Naryan-Mar — the capital and main sea port/airport/river port for the region
Amderma — a tiny settlement on the coast of the Kara Sea (in the even more far-flung northeast of the region) home to a military airport with a few civilian flights; its name means "Walrus Rookery" in Nenets
Severnaya Zemlya — The last major land mass on earth to be discovered, the archipelago is very rarely visited and a good place to spot polar bears. There is at least one cruise line that will take you to these vast islands on a Russian icebreaker.
Nenetsia is named for its native Nenets people, who lived off the land in the tundra and forests of the region until most were forced into Soviet collectivization programs, resulting in a significant loss of native traditions. Today, the region is vast, very sparsely populated, an important center of Russian gas and oil exploration and extraction, and, yes, cold. Nearly the entire region lies to the north of the Arctic Circle. The principal riverway of the region is the northwards flowing Pechorin River, which leads into the region from the Komi Republic and leads to the capital, Naryan-Mar, before terminating in the Barents Sea.
Some knowledge of Russian is pretty much requisite here, unless you have a guide. The Nenets Language shares official status with Russian within Nenetsia, and may be useful only if staying in a small, remote Nenets village. And if you do find yourself in such a village, chances are good you do speak Nenets!