârè/otobusè ~ key harkat mikonad? (قطار/اتوبوس ~ کی حرکت می‌کند)
; When will this train/bus arrive in _____? : When will this bus arrive in _____? (''In Ghatar/Autobous key be _____ miresad '')
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; When will this train/bus arrive in ~? : in qatâr/otobus key be ~ miresad? (این قطار/اتوبوس کی به ~ می‌رسد)
  
 
====Directions====
 
====Directions====
; How do I get to _____ ? : How do I get to _____ ? (''Che jouri mitounam be ____ beram?'')
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; How do I get to ~ ? : chetor beravam be ~ (چطور بروم به)
; ...the train station? : ...the train station? (''Ist gahe Ghatar?'')
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; ...the train station? : istgâhè qatâr (ایستگاه قطار)
; ...the bus station? : ...the bus station? (''Ist gahe Autobous'')
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; ...the bus station? : istgâhè otobus (ایستگاه اتوبوس)
; ...the airport? : ...the airport? (''Foroud gah'')
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; ...the airport? : forudgâh (فرودگاه)
; ...downtown? : ...downtown? (''Markaze shahr'')
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; ...downtown? : markazè šahr (مرکز شهر)
; ...the youth hostel? : ...the youth hostel? (''Oun khab gahe Javanan'')
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; ...the youth hostel? : mehmânxâne (مهمان‌خانه)
; ...the _____ hotel? : ...the _____ hotel? (''Hotel e ____'')
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; ...the ~ hotel? : hotel (هتل)
; ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? : ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? (''Sefarat Amrica/Caanaadaa/Ostralia/inslis?'')
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; ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? : sefâratè Âmrikâ/Kânâdâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelestân (سفارت آمریکا/کانادا/استرالیا/انگلستان)
; Where are there a lot of... : Where are there a lot of... (''Koja ye te'e dade ... mitavan peida kard?'')
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; Where are there a lot of... : kojâ ~ ziyâd peydâ mišavad? (کجا ~ زیاد پیدا می‌شود)
; ...hotels? : ...hotels? (''hotel ha'')
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; ...hotels? : hotel (هتل)
; ...restaurants? : ...restaurants? (''Restouran ha'')
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; ...restaurants? : resturân (رستوران)
; ...bars? : ...bars? (''There is no bar in Iran, so do not ask for'')
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; ...bars? : NOT FOUND IN IRAN
; ...sites to see? : ...sites to see? (''Jaie didani'')
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; ...sites to see? : jâyè didani (جای دیدنی)
; Can you show me on the map? : Can you show me on the map? (''Mitouni roye naghshe be man neshoun bedi?'')
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; Can you show me on the map? : mišavad ruyè naqše nešân bedahid? (می‌شود روی نقشه نشان بدهید)
; street : street (''Khiabaan'')
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; street : xiyâbân (خیابان)
; Turn left. : Turn left. (''Gardesh be chap'')
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; Turn left. : bepichid dastè chap (بپیچید دست چپ)
; Turn right. : Turn right. (''Gardesh be raast'')
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; Turn right. : bepichid dastè râst (بپیچید دست راست)
; left : left (''Chap'')
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; left : chap (چپ)
; right : right (''Raast'')
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; right : râst (راست)
; straight ahead : straight ahead (''dorost mostaghim'')
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; straight ahead : mostaqim (مستقیم)
; towards the _____ : towards the _____ (''Be samte _____'')
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; towards the : be tarafè (به طرف)
; past the _____ : past the _____ (''Ba'ad az _____'')
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; past the : baød az (بعد از)
; before the _____ : before the _____ (''Ghabl az _____'')
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; before the : qabl az (قبل از)
; Watch for the _____. : Watch for the _____. (''Donbale _____ begard'')
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; Watch for the ~. : donbâlè ~ begardid (دنبال ~ بگردید)
; intersection : intersection (''Chaahaar rah'' or ''Taghato'e)
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; intersection : chahârrâh (چهارراه)
; north : north (''Shomal'')
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; north : šomâl (شمال)
; south : south (''Jonoub'')
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; south : jonub (جنوب)
; east : east (''Shargh'' or ''khavar'')
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; east : šarq (شرق)
; west : west (''Gharb'' or ''baakhtar )
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; west : qarb (غرب)
; uphill : uphill (''Sar balaie'')
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; uphill : sarbâlâyi (سربالایی)
; downhill : downhill (''Sar a ziri'')
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; downhill : sarpâyini (سرپایینی)
  
 
====Taxi====
 
====Taxi====
; Taxi! : Taxi! (''Taaxi!'')
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; Taxi! : tâksi (تاکسی)
; Take me to _____, please. : Take me to _____, please. (''Saying the name of the place is pretty much sufficient'')
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; Take me to ~, please. : lotfan marâ bebar ~ (لطفا مرا ببر ~)
; How much does it cost to get to _____? : How much does it cost to
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; How much does it cost to get to ~? : tâ ~ cheqadr mišavad? (تا ~ چقدر می‌شود)
get to _____? (''Ta ... chande?'')
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; Take me there, please. : lotfan marâ bebar ânjâ (لطفا مرا ببر آنجا)
; Take me there, please. : Take me there, please. (''Saying the name of the place is pretty much sufficient'')
+
  
