Marmara is a region in northwestern Turkey. It is Turkey's bridge and connection to Europe. Turkey's largest city, Istanbul is the region's unofficial capital.
This region gets its name from the sea it surrounds: the Sea of Marmara, connected to Aegean Sea via Dardanelles, and to Black Sea via Bosporus. The Sea of Marmara is considered as the geographical border between Europe and Asia: northern coasts of it are in Europe, while southern/eastern coasts are in Asia. In addition to the Sea of Marmara, the region has coastlines on Black Sea to northeast and Aegean Sea to southwest.
The northwestern/European part of the region is one of few wide lowlands in the country, with the occasional gently sloping hill, except southwestern and northeastern coasts which are dominated by hilly areas. South and east parts of the region is more mountainous, or hilly at least. While Marmara Region is second smallest Turkish region in size (with only Southeastern Anatolia being smaller), it is actually only a bit smaller than Republic of Ireland or Netherlands and Belgium combined.
This region is Turkey’s most populous and most heavily industrialized part, though you can still find primordial forests hardly seen by human eyes here and there.
While it is possible to come upon a village founded by immigrants from Balkans in early 1900s where old people speak Pomak dialect of Bulgarian or some other Balkan language in the region, Turkish is by far the most common and the most useful language in the region, as is in most of Turkey.
Atatürk International Airport (IST) in western Istanbul is the main gateway for the city, the region, and the country as well. The other international airport in the region is Sabiha Gökçen (SAW), situated in eastern Istanbul, largely prefered by low-cost airlines. Corlu Airport (TEQ) is used by airlines flying from ex-USSR countries. Other airports in the region are located in Bursa and Canakkale.
There are trains to
All cities and many towns in Turkey has direct daily bus services to Istanbul. Many cities neighbouring Balkan countries also has bus links to the city. Bursa, by virtue of being a big city, is also served from a large number of cities and towns throughout Turkey.
Marmara Region is well linked to neighbouring regions and countries by a motorway and highway network.
While there are more than one airport in the region, given the region's relative small size and the relative short distance between the airports make transportation by plane practically impossible. The only feasible (and, operating) air service totally within the region is between Istanbul and Canakkale.
There is an extensive bus network between towns and cities of the region, and any town with a considerable population (say, >10,000), has a direct bus service to Istanbul.
As in the rest of Turkey, the rail network in the region consists of linear lines rather than a spider web-like system. The lines with passenger services are between Istanbul and Edirne (via Corlu and a number of other towns on the way), continuing on to Bulgaria and Greece; Istanbul and Bozüyük (via Izmit, Adapazarı, Osmaneli, Bilecik, and a number of other towns on the way), continuing on to Eskişehir/Ankara in Central Anatolia; and between Bandirma and Balikesir, continuing on to Aegean Region.
There is an extensive network of ferry and fast ferry lines connecting northern and southern coast of the Sea of Marmara, cutting travel time dramatically. Most fast ferry lines fan out of Istanbul towards towns and cities on the southern coast, while conventional ferries can be found between almost any town on the northern and southern coasts (such as Tekirdağ-Gemlik line, which traverses almost the whole sea northwest to southeast).
Being the location which both Byzantine and Ottoman Empires centred around, Marmara Region has quite a lot of imperial monuments from each. While Byzantine monuments are mostly in Istanbul with a number of intact artifacts in historically important, but nowadays provincial towns such as İznik and Vize. Ottoman monuments, on the other hand, while can be found almost anywhere in the region, are best seen in Bursa, Edirne, and Istanbul—the three consecutive capitals of the empire.