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Difference between revisions of "Monaco"

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The principality of '''Monaco''' lies on the southern Mediterranean Sea coast of [[France]], near the border with [[Italy]], in [[Western Europe|Western]] [[Europe]]. It is the second smallest independent state in the world (after the [[Vatican City|Vatican]]) and is almost entirely urban.  With no natural resources to exploit, other than its location and climate, the principality has become a resort for tourists and a tax haven for businesses.
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The principality of '''Monaco''' lies on the southern Mediterranean Sea coast of [[France]], near the border with [[Italy]], in [[Southern Europe]]. It is the second smallest independent state in the world (after the [[Vatican City|Vatican]]) and is almost entirely urban.  With no natural resources to exploit, other than its location and climate, the principality has become a resort for tourists and a tax haven for businesses.
  
 
[[Image:mn-map.png|frame|Map of Monaco]]
 
[[Image:mn-map.png|frame|Map of Monaco]]

Revision as of 09:59, 6 February 2005

Flag
Mn-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalMonaco
Governmentconstitutional monarchy
Currencyeuro (EUR)
Areatotal: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
Population31,987 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageFrench (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
ReligionRoman Catholic 90%

The principality of Monaco lies on the southern Mediterranean Sea coast of France, near the border with Italy, in Southern Europe. It is the second smallest independent state in the world (after the Vatican) and is almost entirely urban. With no natural resources to exploit, other than its location and climate, the principality has become a resort for tourists and a tax haven for businesses.

Map of Monaco

Contents

Regions

There are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier);

Cities

  • Monaco - Capital

Other destinations

Understand

Climate

Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain

Hilly, rugged, rocky

Highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

History

Government type 
constitutional monarchy
Independence 
1419 (beginning of the rule by the House of Grimaldi)

Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

National holiday 
National Day (Prince of Monaco Holiday), 19 November
Constitution 
17 December 1962

Get in

By plane

Airports 
none; linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service (2001)
Heliports 
1 (shuttle service between the international airport at Nice, France, and Monaco's heliport at Fontvieille) (2002). Entering Monaco by helicopter is especially nice, and will doubtless impress your significant other. After collecting your luggage at the Nice airport, you go to the helicopter service waiting area. The helicopter ground crew takes you and your luggage from the Nice airport to the Nice heliport, on the other side of the airport, by van. The flight along the coast is beautiful, and you land right at the water's edge at the Monaco heliport, where a car service takes you directly to your hotel. Other than arriving by yacht, this is the best way for the international traveler to enter Monaco.

By train

You can enter Monaco by train, arriving at the Monte Carlo train station.

By car

Monaco may be entered by car, along the coast road; it's a pretty drive, and taxi trips to and from Nice are affordable.

By bus

By boat

If you can afford to travel to Monaco by boat, especially a private yacht, you probably don't need to use a free travel guide like Wikitravel. However, it's the way to visit Monaco if you can do so. The creme de la creme berth at the Port de Monaco; the primary alternative is the Port de Fontvieille.

Get around

Walking is by far the best way to get around Monaco; however, there are some areas, such as the Exotic Gardens, that require a large change in elevation and therefore make for rather strenuous hikes. For these, there is the efficient bus system, if you don't mind feeling like a member of the working class in Monaco's bourgeois opulence, or a taxi. Private cars are singularly useless for getting around Monaco, as you'll spend more time trying to park than if you walked or took a taxi instead. Most hotels will provide courtesy drivers to points of interest, such as the Palace and casino. Note that there is an elevator at the Place du Canton that connects the sidewalk to the palace grounds above, saving an uphill hike on the Avenue de la Porte Nueve.

By Bus

A daily pass specially designed for tourists allows you to use the buses all day for €3.50.

Talk

Languages 
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Buy

Eat

How to go wrong? Food in Monaco is universally excellent. There are many fine restaurants, beginning with the Cafe de Paris across the street from the casino, to the waterfront restaurants along the Port de Fontvieille. During the winter months, you will find the restaurants to be decently priced... for Monaco.