 
===Lodging===
 
===Lodging===
; Do you have any rooms available? : Do you have any rooms available? (''Otaaghe khaali daarid?'')
+
; Do you have any rooms available? : otâqè xâli dârid? (اتاق خالی دارید)
; How much is a room for one person/two people? : How much is a room for one person/two people? (''Ye otaagh baraaie yek/dow nafar che ghadre?'')
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; How much is a room for one person/two people? : otâq barâye yek/do nafar chand ast? (اتاق برای یک/دو نفر چند است)
; Does the room come with... : Does the room come with... (''Otaagh ba _____ ast?'')
+
; Does the room come with ~ : otâq ~ dârad (اتاق ~ دارد)
; ...bedsheets? : ...bedsheets? (''Malaafeh'')
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; ~ bedsheets? : malâfe (ملافه)
; ...a bathroom? : ...a bathroom? (''Hammaam'')
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; ~ a bathroom? : hammâm (حمام)
; ...a telephone? : ...a telephone? (''Telephon'')
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; ~ a telephone? : telefon (تلفن)
; ...a TV? : ...a TV? (''Televizion'' like pronunciation in French)
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; ~ a TV? : televizyun (تلویزیون)
; May I see the room first? : May I see the room first? (''Mitounam aval otagh o bebinam?'')
+
; May I see the room first? : mišavad avval otâq râ bebinam? (می‌شود اول اتاق را ببینم)
; Do you have anything quieter? : Do you have anything quieter? (''Jaaie araam tar daarid?'')
+
; Do you have anything quieter? : jâyè ârâmtarì dârid? (جای آرامتری دارید)
; ...bigger? : ...bigger? (''Bozourg tar'')
+
; ~ bigger? : bozorgtar (بزرگتر)
; ...cleaner? : ...cleaner? (''Tamiz tar'')
+
; ~ cleaner? : tamiztar (تمیزتر)
; ...cheaper? : ...cheaper? (''Arzaan tar'')
+
; ~ cheaper? : arzântar (ارزانتر)
; OK, I'll take it. : OK, I'll take it. (''Kheili khoub, man ino bar midaaram'' or ''kheili khoub, man ino mikhaam)  
+
; OK, I'll take it. : bâše, hamin râ migiram. (باشه، همین را می‌گیرم)
; I will stay for _____ night(s). : I will stay for _____ night(s). (''_____ shab minuman'')
+
; I will stay for ~ night(s). : ~ šab mimânam (~ شب می‌مانم)
; Can you suggest another hotel? : Can you suggest another hotel? (''Yeh hotel e dige pishnahaad darin?)
+
; Can you suggest another hotel? : mišavad hotelè digarì râ pišnahâd konid? (می‌شود هتل دیگری را پیشنهاد کنید)
; Do you have a safe? : Do you have a safe? (''Sandogh e amaanat daarid?'')
+
; Do you have a safe? : sandoqè amânât dârid? (صندوق امانات دارید)
; ...lockers? : ...lockers? (''Sandoghe Amanat'')
+
; ~ lockers? : komodè qofldâr? (کمد قفلدار)
; Is breakfast/supper included? : Is breakfast/supper included? (''Sobhaane/Shaam shaamel e in otaagh hast?'')
+
; Is breakfast/supper included? : hazine šâmelè sobhâne/šâm ham mišavad? (هزینه شامل صبحانه/شام هم می‌شود)
; What time is breakfast/supper? : What time is breakfast/supper? (''Vaghte Sobhaane/Shaam kaey e'')
+
; What time is breakfast/supper? sobhâne/šâm che sâatì ast? (صبحانه/شام چه ساعتی است)
; Please clean my room. : Please clean my room. (''Lotfan otaaghe man raa tamiz koneed'')
+
; Please clean my room. : lotfan otâqam râ tamiz konid (لطفا اتاقم را تمیز کنید)
; Can you wake me at _____? | Can you wake me at _____? (''Lotfan _____ bidaar koneed?'')
+
; Can you wake me at ~? : mišavad marâ sâatè ~ bidâr konid? (می‌شود مرا ساعت ~ بیدار کنید)
; I want to check out. : I want to check out. (''Mikhaaham tasvieh konam?'')
+
; I want to check out. : mixâham tasviye konam (می‌خواهم تسویه کنم)
  
 
===Money===
 
===Money===
; Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? : Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? (''Aya shomaa dolaar e Amrica/Ostralia/Caanaadaa ghaboul mikonid?'')
+
; Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? : Dolârè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Kânâdâ qabul mikonid? (دلار آمریکا/استرالیا/کانادا قبول می‌کنید)
; Do you accept British pounds? : Do you accept British pounds? (''''Aya shomaa Pound e inglis ghaboul mikonid?'')
+
; Do you accept British pounds? : Pondè Engelis qabul mikonid? (پوند انگلیس قبول می‌کنید)
; Do you accept credit cards? : Do you accept credit cards? (''Aya credit card ghaboul mikounid?'')
+
; Do you accept credit cards? : kârtè eøtebâri qabul mikonid? (کارت اعتباری قبول می‌کنید)
; Can you change money for me? : Can you change money for me? (''Aya mitavanid poul e man ro change konid?'')
+
; Can you change money for me? : mitavânid pulam râ cheynj konid? (می‌توانید پولم را چینج کنید)
; Where can I get money changed? : Where can I get money changed? (''Koja mitavaanam poulam ro change konam?'')
+
; Where can I get money changed? : Kojâ mitavânam pulam râ cheynj konam? (کجا می‌توانم پولم را چینج کنم)
; Can you change a traveler's check for me? : Can you change a traveler's check for me? (''Aya mitavanid travel check e mano khord konid? '')
+
; Can you change a traveler's check for me? : mitavânid terâvel râ barâyam naqd konid? (می‌توانید تراول را برایم نقد کنید)
; Where can I get a traveler's check changed? : Where can I get a traveler's check changed? (''Koja mitavaanam travel checkamo khord konam'')
+
; Where can I get a traveler's check changed? : Kojâ mitavân terâvel naqd kard? (کجا می‌توان تراول نقد کرد)
; What is the exchange rate? : What is the exchange rate? (''Nerkhe arz che ghadre?'')
+
; What is the exchange rate? : nerxè arz cheqadr ast? (نرخ ارز چقدر است)
; Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? : Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? (''Note, there is no foreign currency ATM in Iran'')
+
; Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? : âberbânk kojâ'st? (عابربانک کجاست)
  
