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New Mexico Pueblos

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One of the primary attractions of New Mexico is its large and diverse collection of American Indian (or, if you prefer, Native American -- both terms are used in the state) pueblos, reservations, artwork, and of course, people. The 19 pueblos are spread across north central, central, and northwest New Mexico. Each pueblo is unique, with their own distinct artistic styles, attractions, and customs.

Understand

Etiquette

Many, but by no means all, of the pueblo communities welcome visitors, usually with some restrictions. Following are some tips if you're planning to see the sights of these communities:

  • Please respect local regulations regarding photography and sketching! Most north-central and central pueblos require would-be photographers and artists to pay for permits issued by the pueblo administration, and some don't allow photography or sketching at all. Do not photograph tribal members without first asking permission. Those who break the rules risk having their cameras and film confiscated. You will also want to refrain from bringing a cell phone onto a pueblo, as tribal officials could confiscate cell phones if they feel they might be used for photography. If the restrictions seem draconian, remember that these are not museum exhibits or theme parks, they're towns and settlements where people live their daily lives.
  • Like any other village, these pueblos are a home to someone, so respect their property and their privacy. Do not litter. Do not enter homes unless invited to do so. Stay far away from kivas, ceremonial rooms, and cemeteries.
  • Most of the pueblos and reservations hold ceremonial dances, feasts and sings that welcome visitors, as well as some others of a more private, religious nature at which visitors are unwelcome if not forbidden. Bear in mind that the pueblo people are very protective of their religious beliefs, so don't press questions about pueblo religion. You are also required to be silent during dances and ceremonies, which means no applauding and no talking to the participants. If this seems odd, think of the dances not as a performance, but as a religious ceremony - the equivalent of a church mass.
  • Alcohol and drugs are not allowed on pueblo land.
  • For many residents of some pueblos and reservations, not only is English not the primary daily language, it may not be spoken fluently or at all. Most residents in the "service" sector (i.e., those you'll interact with first) are as fluent in English as their Anglo colleagues in neighboring communities, and there is no reason to speak to them in a patronizing or condescending manner. However, if you venture far from the main tourist centers, you may run into language issues, although you're still odds-on to deal with English speakers. Patience and gestures will overcome many obstacles, but be aware that in certain areas it is considered rude to point with extended fingers. A nod or tip of the head for indicating direction is considered more polite (true among fluent English speakers as well).

See

  • Indian Pueblo Cultural Center, 2401 12th Street NW (just north of I-40 in Albuquerque), +1 505 843-7270, [1]. Every day 9AM-4:30PM, closed on major holidays. Operated by the 19 Indian Pueblos of New Mexico, this museum has a large collection of artifacts of the culture and history of the pueblo people. The center also has art galleries, a children's area, photo archives, restaurant and gift shop. Indian Dances are a frquent event. $6 adults, $4 children, under age 5 free.

There are also several museums across the state that, while not operated by the pueblos, offer a lot of great pueblo-related artworks and information. Here are some of the best ones:

  • Museum of Indian Arts & Culture, 710 Camino Lejo (on "Museum Hill" in Santa Fe), +1 505 476-1250, [2]. Tu-Su 10AM-5PM. While it doesn't focus specifically on the pueblos, there is a lot of art and artifacts from pueblo cultures at this large museum, which gives an excellent insight into pueblo culture and history. $8 (several discounts and free admission on occasion; discount pass for Museum of New Mexico applies).
  • Institute of American Indian Arts Museum, 108 Cathedral Place (downtown across the street from St. Francis Cathedral in Santa Fe), +1 505 983-8900 or +1 888 922-4242 (toll free), [3]. M-Sa 10AM-5PM, Su 12PM-5PM. Again not specifically focused on the pueblos, but you will find a lot of pueblo stuff here. The Institute for American Indian Arts (IAIA, [4]) is a long-standing Santa Fe institution that also sponsors the annual Santa Fe Indian Market. Adults $5, students and seniors (62+) $2.50; discounts for New Mexico residents and tribal members.
  • Millicent Rogers Museum, on Millicent Rogers Road off of Paseo del Pueblo (north of Taos), +1 575 758-2462. Daily, 10AM-5PM (closed on Mondays November-March). Famed artist Millicent Rogers collected an incredible number of southwest artworks, and her collection is the basis of this wonderful museum. You will see some magnificent pueblo artwork here, including gorgeous pottery, jewelery, and carvings. $10.

Eight Northern Pueblos

Spread across North Central New Mexico, from north to south:

Taos Pueblo

Just north of Taos on Paseo del Pueblo Norte, +1 575 758-1028, [5]. M-Sa 8AM-4PM, Su 8:30AM-4PM. The pueblo closes late winter to early spring for about ten weeks for tribal rituals. $10 per adult, $5 per student, children under 13 free. Photography/filming allowed; $5 fee. Professional/commercial photographers and artists must apply for a permit beforehand.

