North Africa is the Northern part of the African continent.
Countries of North Africa
Algeria The second-largest country in Africa.
Egypt Home of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with its temples, hieroglyphs, mummies.
(Tripoli) Libya Large open spaces with more than 90% of the country being desert or semidesert.
(Rabat) Morocco Situated on both the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.
(Tunis) Tunisia Located in the very centre of Mediterranean Africa
Western Sahara Governance is in dispute between Morocco and Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), but the majority of the region is occupied by Morocco.
Other territories Atlantic Ocean Islands: Canary Islands (Spain), Madeira Islands (Portugal), Saint Helena (UK)
Spanish Exclaves: Ceuta, Melilla
Alexandria — Egypt's major Mediterranean city is a pale shadow of its former glorious self but remains a major tourism site
Algiers — the capital of Algeria with a notable medieval casbah
Cairo — the largest city in Africa with major monuments of Ancient Egypt nearby
Casablanca — the largest city in Morocco is of sparse interest to the traveller, but is a major transit point
El Aaiún — the capital city of the disputed territory of Western Sahara
Marrakech — this historic Moroccan city close to the foothills of the Atlas Mountains is an extraordinary meeting of the ancient and modern
Tripoli — Libya's capital was long off-limits to most travellers but is experiencing a real resurgence of interest
Tunis — the capital of Tunisia is a relatively small and sleepy city but is the gateway to the remains of Carthage and other very notable historical sites.
Abu Simbel — a very remote area in far south Egypt, with some beautiful ancient temples
Carthage — Phoenician colony in Tunisia and the biggest trade metropolis of the antique world; famously razed by the Romans and the remnants are now encased in a museum
El-Oued — in Algeria with its domed architecture & nearby Grand Erg Oriental — the Sahara's second largest dune field
Ghat - an ancient settlement in southwest Libya with prehistoric rock paintings and very challenging desert trekking
High Atlas — hiking, skiing and Berber culture amongst these peaks and valleys in Morocco.
Leptis Magna — extensive Roman ruins in Libya
Matmata — desert village in Tunisia of cave abodes, where Star Wars's Tatooine was filmed
Merzouga and M'Hamid — from either of these two settlements in Morocco at the edge of the Sahara, ride a camel or 4x4 into the desert for a night (or a week) among the dunes and under the stars
Valley of the Kings — the great site of Ancient Egypt
Talk Arabic is without a doubt the dominant language, and is the official language in every North African country. However the dialect of Arabic spoken in Algeria, Tunisia and Morroco is nearly incomprehensible to Arabic speakers from the Gulf. However, all educated people would have been taught standard Arabic in school, and while not the first language of choice, would be competent enough to communicate.
French is also widely spoken due to much of the area's history as a French colony, with the exception of Libya and Egypt. In Libya and Egypt, Italian and English are the dominant second languages respectively, reflecting their colonial past. However, they are not as widely spoken as French is in the rest of the region.
There are some ferries from
Italy, notably Sicily and also the Canary Islands.
Ferries in the Mediterranean.
Avoid drinking untreated ground water.