Antalya Province — the shining gem of the Turquoise Riviera with some of the clearest waters and most beautiful coast along the Mediterranean
Cilician Plains (Çukurova, Adana and Osmaniye Provinces) — the largest lowland of the country with some rocky hills topped by Crusader citadels
Hatay Province — the southeastern part of the region which extends towards Syria. Annexed to Turkey in 1939, almost two decades after the Republic was found, this province still maintains its Mideast-influenced culture and great cuisine.
Lakes District (Göller Yöresi, Isparta and Burdur Provinces) — with many lakes little and big, this inland region is substantially different from coastal Mediterranean
Mersin Province — with hundreds of kilometers of coastline lying in front of pine covered mountains dotted with ancient citadels, this province is a less-traveled alternative rich in history to Antalya Province
Western Lycia (southern half of Muğla Province) — centred around large touristy towns of Marmaris and Fethiye, the region is rugged and wooded, with many coves heavily indendating towards the land; this is the "blue voyage" country with Lycian ruins here and there
Antalya — the largest city in southern Turkey and the unquestioned capital of the Turkish Riviera
Adana — one of the biggest cities in the country, a riverside city with some industry
Alanya — town east of Antalya with some history to see and beaches to swim
Antakya (also known as Antioch) — Great food and history near the Syrian border
Fethiye — nestled on the tip of a gulf perfect for yachting, this town and its vicinity offers sports like paragliding or hiking (the Lycian Way)
Kaş — an unspoiled resort town with traditional architecture in the southwest of the region
Marmaris — a nice town, albeit touristy, and the gateway for "Blue Voyage"
Mersin — a large city with some huge palm trees on the coastal promenade
Mediterranean coast of Turkey is mostly a narrow strip of land squeezed in between pine-covered Taurus Mountains (Toros) and the Mediterranean Sea. Having speared from pollution thanks to the lack of heavy industry, besides lying under one of the sunniest skies of Europe in addition to the rich art and history makes the region top tourism destination in the country.
Home to a number of ancient civilizations, namely Lycia, Pamphylia, and Cilicia west to east, Mediterranean Turkey was captured by the Romans about a century before the birth of Christ. After a brief occupation by the Crusaders on their way to Jerusalem, as evidenced by a number of Crusader-built or -expanded citadels mainly on the eastern sections of the region, and a number of Crusader-backed Armenian kingdoms, Turkic Seljuqs seized the region. It was during this era when the ancestors of most of the region's locals poured in from Central Asia as nomadic tribes. Some still keep the tradition to this day, wintering on the warm coast and heading for heights of Taurus Mountains or plateaus of Central Anatolia more inland to the north when summer approaches with their goat and camel caravans. Seljuqs were later replaced by Ottomans in around 1400s.
As expected, Mediterranean Turkey enjoys the typical Mediterranean climate: the temperature can go above 40°C in rainless—and even cloudless—summers, while the rest of the year is quite rainy, although winter lows rarely go below +5°C and snowfall is virtually unknown in the region (except the tops of the quite high mountains close to the coastal strip, of course). The season with the highest amount of rainfall is winter (more or less limited to late October through early April in this region) and can be accompanied by strong winds, to the point of storms, in the localities close to the shore, especially around Antalya.
Water temperature of the Mediterranean Sea is around 28°C during summer, i.e. May through October.
The region is home to a plethora of Turkish dialects, from Muğla şivesi, some of which is totally incomprehensible for non-local Turks spoken in Western Lycia to the dialect of Mersin Province, which is essentially a mainland "extension" of Cypriot Turkish. Syrian dialect of Arabic is also prevalent around Antakya.
However, thanks to heavy tourism, English will likely be enough to communicate during your trip, especially in the western parts of the region (i.e. Antalya Province and Western Lycia) and especially if you don't intend to go off the beaten path. German, Russian, and Scandinavian languages may also be helpful, especially when you visit one of the resort towns mainly frequented by those nations.
By plane — major airports in the region open for international flights are located in Dalaman, Antalya, and Adana.
By bus — All cities and a good number of towns, especially those with touristical importance, have direct bus connections from all big cities of the country.
By car — The region is connected to the northern parts of the country by a number of highways, though passes that the roads have to go through when running over Taurus Mountains mean that the roads may have more windings and be narrower than usual motorways. However, O-21 north of Adana/Mersin, is an exception as it is a wide motorway with separated directions.
The highway D400, which closely follows the shoreline of Turkish Mediterranean from one end to another, is the main road of the region. While most of it is very wide (at least 2 lanes per direction) and in a very good condition, some sections are very winding and narrow such as the section between Alanya and Silifke. There are other roads, such as D650, which connects more inland regions (Lakes District) with the D400, thus the coastline.
Ruins — The region is dotted by many ancient city ruins. Most date back to indigenous civilizations of the region, which were expanded or rebuilt by Romans later.
Citadels — Being on the strategic main route between Europe and Middle East, there are also lots of citadels in the region, either surrounding the cities or in a valley or on a rocky hill to defend the nearby roads from unwanted guests. Many, especially those in the eastern portions of the region, are either built by Crusaders from scratch or heavily fortified.
Yachting. One of the top cruising areas in the Mediterranean basin, southwestern reaches of Mediterranean Turkey (coasts of Western Lycia and western Antalya Province) offers abundant yachting options. In the much famed and hardly overestimated Blue Cruise (a.k.a. Blue Voyage; Mavi Yolculuk), started by a group of Turkish intellectuals in 1940s and usually compared to cruising in Caribbean, you take a chartered gulet type yacht (two-masted wooden boats) for a pre-specified amount of time (usually 15 days), and cruise from cove to cove with turquoise waters surrounded by pine-covered mountains suddenly rising at the edge of the sea, calling at coastal towns and fishing villages on the way. Marmaris, Fethiye, Kaş, and Bodrum and Kuşadası (the last two of which are in Aegean Region) are usual starting points of a Blue Cruise, although voyages extending all the way from Izmir to Antalya are not unheard of.
While local cuisine traditionally embraces goat meat, which is less common to the much of the rest of the country and may lead to stomach trouble to who are unaccustomed to it, restaurants in touristy towns frequently feature more familiar treats. Fish restaurants abound in seaside towns, while typical Turkish fast food döner and the like is common in bigger towns and cities. Adana in the east is known for its own style of kebabs (Adana kebabı), while cuisine of Antakya to southeast, being culturally a part of neighbouring Syria, features highly delicious Middle Eastern fare.
A great way to reduce your bottled water costs in this hot region is to use free cold water dispensers, locally called sebil (pronounced say-beel), which can usually be found on the sides of the streets and mosque courtyards in less-touristed towns and neighbourhoods in the region. They look like small, white refrigators and usually have two faucets: red one delivers warm (or mildly hot depending on the weather) water, while the blue one offers comfortably cold water. Though the water coming out of the faucets is not from a commercially-bottled jar, and likely from the city water network, it's harmless and causes no stomach upsets. A way to reduce the risk may be allowing yourself a week after arrival in the region to get accustomed to local microflora and -fauna that may be present in the water and then taking full advantage of sebils.
Aegean Region to the north/northwest has a lot in common with Mediterranean Turkey (especially the climate, landscape, and flora), yet has unique aspects that make it a separate region.