Located just outside the town of Taos and the only pueblo which is also on the UNESCO World Heritage List, Taos is one of the most popular pueblos for tourists due to its strikingly well-preserved multi-story village which looks much the same as it has for hundreds of years. The San Geronimo Feast Day is held on September 30.

Picuris Pueblo

On state road 75 just west of the junction with state road 76 near Peñasco, +1 575 587-2519.

The smallest of the pueblos population-wise, Picuris is in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains between Taos and Española, near the small community of Peñasco. Picuris potters create an interesting pottery that, unlike other pueblo art, doesn't have much ornamentation. It is made using micaceous clay gathered locally, giving the pottery a faint glitter due to the mica flakes. The St. Lawrence Feast Day is held on August 10.

Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo

Off of state road 68 a few miles north of Española, +1 505 852-4400. Fee required for taking photos or videos and for sketching.

Ohkay Owingeh (formerly known as San Juan Pueblo, which is still a name you will see even on some recent maps) is the headquarters of the Eight Northern Pueblos. Ohkay Owingeh is also the home of the Oke Owinge Arts & Crafts Cooperative, an art center where you can see artists at work. The St. John the Baptist Feast Day is held on June 23-24.

Santa Clara Pueblo

On state road 30 just south of Española, +1 505 753-7330.

Just south of Española along the Rio Grande, Santa Clara operates the Puye Cliff Dwellings, the ruins of an ancient pueblo that was built into and atop the high cliffs above the Rio Grande Valley. Be sure to call ahead though, as Puye is often closed due to fire danger or deterioration of the ruins. Santa Clara artisans are well known for their unique black and red pottery with deep engravings. The St. Clare Feast Day is held on August 12.

San Ildefonso Pueblo

On state road 502 west of Pojoaque, +1 505 455-2273. Photography by $10 permit only. Sketching prohibited at pueblo.

Situated on the Rio Grande near "Black Mesa" (a large volcanic outcropping just north of the village), San Ildefonso is most famous for being the home of Maria Martinez, known for her black-on-black pottery style which has become popular for many pueblo potters. The San Ildefonso Feast Day is held on January 23.

Pojoaque Pueblo

On US-84/285 between Santa Fe and Española, +1 505 455-2278.

At Pojoaque you won't find many historic structures due to the pueblo's often troubled history, having been abandoned and reestablished a few times since the arrival of Europeans. Pojoaque is more of a stop-over between Santa Fe and Española these days, with a casino, resort, and truck stop. However, Pojoaque is the home of the Poeh Museum [6], which is dedicated to pueblo art and culture in the area. The Our Lady of Guadalupe Feast Day is held on December 10.

Nambé Pueblo

On state road 503 just east of Pojoaque, +1 505 455-2278. Fee required for taking photos or videos and for sketching.

Nambe is a small village with some artistic heritage, and is known for a distinctive style of pottery called "Nambé Polychrome". Nearby is the Nambe Falls [7], a park operated by the pueblo which contains a beautiful waterfall. The San Francisco de Assisi Feast Day is held on October 4.

Tesuque Pueblo

On US-84/285 about 10 miles north of Santa Fe, +1 505 983-2667. The pueblo is closed to the public on certain days of the year, so call ahead before visiting. Photography is prohibited.

Tesuque is a small pueblo most well known for being the home of Camel Rock, an unusual rock formation along the road between Santa Fe and Española which, from certain angles, does indeed look like a camel. The San Diego Feast Day is held on November 12.

Central New Mexico Pueblos

Roughly from north to south:

Cochiti Pueblo

On state road 22, 14 miles off of I-25 south of Santa Fe, +1 505 465-2244, [8]. Any means of audio or visual reproduction (sketching, recording, photography, etc.) is prohibited. Usage of cell phones within the pueblo is prohibited.

South of Santa Fe, Cochiti is the home of Cochiti Lake, a reservoir along the Rio Grande built for flood control and used for recreation. Cochiti also operates the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument [9] jointly with BLM. This under appreciated monument offers some lovely geologic formations and an excellent hiking trail (hiking boots recommended) that takes the visitor on a 1.5-mile hike to an overlook that includes a short but spectacular section of slot canyon. Fee $5/vehicle.

Cochiti artists are known for jewelery, pottery, and drums. Many Cochiti artists are also well-known for their storyteller figures, small clay figures which portray children listening to an elder tell stories. The St. Bonaventure Feast Day is held on July 14.

Santo Domingo Pueblo

Just south of Cochiti, on state road 22, +1 505 465-2214.

One of the largest pueblos, Santo Domingo has been able to maintain a very historic settlement that looks much like it did after the Spanish settled in the valley. Santo Domingo artists are well-known for their fine jewelery and turquoise work. The Domingo St. Dominic Feast Day is held on August 4.

San Felipe Pueblo

Off of I-25 between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, +1 505 867-3381. Photography and sketching prohibited at pueblo.