Drink

Sleep

If you're on a budget, it's highly recommended that you do not try and find a place to stay in Monaco. For example, a two star hotel without breakfast and bathroom will cost around €60 per person. A better option is to stay in one of the many towns outside of Monaco, for example Ventimiglia a sea-side town situated on the French-Italian border on the Italian side.

See

  • The Jardin Exotique (Exotic Gardens) is a fascinating experience. Many rare plants from around the world are presented in a walking tour that is quite memorable for the views as well as the flora. Due to the rise in altitude, the microclimate of the area is mostly desert, so there are many examples of desert plants, including unusual cacti, to see. There is also a grotto (cave) that has scheduled, guided tours. The entry cost is a bit steep (€8) unless you're under 16 or a student (€3.50)
  • The oceanographic museum is one of the finest in the world.
  • Entry into the Monaco Casino will cost you €10 for a day. There are also passes for a week, month, or even a year (which costs approx €50). As is usual for casinos, you are not allowed to take photos once inside the casino. It's interesting to observe the games, if not participate for a bit. Watch how much money changes hands! Another attraction is the glass display showing the casino chips of higher value. You get to see the €500,000 chip, which is massive for a chip (in worth AND size).

Learn

Work

Stay safe

Stay healthy

Respect

Contact

External links

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Geography

Geographic coordinates 
43 44 N, 7 24 E
Area 
total: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
Area - comparative 
about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Coastline 
4.1 km
Maritime claims 
territorial sea: 12 NM
Land use 
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (1998 est.)
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

People

Population 
31,987 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 2,545; female 2,418)
15-64 years: 62.1% (male 9,762; female 10,093)
65 years and over: 22.4% (male 2,922; female 4,247) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
0.45% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
9.6 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
12.91 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
7.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
5.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 79.12 years
female: 83.25 years (2002 est.)
male: 75.21 years
Total fertility rate 
1.76 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan
Ethnic groups 
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Religions 
Roman Catholic 90%
Literacy 
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
Legal system 
based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre, son of the monarch (born 14 March 1958)
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch
head of government: Minister of State Patrick LECLERCQ (since 5 January 2000)
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation; to serve five-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - UNAM 21, UND 3
elections: last held 9 February 2003 (next to be held NA February 2008)
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)
Political parties and leaders 
Campora List [Anne-Maria CAMPORA]; Medecin List [Jean-Louis MEDECIN]; National and Democratic Union or UND [Jean-Louis CAMPORA]; National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM [leader NA]; Rally for the Monegasque Family or RFM [leader NA]
International organization participation 
ACCT, ECE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
Monaco does not have an embassy in the US
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US 
the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited to Monaco
Flag description 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

Economy

Economy - overview 
Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. In 2001, a major new construction project will extend the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbor. The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. Monaco does not publish national income figures; the estimates below are extremely rough.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $870 million (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $27,000 (1999 est.)
Labor force 
30,540 (January 1994)
Unemployment rate 
3.1% (1998)
Budget 
revenues: $518 million
expenditures: $531 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)
Industries 
tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
Electricity - imports 
NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by France (1999)
Agriculture - products 
none
Exports 
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Imports 
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Currency 
euro (EUR); French franc (FRF)
Currency code 
EUR; FRF
Exchange rates 
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
31,027 (1995)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
NA
Telephone system 
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 1, FM NA, shortwave 8 (1998)
Radios 
34,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
5 (1998)
Televisions 
25,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.mc
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
2 (2000)
Internet users 
NA

Transportation

Railways 
total: 1.7 km
standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)
Highways 
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (2001)
Ports and harbors 
Monaco
Merchant marine 
none (2002 est.)

Military

Military - note 
defense is the responsibility of France

Variants

Actions

Destination Docents

In other languages

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