 
===Eating===
 
===Eating===
; A table for one person/two people, please. : A table for one person/two people, please. (''Yek miz baraaie yek/dow nafar lotfan.'')
+
; A table for one person/two people, please. : Yek miz barâye yek/do nafar, lotfan. (یک میز برای یک/دو نفر)
; Can I look at the menu, please? : Can I look at the menu, please? (''Mitunam ye negaah be menou bi andaazam?'')
+
; Can I look at the menu, please? : mitavânam menu râ bebinam? (می‌توانم منو را ببینم)
; Can I look in the kitchen? : Can I look in the kitchen? (''Mitunam ye negaah be aashpaz khaaneh bi andaazam?'')
+
; Can I look in the kitchen? : mitavânam âšpazxâne râ bebinam? (می‌شود آشپزخانه را ببینم)
; Is there a house specialty? : Is there a house specialty? (''Aya monaasebat e vije ei dar khaaneh hast?'')
+
; Is there a house specialty? : qazâye xânegi dârid? (غذای خانگی دارید)
; Is there a local specialty? : Is there a local specialty? (''Aya monaasebat e vije ei mahali hast?'')
+
; Is there a local specialty? : qazâye mahalli dârid? (غذای محلی دارید)
; I'm a vegetarian. : I'm a vegetarian. (''Man sabzi kharam'')
+
; I'm a vegetarian. : giyâhxâr hastam (گیاهخوار هستم)
; I don't eat pork. : I don't eat pork. (''Man goshte khouk nemikhouram'')
+
; I don't eat pork. : guštè xuk nemixoram (گوشت خوک نمی‌خورم)
; I don't eat beef. : I don't eat beef. (''Man goshte gaav nemikhouram'')
+
; I don't eat beef. : guštè gâv nemixoram (گوشت گاو نمی‌خورم)
; I only eat kosher food. : I only eat kosher food. (''Man faghat gosht e halal mikhouram '')
+
; I only eat kosher food. : faqat guštè halâl mixoram (فقط گوشت حلال می‌خورم)
; Can you make it "lite", please? (''less oil/butter/lard'') : Can you make it "lite", please? (''Mituni lotfan ye meghdar sabouk taresh koni?'') (''Roughane kamtar/Kare/Charbi e heivani or Charbi e Khouk'')
+
; Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard) : mišavad kamcharbaš konid (می‌شود کم‌چربش کنید)
; fixed-price meal : fixed-price meal (''Ghaza ba gheimat e moshakhas'')
+
; fixed-price meal : qazâ bâ qeymatè sâbet (غذا با قیمت ثابت)
; à la carte : à la carte (''Ghazaie ke joda joda sefaresh dadeh mishavad'')
+
; à la carte : qazâ bâ qeymate jodâ jodâ (غذا با قیمت جدا جدا)
; breakfast : breakfast (''Sobhane'')
+
; breakfast : sobhâne (صبحانه)
; lunch : lunch (''Naahaar'')
+
; lunch : nâhâr (ناهار)
; tea (''meal'') : tea (''Chaai'')
+
; tea (meal) : asrâne (عصرانه)
; supper : supper (''Shaam'')
+
; supper : šâm (شام)
; I want _____. : I want _____. (''Man ____ mihkaam'')
+
; I want ~ . : ~ mixâham (می‌خواهم)
; I want a dish containing _____. : I want a dish containing _____. (''Man ye boshghaab mikhaam ke shaamel e _____ baashe'')
+
; I want a dish containing ~ . : qazâyi mixâham ke ~ dâšte bâšad (غذایی می‌خواهم که ~ داشته باشد)
; chicken : chicken (''Morgh'' or ''Joojeh)
+
; chicken : morq (مرغ)
; beef : beef (''Goosht'')
+
; beef : guštè gâv (گوشت گاو)
; fish : fish (''Maahi'')
+
; fish : mâhi (ماهی)
; ham : ham (''Goosht-e Khook'')
+
; ham : žâmbonè xuk (ژامبون خوک)
; sausage : sausage (''Sows'')
+
; sausage : sosis (سوسیس)
; cheese : cheese (''Paneer'')
+
; cheese : panir (پنیر)
; eggs : eggs (''Tokhme morgh'')
+
; eggs : toxmemorq (تخم‌مرغ)
; salad : salad (''Saalaad'')
+
; salad : sâlâd (سالاد)
; (fresh) vegetables : (fresh) vegetables (''Sabzi e tazeh'')
+
; (fresh) vegetables : sabziyè tâze (سبزی تازه)
; (fresh) fruit : (fresh) fruit (''Mive ie tazeh'')
+
; (fresh) fruit : miveyè tâze (میوه‌ی تازه)
; bread : bread (''Naan'')
+
; bread : nân (نان)
; toast : toast (''Towst'')
+
; toast : nânè tost (نان تست)
; noodles : noodles (''Makarouni'')
+
; noodles : rešte (رشته)
; rice : rice (''Berenj'')
+
; rice : berenj (برنج)
; beans : beans (''Loubiaa'')
+
; beans : lubiyâ (لوبیا)
; May I have a glass of _____? : May I have a glass of _____? (''Mitunam ye livaan _____ daashteh baasham?'')
+
; May I have a glass of ~ ? : yek livân ~ mixâstam. (یک لیوان ~ می‌خواستم)
; May I have a cup of _____? : May I have a cup of _____? (''Mitunam ye fenjan _____ daashteh baasham?'')
+
; May I have a cup of ~ ? : yek fenjân ~ mixâstam. (یک فنجان ~ می‌خواستم)
; May I have a bottle of _____? : May I have a bottle of _____? (''Mitunam ye shisheh _____ daashteh baasham'')
+
; May I have a bottle of ~ ? : yek botri ~ mixâstam. (یک بطری ~ می‌خواستم)
; coffee : coffee (''Ghahve'')
+
; coffee : qahve (قهوه)
; tea (''drink'') : tea (''Chaai'')
+
; tea (drink) : chây (چای)
; juice : juice (''...'')
+
; juice : âbmive (آبمیوه)
; (bubbly) water : water (''Aab sodaa'')
+
; (bubbly) water : âb sodâ (آب سودا)
; water : water (''Aab'')
+
; water : âb (آب)
; beer : beer (''Abjo'' Note: There is no alcohol beer in restaurants)
+
; beer : âbjo (آبجو) (NOTE: There is no alcohol beer in restaurants)
; red/white wine : red/white wine (''Sharaab e ghermez/Sefid'' There is no alcohol wine in restaurants)
+
; red/white wine : šarâbè sorx/sefid (شراب سرخ/سفید) (NOTE: There is no alcohol wine in restaurants)
; May I have some _____? : May I have some _____? (''Mitunam ye meghdaar _____ daashteh baasham?'')
+
; May I have some ~ ? : kamì ~ mixâstam (کمی ~ می‌خواستم)
; salt : salt (''Namak'')
+
; salt : namak (نمک)
; black pepper : black pepper (''Felfel e Siaah'')
+
; black pepper : felfelè siyâh (فلفل سیاه)
; butter : butter (''Kareh'')
+
; butter : kare (کره)
; Excuse me, waiter? (''getting attention of server''): Excuse me, waiter? (''Bebakhshid pish khedmat?'' Litterally, but better to say ''Bebakhshid Aaghaa'')
+
; Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server) : bebaxšid (ببخشید)
; I'm finished. : I'm finished. (''Baraaie man basseh'' or ''Baraaie man tamoum shod )
+
; I'm finished. : xordanè man tamâm šod (خوردن من تمام شد)
; It was delicious. : It was delicious. (''Khosh mazzeh boud'')
+
; It was delicious. : xošmazze bud (خوشمزه بود)
; Please clear the plates. : Please clear the plates. (''Lotfan zarf harou tamiz konid'')
+
; Please clear the plates. : lotfan bošqâbhâ râ tamiz konid (لطفا بشقابها را تمیز کنید)
; The check, please. : The check, please. (''Sourat hesaab, lotfan'')
+
; The check, please. : surathesâb lotfan (صورت‌حساب لطفا)
  
 
===Bars===
 
===Bars===

Revision as of 17:03, 11 August 2008

Contents

Introduction

Persian is an ancient language of Indo-European family. You can spot many grammatical similarities between Persian and other Indo-European languages, especially Romance languages like French and Spanish. However, Persian is similar more to its coeval languages like Latin than to relatively newer languages. For example, both Latin and Persian have a SOV word order (they both have free word order, though), which is uncommon among most modern European languages (even the descendants of Latin).

Today, Persian is mainly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Bahrain. It has official status in the first three countries but was once the official, court, or literary language of many more places ranging from Turkey through India. There are many people in Iran and neighboring countries who know Persian fluently even though it's not their mother tongue. It's because Iran (formerly "Persia" until 1935) was much bigger until 200 years ago when it lost many territories, especially to its neighbor Russia (for more information, see Wikipedia: Greater Iran). After the 1979 revolution, many Iranians migrated to the West and as a result, there are numerous Persian-speaking communities throughout the world, particularly in USA.