San Felipe is a small historic village which has largely been able to resist outside influence. Beadwork is popular among artists here. The St. Phillip Feast Day is held on May 1.

Santa Ana Pueblo

Just north of the village of Bernalillo, +1 505 867-3301 [10]. Photography and sketching prohibited at pueblo.

On the outskirts of the Albuquerque metro area, Santa Ana Pueblo (also known as Tamaya) has been heavily affected by the encroaching cities of Central New Mexico but still manage t continue many of their traditions. Santa Ana artisans are skilled in pottery, belts, and headbands. The St. Anne Feast Day is held on July 26.

Zia Pueblo

Northeast of Bernalillo off of US-550, +1 505 867-3304, [11]. Any means of audio or visual reproduction (sketching, recording, photography, etc.) is prohibited. Usage of cell phones within the pueblo is prohibited.

Zia is nearly invisible to the traveler on the road, and doesn't offer much for the tourist. But one element of the Zia Pueblo can be seen across New Mexico: the Zia Sun Symbol, which is on the New Mexico state flag. Zia artists are skilled in pottery. The Our Lady of Assumption Feast Day is held on August 15.

Jemez Pueblo

Far northeast of Bernalillo near the village of Jemez Springs, on state road 4 off of US-550, +1 505 834-7235, [12]. Any means of audio or visual reproduction (sketching, recording, photography, etc.) is prohibited.

On the western side of the Jemez Mountains, this pueblo is closed to outsiders except for feast days. However, the Walatowa Visitor Center on state road 4 offers exhibits and information about pueblo culture as well as traditional art for sale. The San Diego Feast Day is held on November 12.

Sandia Pueblo

Just north of Albuquerque off of I-25, +1 505 867-3317, [13].

Sandia is a small settlement on the Rio Grande on the outskirts of Albuquerque. The pueblo operates a nearby casino and the Bien Mur Indian Market Center, +1 505 821-5400 [14], which offers a wide variety of pueblo art for sale. The St. Anthony Feast Day is held on June 13.

Isleta Pueblo

About 10 miles south of Albuquerque on state road 314 to state road 147, +1 505 869-3111, [15].

The village of Isleta is centered around the St. Augustine Church, a historic adobe white-plastered church. Isleta artisans are well known for their pottery, embroidery, and jewelry. Excellent bread baking is also something Isleta is known for. The St. Augustine Feast Day is held on September 4.

Northwest New Mexico Pueblos

From east to west:

Laguna Pueblo

East of Grants, Laguna is a small pueblo that is a little off the beaten path. The St. Joseph Feast Day is held on September 19.

Acoma Pueblo

East of Grants, Acoma is a striking and very historic village, located atop a tall mesa. Much like Taos, Acoma village has changed little over hundreds of years and could be the oldest continuously inhabited community in the United States (a title which is also claimed by Hopi Pueblo in Arizona). The St. Stephen Feast Day is held on September 2.

Zuni Pueblo

Located south of Gallup, Zuni is a large and historic pueblo.

Do

Feast Days and Dances

All of the pueblos (excluding Zuni) hold feast days, an annual celebration in which the pueblo's patron saint is honored. Many pueblos have succeeded in reconciling their historic religious practices with the dominant Christian (particularly Catholic) practice, and celebrations are open to the general public, with many festivities and food. Dates for feast days are covered above under the individual pueblos.

There are also numerous dances at each of the pueblos throughout the year. Most pueblos will have dances for January 6th (All King's Day), Easter Sunday, and Christmas (some on Christmas Eve, others on Christmas Day). For a complete list of dances, see [16].

Casinos

The draw of legalized gambling brings people (along with their money), so many of the pueblos have built casinos of their own, ranging from regular establishments with slot machines, gaming tables, and an on-site restaurant, to lavish resorts with golf courses and hotels.

In Northern New Mexico there are five casinos. Taos Pueblo operates the Taos Mountain Casino [17] just outside the pueblo entrance. Just north of Española is the Ohkay Casino [18] near the Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo while Santa Clara Pueblo operates the Big Rock Pueblo [19] right in the middle of Española. Between Española and Santa Fe is the Cities of Gold Casino [20] operated by Pojoaque Pueblo. Just down the road, closer to Santa Fe, is Tesuque Pueblo's Camel Rock Casino [21].

In the Albuquerque area are several casinos to take advantage of the large population of the region. Between Santa Fe and Albuquerque is Casino Hollywood [22], operated by San Felipe Pueblo. The Santa Ana Pueblo runs the Santa Ana Star Casino [23] just outside of Bernalillo. On the northern outskirts of Albuquerque is the Sandia Casino [24], while the Isleta Casino [25] draws people to the south of Albuquerque. East of Albuquerque along I-40 is Laguna Pueblo's Route 66 Casino [26] and Acoma Pueblo's Sky City Casino [27].

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