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Papua New Guinea

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Oceania : Papua New Guinea
Revision as of 03:53, 8 August 2003 by CIAWorldFactbook2002 (Talk | contribs)

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Pp-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalPort Moresby
Governmentconstitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy
Currencykina (PGK)
Areatotal: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km
Population5,172,033 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageEnglish spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages
ReligionRoman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997, after claiming some 20,000 lives.


Geography

Pp-map.png
Map of Papua New Guinea
Location 
Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates 
6 00 S, 147 00 E
Map references 
Oceania
Area 
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries 
total: 820 km
border countries: Indonesia 820 km
Coastline 
5,152 km
Maritime claims 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
Climate 
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain 
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Natural resources 
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Land use 
arable land: 0.13%
permanent crops: 1.35%
other: 98.52% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
NA sq km
Natural hazards 
active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
Environment - current issues 
rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note 
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast

People

Population 
5,172,033 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 38.6% (male 1,013,936; female 980,841)
15-64 years: 57.7% (male 1,544,650; female 1,440,628)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 90,661; female 101,317) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
2.39% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
31.61 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
7.75 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
56.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 63.83 years
female: 66.03 years (2002 est.)
male: 61.73 years
Total fertility rate 
4.21 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.22% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
5,400 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
450 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean
Ethnic groups 
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Religions 
Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%
Languages 
English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.5%
male: 72%
female: 57% (2000)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG
former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea
Government type 
constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy
Capital 
Port Moresby
Administrative divisions 
20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Independence 
16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Constitution 
16 September 1975
Legal system 
based on English common law
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Silas ATOPARE (since 13 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Sir Michael SOMARE (since NA August 2002); Deputy Prime Minister Allan MARAT (since NA August 2002)
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Parliament - sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats, 89 elected from open electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14-28 June 1997 (next to be held 15 June 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - PPP 15%, Pangu Pati 14%, NA 14%, PDM 8%, PNC 6%, PAP 5%, UP 3%, NP 1%, PUP 1%, independents 33%; seats by party - PPP 16, Pangu Pati 15, NA 15, PDM 9, PNC 7, PAP 5, UP 3, NP 1, PUP 1, independents 37; note - association with political parties is very fluid
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
Political parties and leaders 
Melanesian Alliance Party or MAP [leader NA]; National Alliance or NA [George MANDA, party president]; National Front Party [leader NA]; National Party or NP [Michael MEL]; Papua New Guinea Revival Party [John PUNDARI]; Papua New Guinea United Party or Pangu Pati [Chris HAIVETA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Ted DIRO]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's Labor Party or PLP [Peter YAMA]; People's National Congress or PNC [Bill SKATE]; People's Progress Party or PPP [Michael NALI]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Alfred KAIABE]; United Party or UP [Rimbiuk PATO]
note: more than 40 political parties have registered to participate in the June 2002 elections
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
ACP, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (associate member), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Nagora Y. BOGAN
chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Susan S. JACOBS
embassy: Douglas Street (adjacent to the Bank of Papua New Guinea), Port Moresby
mailing address: P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby, HCD121
telephone: [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-1593
Flag description 
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered

Economy

Economy - overview 
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain and the high cost of developing infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of export earnings. The economy has declined over the past two years and will probably continue to falter in 2002. Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA has tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilize the kina, restore stability to the national budget, privatize public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville. The government has had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the support of the IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Significant challenges remain for MORAUTA, however, including gaining further investor confidence, specifically for the proposed Papua New Guinea-Australia oil pipeline, continuing efforts to privatize government assets, and maintaining the support of members of Parliament.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
-2.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 30%
industry: 37%
services: 33% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line 
37%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 41% (1996) (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
51 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
10.3% (2001 est.)
Labor force 
2.3 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture 85%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate 
NA%
Budget 
revenues: $894 million
expenditures: $1.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $344 million (2000 est.)
Industries 
copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism
Industrial production growth rate 
NA%
Electricity - production 
1.65 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 55%
hydro: 45%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
1.535 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables; poultry, pork
Exports 
$1.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities 
oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partners 
Australia 30%, Japan 11%, China 6%, Germany 4%, South Korea 4%, UK 3%, Philippines 1%, US 1% (2000)
Imports 
$1.024 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners 
Australia 50%, Singapore 20%, Japan 4%, NZ 4%, Indonesia 3%, Malaysia 3%, US 2% (2000)
Debt - external 
$2.6 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
$400 million (1999 est.)
Currency 
kina (PGK)
Currency code 
PGK
Exchange rates 
kina per US dollar - 3.706 (January 2002), 3.374 (2001), 2.765 (2000), 2.539 (1999), 2.058 (1998), 1.434 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
61,152 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
3,053 (1996)
Telephone system 
general assessment: services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services
domestic: mostly radiotelephone
international: submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)
Radios 
410,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
3 (all in the Port Moresby area)
note: additional stations at Mt. Hagen, Goroka, Lae, and Rabaul are planned (2002)
Televisions 
59,841 (1999)
Internet country code 
.pg
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
3 (2000)
Internet users 
135,000 (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
0 km
Highways 
total: 19,600 km
paved: 686 km
unpaved: 18,914 km (1996)
Waterways 
10,940 km
Ports and harbors 
Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Merchant marine 
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,911 GRT/58,723 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Singapore 2, United Kingdom 7 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 3
Airports 
490 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 470
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 56
under 914 m: 403 (2002)
Heliports 
2 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Ground Force, Maritime Operations Element, and Air Operations Element)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 1,338,003 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 740,085 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$42 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
1% (FY98)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
none

Variants

Actions

Destination Docents

In other languages