The local name of the language is Farsi (officially, Fârsiyè Dari (Dari Persian), which means "official/court Persian"). The word Farsi has also entered English mainly because West-migrated Iranians didn't know about the native English name of their language and began to use Farsi. Persian has three main dialects: Iranian Persian, Afghanistani Persian and Tajikistani Persian. They are all mutually intelligible and in fact, written language is almost the same.

Note - Although you can use the contents of this page in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and other countries but this page is directed towards Iranian Persian and Afghanistani Persian and Tajikistani Persian should have their own pages for a closer coverage.

Pronunciation guide

The Persian writing system derives from that of Arabic, extended with four letters to denote the sounds not found in Arabic. Persian writing system is not an alphabet but an abjad. An abjad writing system has only characters for denoting consonant sounds. Vowels have no specific character and are either indicated by certain diacritics or by certain consonant characters. Additionally, most letters change shape when they are followed by another letter.

Vowels and diphthongs

Transcription Sound
a as a in ant
â as o in hot
e as e in egg
i as i in eagle
o as o in forty
u as u in flute
ow as ow in American English show but shorter
ey as ey in they

Regarding their indication in the Persian script:

  • The sounds a, e, o can be indicated with certain diacritics but they are virtually only used in elementary-school books. The vowel o is sometimes denoted with the consonant و (v).
  • The sounds â is always indicated: with آ at word initial and with ا elsewhere.
  • The sounds i and ey are indicated with ای at word initial and with the consonant ی (y) elsewhere.
  • The sounds u and ow are indicated with او at word initial and with the consonant و (v) elsewhere.

Consonants

Character Transcription Sound
ا
  • at word initial can denote: a, e, o; elsewhere: â
  • at word initial when followed by ی can denote: i (mostly) and ey
  • at word initial when followed by و can denote: u (mostly), ow and ave
آ â as o in hot
ب b as in bob
پ p as in put
ت t as in tea
ث s as in sad
ج j as in job
چ ch as in cheese
ح h as in head
خ x as ch in Scottish loch, German Buch
ر r similar to r in Spanish reloj
ز z as in zoo
ژ ž as s in vision, pleasure, French j in jardin
س s as in sad
ش š as in sheet
ص s as in sad
ض z as in zoo
ط t as in tea
ظ z as in zoo
ع ø glottal stop
غ q similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben
ف f as in feet
ق q similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben
ک k as in keep
گ g as in go
ل l as in leave
م m as in moon
ن n as in noon
و v as in van; also used to denote some vowel sounds
ی y as in yet; also used to denote some vowel sounds
ه h as in head

As you may note, there are characters that represent identical sounds e.g. ظ ,ض, ز are all pronounced z. It's because Persian has preserved the spelling of Arabic loanwords. Each of these characters have distinguished sounds in Arabic but they are all pronounced the same in Persian.

Syllable

Persian has the following syllable patterns (C = Consonant, V = Vowel):

Pattern Examples
CV na, to, ke, mâ, xu, si, u
CVC kar, pol, del, kâr, mur, sir, az, in, âb
CVCC kard, goft, zešt, kârd, xošk, rixt, farš, ârd, abr

These patterns can be encapsulated in CV(C)(C). According to the patterns:

  • A syllable always begins with a consonant sound. Please note that syllables which visually begin with a vowel sound, have a preceding glottal stop merged with their sound. For instance, u (he, she) is actually said øu and ârd (flour) is actually said øârd.
  • The second component of any syllable is a vowel sound.
  • Each syllable can only have one vowel sound. Therefore, each vowel indicates a syllable.

As opposed to English and many other languages, Persian does not allow two or more consonants to begin a syllable. Therefore, loanwords with such a characteristic are always Persianized:

Word Persian Pattern
English: stadium estâdiyom (øes.tâ.di.yom) CVC.CV.CV.CVC
English: traffic terâfik (te.râ.fik) CV.CV.CVC
French: class kelâs (ke.lâs) CV.CVC

To help you understand it better, here are some basic words along with their syllabification:

Word Syllabification Meaning
bimârestân bi.mâ.res.tân hospital
ketâbxâne ke.tâb.xâ.ne library
dâruxâne dâ.ru.xâ.ne drug store
širiniforuši ši.ri.ni.fo.ru.ši confectionery
xiyâbân xi.yâ.bân street
otobus øo.to.bus bus
metro met.ro subway

Stress

The stress is on the last syllable. However, there are a few adverbs that do not follow this regularity. In addition, Persian has a number of enclitics, which simply put, are unstressed endings (English example: 's in Peter's book). Enclitics do not change the stress position of the word to which they attach. Therefore, the stress position does not shift to the last syllable e.g. pe.dar + enclitic -am = pe.da.ram (rather than expected pe.da.ram)

Note - As an aid, the grave accent can be placed on the first vowel of enclitics to make them distinguishable from suffixes and final letters of words. This method is used here for the genitive enclitic (è / yè), indefinite enclitic (ì / yì) and enclitic form of "and" (ò).

Basic grammar

Persian has a relatively easy and mostly regular grammar. So, it is relatively easy to gain a basic knowledge of the Persian grammar.

Gender

Persian is a gender-neutral language. That is, it refers to masculine, feminine and neuter genders with identical pronouns, adjectives, etc. For example, Persian has one word for both English "he" and "she", "him" and "her", "his" and "her".

Articles

There is no definite article in Persian. A bare noun indicates a definite noun (which includes common and generic nouns) e.g. mâšin dar pârking ast: the car is in the garage (literally: car, in garage, is); az mâr mitarsam: I'm afraid of snakes (literally: from snake fear-I)

Indefiniteness is expressed with the enclitic (or -yì after vowels). It is for both singular and plural nouns. English does not have an exact equivalent for the Persian's plural indefinite article. It's often translated as "some" or "a few" or is simply omitted. The indefinite enclitic is added to the end of the noun phrase: mâšinì (a car, some car), mâšinhâyì (some cars)

Plural

Nouns are pluralized with the suffix -hâ. It's the only plural suffix used in spoken Persian. In written Persian, there's another plural suffix -ân (-gân after the vowel e and -yân after other vowels) which can only be used for animates and human beings in particular. It is especially useful to restrict the meaning to human beings. For example:

  • sar means "head", sarhâ means "heads" and sarân means "chiefs, heads, leaders"
  • gozašte means "past", gozaštehâ means "the past (events, etc.)" and gozaštegân means "the people of the past"

Arabic loanwords have usually brought their irregular plural forms (technically referred to as "broken plurals") into Persian but they can be avoided and you can use -hâ to pluralize them. In spoken Persian, broken plurals are never used except for very few cases where the broken plural has found an extended meaning. Regarding written Persian of today, the use of broken plurals has greatly decreased and it's prevalent to pluralize words with -hâ.

Note - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when preceded by numbers because the number itself indicates quantity e.g. yek ketâb (one/a book), do/se/panjâh ketâb (two/three/fifty books).

