The ancient name of Patna was 'Patliputra' and it was the capital of the Maurya and Gupta empires. Located at the site where Patna is today, the ancient city of Patliputra, with a glorious period of history spanning a thousand years (500BC-400AD), saw the rise and fall of India's first major kingdoms.
Ajastshatru, second in line of the Magadh Kings, built a fort at Pataligram on the banks of the Ganges river. This later became the famous Mauryan metropolis of Pataliputra and was ruled by Chandragupta Maurya and his grandson Asoka, acclaimed for the spread of Buddhism across India. Other emperors who ruled from Pataliputra were the Gupta and Pala Kings, Shershah Suri (16th Century) and Azimush-Shan (18th Century), the grandson of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, who renamed it Azeemabad. Vestiges of this ancient city can be seen at Kumhrar, Bhikhnapahari, Agamkuan, Bulandi Bag etc.
Today Patna is an important business and education centre of eastern India. More significantly, it is a gateway to the Buddhist and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodhgaya, Keshariya and Pawapuri. The growing city of Patna is a great place to visit and a great place to live in.
Lying along the banks of the Ganges River, Patna is surrounded by important religious centers for the Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains. This city has been home to two great religions, Buddhism and Jainism, and myriad dynasties from ancient to modern times.
Patna Airport or Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport (IATA: PATICAO: VEPT)  is a domestic airport. Directly connected to Delhi, Lucknow, Kolkata, Mumbai and Ranchi, there are daily flights to and from Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, Jet Light & Kingfisher Airlines operate here.
Patna is on the New Delhi - Howrah (Kolkata) railway main line (Patna Junction Code:PNBE) . Long-distance trains arrive from many other major cities including Lucknow, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Vadodara, Surat, Nagpur, Pune, Raipur, Jaipur, Bhubaneswar, Puri, Allahabad, Varanasi, Ranchi, Chennai, Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, Goa, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Kochi, Some of the important trains are:
From New Delhi
Patna Rajdhani Exp (2309/2310) via Kanpur, Allahabad
Samproon Kranti Exp(2393/2394) via Kanpur, Allahabad
Sharmajeevi Exp(2391/2392) via Lucknow, Varanasi
Vikramshila Exp(2367/2368) via Kanpur, Allahabad
Garib Rath Exp(2353/2354) via Kanpur, Allahabad
Kolkata Rajdhani(2305/2306) via Kanpur, Allahabad. Ends at Kolkata.
Patna is connected by road with all major cities (National Highway 30,31 & 19). Here is the list of destinations by distance from Patna: BodhGaya (130km) , Rajgir (103km), Vaishali (40 km), Kolkata (535km), Varanasi (300km), Delhi (988km), Ranchi (350km), Jamshedpur (470km) , Kathmandu (373km), Siliguri (380km), Darjeeling (430km), Nalanda (90km).
BSTDC (Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation)  offers deluxe bus/car rental services for the following destinations: Bodhgaya, Ranchi, Rajgir , Pawapuri, Nalanda & Vaishali,
On the other hand, the Inter-State Bus Terminus at Bankipore (Near Gandhi Maidan) and Mithapur, Luxury buses are available to the Nepal border (Raxaul/Birganj), Gaya, Siliguri, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Purnia etc.
By Car (Local)
There are a few car rental companies available in Patna.
Enterprises Car Rental
Savaari Car Rental has a reputation for providing quality luxury car rentals in Patna.
Patna Museum has more than 50,000 rare art objects, with many related to India in the ancient, middle ages and the British colonial era. Don't forget to see the Holy Relic Casket with the sacred ashes of Lord Buddha, and the beautiful statue Yakshani.
Har Mandir Saheb - The Birth place of 10th Guru of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh jee .
Golghar - Captain John Garstin built a Golghar for the storage of food for the British army with storing capacity of 140000 tons on 20th July 1786.
Kumhrar - Explore the ancient ruins of Pataliputra. Of the 80 pillars (Fa Hien, in 5th century AD, found the pillars shining as bright as glass) excavated at the site, only one remains unfortunately.
Patna Zoo Sanjay Gandhi Botanical and Zoological Garden, Patna.
Mahavir Mandir, near Patna Junction
Gandhi Maidan is the heart of this city today
Gandhi Museum near Gandhi Maidan
Padri Ki Haveli ("Mansion of Padre"), also known as St Mary's Church, it is the oldest church in Bihar. When Roman Catholics were arrived in Bihar, They built a small church in 1713 at a place now known as "Padri-ki-Haveli'.
Pathar ki Masjid is built by Pervez, the elder brother of Shah Jahan and the first Mughal prince who made Bihar his residence
Khuda Baksh Oriental Library Ashok Rajpath.
Mahatma Gandhi Setu, the bridge over the river Ganges connecting Patna and Hajipur.
Play golf at the Patna golf club With some very tough holes, this well-maintained course situated downton will prove interesting to amateur and pros alike. The Patna Golf Club is set in beautiful surroundings.
Take a boat-ride in the Ganges., near Gandhi ghat
Visit Kali Temple at Patna University Campus on the Bank of the Ganges
Visit Vaishali-Ashokan Pillar(48km north of Patna)
Maner-Sufi Saint Shrine(15km west of Patna) - you can buy famous Maner Ladoo (Sweets) from there. However, avoid going there in the late evening or night.
You can go on excursions to the various religious and historical places in and around Patna. Do not miss a boat ride on the mighty Ganges river. When in Patna, try food typical to the region such as pua-pittha, tilkut, chiwra, makhana, the famed sattu or the farmer's staple, litti chokha, and the famous paan.
Madhubani Paintings can be bought from emporiums at Mayura Lok, a shopping center located on "Dak- Bunglow" road.
You can visit many malls around Frazer road/Dak Bunglow Crossing such as Vishal Mega Mart, Maurya Lok Complex and Patna Market on Ashok Rajpath, Hathwa Market, Bari Path & Alankar Palace and other shopping arcades near Boring Road Crossing
Litti chokha is a local specialty. Litti is a primarily ball-shaped stuffed preparation, and the shape of the ball varies depending on the preparation. With a shell made of wheat flour, the taste of litti very much depends on the filling, which includes gram flour and a combination of condiments and spices. Chokha a preparation of smoked eggplant/brinjal or tomato, accompanies litti. The smoked tomato or eggplant is mashed and dressed with coriander leaves, shredded green chilies and mustard oil, which gives a distinct flavor to the chokha.
Chaat - Though chaat is a very popular snack item throughout India, the special thing about 'Patna Chaat' is its authentic tamarind flavor, as opposed to the sweet and salty Delhi Chaat. Take the opportunity to relish "samosa chaat" or "tikki chaat".
Sweets, especially Peda and Kalakand, which are preparations of condensed milk from Sudha Dairy Parlours. The sweets must be consumed within 7 days.
Anarsa is one of the finest sweet delicacies of Bihar. It has rice flour shell with khoya filling, with white til in the upper shell.
Dahi Chura Chini, which is a mixture of curd, beaten rice and sugar, is the favourite food in North Bihar, especially in the Mithila region!
Makhana is soft fruit grown in water. It is light fried and with little salt it serves the purpose of light snacks.