The Outback is the informal name for the large dry regions covering most of the centre of Australia, including inland areas of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
New South Wales
The Outback is a place of Australian folklore, both prior to and after European settlement.
The easiest way is to drive or join a tour. Most larger regional towns have airports, but lack car hire facilities, and the airports are often several kilometres out of town, so unless you intend to stay in one place the whole time, hiring a car in a major city and driving yourself out there is your best bet.
Another avenue to get to an outback destination is to fly in with an air charter company like Kirkhope Aviation. There are many air charter companies that provide small group tours, usually 8 - 10 people. Small group air tours and charters flying to destinations throughout outback australia usually start from a major city Airport. Air Charter groups provide tour guides and most always include accomodation, tours, camping, food and entertainment.
For the average person, in more remote parts of the Outback, the only way to get around is by car (make sure you read up on staying safe. If you can afford bit more, consider chartering a helicopter. If you want to try your luck hitch-hiking, depending on remoteness, make sure you ask around at the local pub rather than standing by the roadside. Some roads receive less than a car a week, and given the semi-arid to desert climate, you could dehydrate and die in a matter of hours.
Most towns have small grocery stores with basics essentials. Almost every town has at least one pub. In some places you can also try "bush tucker". Bush tucker doesn't always refer to traditional Aboriginal food. A certain bush tucker restaurant in Alice Springs serves camel and cat (both of which are feral pests in the area) alongside traditional bush foods such as kangaroo, emu and a large variety of bush fruits.
Lots and lots and lots of water. Most towns have pubs, but alcohol is banned in many Aboriginal communities, especially in the Northern Territory. When travelling, carry lots of water with you.
Pubs often offer cheap accommodation.
There are towns in Outback Australia that are easily accessible on well trafficked sealed roads, with effective breakdown services. Towns like Broken Hill, Alice Springs and Charleville require only normal precautions, and you can easily drive or fly there. Even the Nullabor Plain is a drive that anyone can undertake once they are aware of the distances involved.
However, it is always important to plan your trip carefully. Many areas have very few inhabitants and very little water. You should observe standard safety precautions for desolate regions:
Keep in mind also that the Outback is very large, much larger than desert regions in most other western countries. You could easily end up twenty hours' drive away from emergency help, or isolated entirely in the case of rain.
In the event of an accident or mechanical problems, do not leave your vehicle, as it is easier to locate from the air than a person or people on foot. If you leave your vehicle you are likely to be the subject of a sad news story about the rescue services finding your car and not you. In any case, your vehicle is where you're storing your immense amounts of water.
You should also think about carrying a satellite phone or other means of contacting emergency services.
You should talk to the police in each town about your journey and the condition of the roads and your vehicle. Be careful - even locals die out there.