Genitive case

In Persian, the genitive case relates two or more words to each other. The genitive case is marked with the enclitic (or -yè after vowels). The genitive enclitic is added to all the words that are connected to the head word and complement it. Look at the following examples:

To designate Persian English Mold
possession pedarè Ali the father of Ali, Ali's father father–è Ali
mâdarè man my mother mother–è I
payâmbarè Eslâm the prophet of Islam prophet–è Islam
nâmè ketâb the name of the book, book's name name–è book
attribute dustè xub good friend friend–è good
Âmrikâyè jonubi South America America–yè south(ern)
other relations kešvarè Irân the country of Iran country–yè Iran
sâlè 2008 year 2008 year–è 2008
bâlâyè miz above table top–è table
šomâlè Tehrân north of Tehran north–è Tehran

Accusative case

The accusative case is indicated with the enclitic (which, despite being an enclitic, it is written apart from the host word in the Persian script) e.g. dar râ bastam (I closed the door).

Adjective

Adjectives have only one form. They agree neither in gender nor in number with the noun they modify. They come after the noun and are related to it with the genitive enclitic: pesarè xub: good boy (mold: boy-è good), doxtarhâyè xub: good girls (mold: girl-hâ-yè good). As stated before, the indefinite article is added to the end of the noun phrase, so: pesarè xubì (a/some good boy), doxtarhâyè xubì ((some) good girls).

Demonstratives

Demonstrative adjectives come before nouns and like other adjectives, they have only one form. In Persian, we don't say "these books" but "this books". The plural form itself indicates that we are pointing to a plural noun. Basic demonstrative adjectives are ân (that, those) and in (this, these).

A pronoun (pro-noun) substitutes a noun phrase therefore the quantity (singular or plural) must be indicated. Consequently, demonstrative pronouns have plural forms, which is made with the plural suffix -hâ: ân (that), ânhâ (those), in (this), inhâ (these). Demonstrative pronouns are also used as subjective pronouns. For example, the Persian word for "they" is ânhâ. Distal pronouns (ân, ânhâ) are either used neutrally (i.e. not denoting distance from the speaker) or natively (i.e. indicating remoteness) but proximal pronouns (in, inhâ) are always used natively and indicate proximity to the speaker. English doesn't have such a feature.

Phrase list

Basics

Hello, Hi
Salâm (سلام)
How are you?
Hâlè šomâ chetor ast (حالِ شما چطور است), less formal: chetorid? (چطورید), xubid? (خوبید)
Fine, thank you.
xubam, xeyli mamnun (خوبم خیلی ممنون)
What is your name?
esmetân chi'st? (اسمتان چيست)
My name is ~ .
esmam ~ ast (اسمم ~ است)
Nice to meet you.
xošbaxtam (خوشبختم)
Please.
lotfan (لطفا)
Thank you.
xeyli mamnun (خیلی ممنون), mersi (مرسی)
Note - xeyli mamnun literally means "many thanks" but it's the normal way of saying "thank you"
You're welcome.
xâheš mikonam (خواهش می‌کنم)
Yes.
bale (بله)
No.
na (نه)
Excuse me (getting attention or begging pardon)
bebaxšid (ببخشید), maøzerat mixâham (معذرت می‌خواهم)
I'm sorry.
bebaxšid (ببخشید), maøzerat mixâham (معذرت می‌خواهم)
Goodbye
xodâhâfez (خداحافظ)
See you
formal: mibinametân (می‌بینمتان), informal: mibinamet (می‌بینمت)
I can't speak Persian [well].
Nemitavânam [xub] Fârsi harf bezanam (نمی‌توانم خوب انگلیسی حرف بزنم)
Do you speak English?
Mitavânid Engelisi harf bezanid? (می‌توانید انگلیسی حرف بزنید)
Is there someone here who speaks English?
Injâ kasi Engelisi midânad? (اینجا کسی انگلیسی می‌داند)
Help!
komak! (کمک)
Look out
formal: Movâzeb bâšid (مواظب باشید), informal: Movâzeb bâš (مواظب باش)
Good morning.
sobh bexeyr (صبح بخیر)
Good evening.
asr bexeyr (عصر بخیر)
Good night.
šab bexeyr (شب بخیر)
I don't understand.
nemifahmam (نمی‌فهمم), motevajjeh nemišavam (متوجه نمی‌شوم)
Where is the toilet?
dastšuyi kojâ'st? (دستشویی کجاست)

Problems

Leave me alone. 
Mixâham tanhâ bâšam (می‌خواهم تنها باشم)
Don't touch me! 
Be man dast nazanid (به من دست نزنید)
I'll call the police. 
Polis râ xabar mikonam (پلیس را خبر می‌کنم)
Police! 
Polis (پلیس)
Stop! Thief! 
Âhây dozd! (آهای دزد)
I need your help. 
Be komaketân niyâz dâram (به کمکتان نیاز دارم)
It's an emergency. 
zaruri'st (ضروریست)
I'm lost. 
gom šodeam (گم شده‌ام)
Go away! 
Boro kenâr! (برو کنار)
I lost my bag. 
sâkam râ gom kardeam (ساکم را گم کرده‌ام)
I lost my wallet. 
kifam râ gom kardeam (کیفم را گم کرده‌ام)
I'm sick. 
Hâlam bad ast (حالم بد است)
I've been injured. 
Zaxmi šodeam (زخمی شده‌ام)
I need a doctor. 
Doktor mixâham (دکتر می‌خواهم)
Can I use your phone? 
Mišavad az telefonetân estefâde konam (می‌شود از تلفنتان استفاده کنم)

Numbers

Note - There are two ways to express "and" in Persian. One is with the enclitic ò (or after vowels) and the other is with the word va. The enclitic ò is the common way (and the sole way in spoken Persian).

# Persian # Persian # Persian # Persian
0 sefr (صفر) 15 pânzdah (پانزده) 66 šastò šeš (شصت و شش) 600 šešsad (ششصد)
1 yek (یک) 16 šânzdah (شانزده) 70 haftâd (هفتاد) 700 haftsad (هفتصد)
2 do (دو) 17 hefdah (هفده) 77 haftâdò haft (هفتاد و هفت) 800 haštsad (هشتصد)
3 se () 18 hejdah (هجده) 80 haštâd (هشتاد) 900 nohsad (نهصد)
4 chahâr (چهار) 19 nuzdah (نوزده) 88 haštâdò hašt (هشتاد و هشت) 1,000 hezâr (هزار)
5 panj (پنج) 20 bist (بیست) 90 navad (نود) 1,001 hezârò yek (هزار و یک)
6 šeš (شش) 21 bistò yek (بیست و یک) 99 navadò noh (نود و نه) 1,100 hezârò sad (هزار و صد)
7 haft (هفت) 22 bistò do (بیست و دو) 100 sad (صد) 2,000 do hezâr (دو هزار)
8 hašt (هشت) 30 si (سی) 110 sadò dah (صد و ده) 2,008 do hezârò hašt (دو هزار و هشت)
9 noh (نه) 33 siyò se (سی و سه) 200 devist (دویست) 10,000 dah hezâr (ده هزار)
10 dah (ده) 40 chehel (چهل) 222 devistò bistò do (دویست و بیست و دو) 20,000 bist hezâr (بیست هزار)
11 yâzdah (یازده) 44 chehelò chahâr (چهل و چهار) 300 sisad (سیصد) 100,000 sad hezâr (صد هزار)
12 davâzdah (دوازده) 50 panjâh (پنجاه) 333 sisadò siyò se (سیصد و سی و سه) 1,000,000 yek milyun (یک میلیون)
13 sizdah (سیزده) 55 panjâhò panj (پنجاه و پنج) 400 chahârsad (چهارصد) 2,000,000 do milyun (دو میلیون)
14 chahârdah (چهارده) 60 šast (شصت) 500 pânsad (پانصد) 1,000,000,000 yek milyârd (یک میلیارد)
number ~ (train, bus, etc.
šomâreye ~ (شماره‌ی ~)
half 
nesf (نصف)
less 
kamtar (کمتر)
more 
bištar (بیشتر)

Time

now 
aløân (الآن)
later 
baødan (بعدا)
before 
qablan (قبلا)
morning 
sobh (صبح)
afternoon 
baød-az-zohr (بعدازظهر)
evening 
qorub (غروب)
night 
šab (شب)

Clock time

one o'clock AM 
yekè sobh (یک صبح)
two o'clock AM 
doè sobh (دو صبح)
noon 
zohr (ظهر)
one o'clock PM 
yekè baød-az-zohr (یک بعدازظهر)
two o'clock PM 
doè baød-az-zohr (دو بعدازظهر)
midnight 
nimešab (نیمه‌شب)

Duration

~ minute(s) 
daqiqe(hâ) (دقیقه‌ها))
~ hour(s) 
sâat(hâ) (ساعت‌ها)
~ day(s) 
ruz(hâ) (روزها)
~ week(s) 
hafte(hâ) (هفته‌ها)
~ month(s) 
mâh(hâ) (ماه‌ها)
~ season(s) 
fasl(hâ) (فصل‌ها)
~ year(s) 
sâl(hâ) (سال‌ها)

Tip - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when a number precedes them. The plurality is clear from the "number". Therefore, we say, for example:

  • one/three/fifty day: yek/se/panjâh ruz (یک/سه/پنجاه روز)
  • three to five week: se tâ panj hafte (سه تا پنج هفته)

Days

today 
emruz (امروز)
yesterday 
diruz (دیروز)
tomorrow 
fardâ (فردا)
this week 
in hafte (این هفته)
last week 
hafteyè gozašte (هفته‌ی گذشته)
next week 
hafteyè âyande (هفته‌ی آینده)
Sunday 
yekšanbe (یکشنبه)
Monday 
došanbe (دوشنبه)
Tuesday 
sešanbe (سه‌شنبه)
Wednesday 
chahâršanbe (چهارشنبه)
Thursday 
panjšanbe (پنجشنبه)
Friday 
jomøe (جمعه)
Saturday 
šanbe (شنبه)

Tip - In Iran, weeks being with "Saturday" and end with "Friday". So, the holiday is "Friday" and the weekend starts from "Thursday".

Months

Iran uses a solar calendar with the new year on the vernal equinox (March 21 on the Gregorian calendar). So, years begin with "spring" and end with "winter". The first six months have 31 days, and the last five have 30 days each. The final month has 29 or 30 depending on whether or not it is a leap year. Leap years are not as simply calculated as in the Gregorian calendar, but typically there is a five year leap period after every 7 four year cycles. Year 0 of the calendar corresponds to 621 in Gregorian.

Persian Transcription English
بهار bahâr spring
فروردین Farvardin (31 days) 21 Mar. – 20 Apr.
اردیبهشت Ordibehešt (31 days) 21 Apr. – 21 May
خرداد Xordâd (31 days) 22 May – 21 June
تابستان tâbestân summer
تیر Tir (31 days) 22 June – 22 July
مرداد Mordâd (31 days) 23 July – 22 Aug.
شهریور Šahrivar (31 days) 23 Aug. – 22 Sep.
پاییز pâyiz autumn
مهر Mehr (30 days) 23 Sep.– 22 Oct.
آبان Âbân (30 days) 23 Oct.– 21 Nov.
آذر Âzar (30 days) 22 Nov.– 21 Dec.
زمستان zemestân winter
دی Dey (30 days) 22 Dec.– 19 Jan.
بهمن Bahman (30 days) 20 Jan. – 18 Feb.
اسفند Esfand (29/30 days) 19 Feb. – 20 Mar.

Gregorian month names are borrowed from French.

January 
Žânviye (ژانویه)
February 
Fevriye (فوریه)
March 
Mârs (مارس)
April 
Âvril (آوریل)
May 
Me (مه), also Mey (می)
June 
Žuan (ژوئن)
July 
Žuiye (ژوئیه), also Julây (جولای)
August 
Ut (اوت), also Âgust (آگوست)
September 
Septâm(b)r (سپتامبر)
October 
Oktobr (اکتبر)
November 
Novâm(b)r (نوامبر)
December 
Desâm(b)r (دسامبر)

Writing time and date

The staring point of the Iranian solar calendar is Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD. Short date format is yyyy/mm/dd (or yy/mm/dd) and the long date format is dddd, dd MMMM yyyy. For example, today (Monday, August 11, 2008) is:

  • short date format: 1387/05/21 (or 87/05/21)
  • long date format: došanbe, 21 Mordâd 1387

Time is written like English e.g. 8:34 (۸:۳۴).

Colors

black 
siyâh (سیاه), also meški (مشکی)
white 
sefid (سفید)
gray 
xâkestari (خاکستری)
red 
qermez (قرمز), also sorx (سرخ)
blue 
âbi (آبی)
yellow 
zard (زرد)
green 
sabz (سبز)
orange 
nârenji (نارنجی)
purple 
arqavâni (ارغوانی)
brown 
qahvei (قهوه‌ای)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to ~? 
belitè ~ cheqadr ast? (بلیط ~ چقدر است)
One ticket to ~, please. 
lotfan yek belit barâye ~ (لطفا یک بلیط برای ~ )
Where does this train/bus go? 
in qatâr/otobus kojâ miravad? (این قطار/اتوبوس کجا می‌رود)
Where is the train/bus to ~? 
qatârè/otobusè ~ kodâm ast? (قطار/اتوبوس ~ کدام است)
Does this train/bus stop in ~? 
in qatâr/otobus dar ~ miistad? (این قطار/اتوبوس در ~ می‌ایستد)
When does the train/bus for ~ leave? 
qatârè/otobusè ~ key harkat mikonad? (قطار/اتوبوس ~ کی حرکت می‌کند)
When will this train/bus arrive in ~? 
in qatâr/otobus key be ~ miresad? (این قطار/اتوبوس کی به ~ می‌رسد)

Directions

How do I get to ~ ?  
chetor beravam be ~ (چطور بروم به)
...the train station?  
istgâhè qatâr (ایستگاه قطار)
...the bus station?  
istgâhè otobus (ایستگاه اتوبوس)
...the airport?  
forudgâh (فرودگاه)
...downtown?  
markazè šahr (مرکز شهر)
...the youth hostel?  
mehmânxâne (مهمان‌خانه)
...the ~ hotel?  
hotel (هتل)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate?  
sefâratè Âmrikâ/Kânâdâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelestân (سفارت آمریکا/کانادا/استرالیا/انگلستان)
Where are there a lot of...  
kojâ ~ ziyâd peydâ mišavad? (کجا ~ زیاد پیدا می‌شود)
...hotels?  
hotel (هتل)
...restaurants?  
resturân (رستوران)
...bars?  
NOT FOUND IN IRAN
...sites to see?  
jâyè didani (جای دیدنی)
Can you show me on the map?  
mišavad ruyè naqše nešân bedahid? (می‌شود روی نقشه نشان بدهید)
street  
xiyâbân (خیابان)
Turn left.  
bepichid dastè chap (بپیچید دست چپ)
Turn right.  
bepichid dastè râst (بپیچید دست راست)
left  
chap (چپ)
right  
râst (راست)
straight ahead  
mostaqim (مستقیم)
towards the ~  
be tarafè (به طرف)
past the ~  
baød az (بعد از)
before the ~  
qabl az (قبل از)
Watch for the ~.  
donbâlè ~ begardid (دنبال ~ بگردید)
intersection  
chahârrâh (چهارراه)
north  
šomâl (شمال)
south  
jonub (جنوب)
east  
šarq (شرق)
west  
qarb (غرب)
uphill  
sarbâlâyi (سربالایی)
downhill  
sarpâyini (سرپایینی)

Taxi

Taxi! 
tâksi (تاکسی)
Take me to ~, please. 
lotfan marâ bebar ~ (لطفا مرا ببر ~)
How much does it cost to get to ~? 
tâ ~ cheqadr mišavad? (تا ~ چقدر می‌شود)
Take me there, please. 
lotfan marâ bebar ânjâ (لطفا مرا ببر آنجا)

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
otâqè xâli dârid? (اتاق خالی دارید)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
otâq barâye yek/do nafar chand ast? (اتاق برای یک/دو نفر چند است)
Does the room come with ~ 
otâq ~ dârad (اتاق ~ دارد)
~ bedsheets? 
malâfe (ملافه)
~ a bathroom? 
hammâm (حمام)
~ a telephone? 
telefon (تلفن)
~ a TV? 
televizyun (تلویزیون)
May I see the room first? 
mišavad avval otâq râ bebinam? (می‌شود اول اتاق را ببینم)
Do you have anything quieter? 
jâyè ârâmtarì dârid? (جای آرامتری دارید)
~ bigger? 
bozorgtar (بزرگتر)
~ cleaner? 
tamiztar (تمیزتر)
~ cheaper? 
arzântar (ارزانتر)
OK, I'll take it. 
bâše, hamin râ migiram. (باشه، همین را می‌گیرم)
I will stay for ~ night(s). 
~ šab mimânam (~ شب می‌مانم)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
mišavad hotelè digarì râ pišnahâd konid? (می‌شود هتل دیگری را پیشنهاد کنید)
Do you have a safe? 
sandoqè amânât dârid? (صندوق امانات دارید)
~ lockers? 
komodè qofldâr? (کمد قفلدار)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
hazine šâmelè sobhâne/šâm ham mišavad? (هزینه شامل صبحانه/شام هم می‌شود)
What time is breakfast/supper? sobhâne/šâm che sâatì ast? (صبحانه/شام چه ساعتی است)
Please clean my room. 
lotfan otâqam râ tamiz konid (لطفا اتاقم را تمیز کنید)
Can you wake me at ~? 
mišavad marâ sâatè ~ bidâr konid? (می‌شود مرا ساعت ~ بیدار کنید)
I want to check out. 
mixâham tasviye konam (می‌خواهم تسویه کنم)

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
Dolârè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Kânâdâ qabul mikonid? (دلار آمریکا/استرالیا/کانادا قبول می‌کنید)
Do you accept British pounds? 
Pondè Engelis qabul mikonid? (پوند انگلیس قبول می‌کنید)
Do you accept credit cards? 
kârtè eøtebâri qabul mikonid? (کارت اعتباری قبول می‌کنید)
Can you change money for me? 
mitavânid pulam râ cheynj konid? (می‌توانید پولم را چینج کنید)
Where can I get money changed? 
Kojâ mitavânam pulam râ cheynj konam? (کجا می‌توانم پولم را چینج کنم)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
mitavânid terâvel râ barâyam naqd konid? (می‌توانید تراول را برایم نقد کنید)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
Kojâ mitavân terâvel naqd kard? (کجا می‌توان تراول نقد کرد)
What is the exchange rate? 
nerxè arz cheqadr ast? (نرخ ارز چقدر است)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
âberbânk kojâ'st? (عابربانک کجاست)

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
Yek miz barâye yek/do nafar, lotfan. (یک میز برای یک/دو نفر)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
mitavânam menu râ bebinam? (می‌توانم منو را ببینم)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
mitavânam âšpazxâne râ bebinam? (می‌شود آشپزخانه را ببینم)
Is there a house specialty? 
qazâye xânegi dârid? (غذای خانگی دارید)
Is there a local specialty? 
qazâye mahalli dârid? (غذای محلی دارید)
I'm a vegetarian. 
giyâhxâr hastam (گیاهخوار هستم)
I don't eat pork. 
guštè xuk nemixoram (گوشت خوک نمی‌خورم)
I don't eat beef. 
guštè gâv nemixoram (گوشت گاو نمی‌خورم)
I only eat kosher food. 
faqat guštè halâl mixoram (فقط گوشت حلال می‌خورم)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard) 
mišavad kamcharbaš konid (می‌شود کم‌چربش کنید)
fixed-price meal 
qazâ bâ qeymatè sâbet (غذا با قیمت ثابت)
à la carte 
qazâ bâ qeymate jodâ jodâ (غذا با قیمت جدا جدا)
breakfast 
sobhâne (صبحانه)
lunch 
nâhâr (ناهار)
tea (meal) 
asrâne (عصرانه)
supper 
šâm (شام)
I want ~ . 
~ mixâham (می‌خواهم)
I want a dish containing ~ . 
qazâyi mixâham ke ~ dâšte bâšad (غذایی می‌خواهم که ~ داشته باشد)
chicken 
morq (مرغ)
beef 
guštè gâv (گوشت گاو)
fish 
mâhi (ماهی)
ham 
žâmbonè xuk (ژامبون خوک)
sausage 
sosis (سوسیس)
cheese 
panir (پنیر)
eggs 
toxmemorq (تخم‌مرغ)
salad 
sâlâd (سالاد)
(fresh) vegetables 
sabziyè tâze (سبزی تازه)
(fresh) fruit 
miveyè tâze (میوه‌ی تازه)
bread 
nân (نان)
toast 
nânè tost (نان تست)
noodles 
rešte (رشته)
rice 
berenj (برنج)
beans 
lubiyâ (لوبیا)
May I have a glass of ~ ? 
yek livân ~ mixâstam. (یک لیوان ~ می‌خواستم)
May I have a cup of ~ ? 
yek fenjân ~ mixâstam. (یک فنجان ~ می‌خواستم)
May I have a bottle of ~ ? 
yek botri ~ mixâstam. (یک بطری ~ می‌خواستم)
coffee 
qahve (قهوه)
tea (drink) 
chây (چای)
juice 
âbmive (آبمیوه)
(bubbly) water 
âb sodâ (آب سودا)
water 
âb (آب)
beer 
âbjo (آبجو) (NOTE: There is no alcohol beer in restaurants)
red/white wine 
šarâbè sorx/sefid (شراب سرخ/سفید) (NOTE: There is no alcohol wine in restaurants)
May I have some ~ ? 
kamì ~ mixâstam (کمی ~ می‌خواستم)
salt 
namak (نمک)
black pepper 
felfelè siyâh (فلفل سیاه)
butter 
kare (کره)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server) 
bebaxšid (ببخشید)
I'm finished. 
xordanè man tamâm šod (خوردن من تمام شد)
It was delicious. 
xošmazze bud (خوشمزه بود)
Please clear the plates. 
lotfan bošqâbhâ râ tamiz konid (لطفا بشقابها را تمیز کنید)
The check, please. 
surathesâb lotfan (صورت‌حساب لطفا)

Bars

Remember that the possession, sale and service in Iran is illegal.

Do you serve alcohol? 
Do you serve alcohol? (mashroob serv mikonin?)
Is there table service? 
Is there table service? (Sefaaresh migirin?)
A beer/two beers, please. 
A beer/two beers, please. (yek/do taa Aabjo lotfan!)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
A glass of red/white wine, please. (yek gilas sharaab-e ghermez/sefid lotfan)
A pint, please. 
A pint, please. (yek livan lotfan)
A bottle, please. 
A bottle, please. (yek shishe lotfan)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
_____ and _____, please. (...)
whiskey 
whiskey (veeski)
vodka 
vodka (vodkaa)
rum 
rum (rum)
water 
water (aab)
club soda 
club soda (shnaaps)
tonic water 
tonic water (aab-e gaazdaar)
orange juice 
orange juice (aab portaghaal)
Coke (soda
Coke (kokaa)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
Do you have any bar snacks? (mazze daarin?)
One more, please. 
One more, please. (yeki dige lotfan)
Another round, please. 
Another round, please. (yek dore dige lotfan)
When is closing time? 
When is closing time? (saa'at-e chand mibandin?)

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
Do you have this in my size? (ino andaazeye man daarin?)
How much is this? 
How much is this? (chande?)
That's too expensive. 
That's too expensive. (kheili geroone!)
Would you take _____? 
Would you take _____? (____ ghabool mikonin?)
expensive 
expensive (geroon)
cheap 
cheap (arzoon)
I can't afford it. 
I can't afford it. (vos'am nemirese!)
I don't want it. 
I don't want it. (nemikhaamsh)
You're cheating me. 
You're cheating me. (daarin saram kolaah mizarin)
I'm not interested. 
I'm not interested. (delam nemikhad)
OK, I'll take it. 
OK, I'll take it. (baashe, mikharamesh)
Can I have a bag? 
Can I have a bag? (yek kise/saak khedmatetoon hast?)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
Do you ship (overseas)? (be khaarej post mikonin?)
I need... 
I need... (... mikhaam)
...toothpaste. 
...toothpaste. (khamir dandoon)
...a toothbrush. 
...a toothbrush. (mesvaak)
...tampons. 
...tampons. (tampon)
...soap. 
...soap. (saaboon)
...shampoo. 
...shampoo. (shaampoo)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
...pain reliever. (mosakken (aaspirin))
...cold medicine. 
...cold medicine. (darooye sarmaakhordegi)
...stomach medicine. 
...stomach medicine. (daarooye del-dard)
...a razor. 
...a razor. (teegh-e rish taraashi)
...an umbrella. 
...an umbrella. (chatr)
...sunblock lotion. 
...sunblock lotion. (kerem-e zedde aaftaab)
...a postcard. 
...a postcard. (kaart postal)
...postage stamps. 
...postage stamps. (tamr-e post)
...batteries. 
...batteries. (baatri)
...writing paper. 
...writing paper. (kaaghaz yaad daasht)
...a pen. 
...a pen. (ghalam (ballpoint: khod-kaar))
...English-language books. 
...English-language books. (ketaab be engilisi)
...English-language magazines. 
...English-language magazines. (majaleye engilisi)
...an English-language newspaper. 
...an English-language newspaper. (rooznaameye engilisi)
...an English-English dictionary. 
...an English-English dictionary. (loghatnaameye engilisi be engilisi)

Driving

Notice: in Iran there are no car rental agencies. Most of the time, you would need to rent a car with a driver from an "aajaans" (taxi agency) who will drive you around. The agencies often have set daily/weekly rental prices which you should make sure to ask for!

I want to rent a car. 
I want to rent a car. (mikhaam maashin ejaare konam)
Can I get insurance? 
Can I get insurance? (beemeh ham mikhaam)
stop (on a street sign
stop (IST ايست!)
one way 
one way (يک طرفه)
yield 
yield (...)
no parking 
no parking (paark mamnoo'پارک ممنوع)
speed limit 
speed limit (sor'ate mojaaz...سرعت مجاز)
gas (petrol) station 
gas station (pomp-e benzin...پمپ بنزين)
petrol 
petrol (benzin...بنزين)
diesel 
diesel (deezel...ديزل)

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
I haven't done anything wrong. (maan kaar-e khalaafi nakardam)
It was a misunderstanding. 
It was a misunderstanding. (eshtebaah shode)
Where are you taking me? 
Where are you taking me? (mano kojaa mibarin?)
Am I under arrest? 
Am I under arrest? (aaya dar togheef-am?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. (man emrikayi/ostoraaliyaayi/engilisi/kaanaadaayi hastam)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. (mikhaam baa sefaarat/konsoolgariye Emrika/Ostoraaliya/Engelestan/Kanaadaa tamaas begiram)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
I want to talk to a lawyer. (ehtiyaaj be yek vakil daaram)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Can I just pay a fine now? (mitoonam jarime-am ro bepardaazam?)

Love

By falling in love with a Persian you can express your feelings in many ways.

I love you. (Duset daram/Asheghetam)
I want to be with you (Mikham ba to basham)
Kiss me (Boosam kon)
You are my sweatheart (To delbare mani)
Why did you leave me alone? (Chera tanham gozoshti)
Darling (Azizam)

Variants

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