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Marathi phrasebook

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Revision as of 04:10, 14 October 2008 by 125.99.11.45 (Talk)

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Quick Stats

  • Official language of : Maharashtra & Goa, India
  • Speakers : 90 million
    • Native : 70 million
    • Non-native : 20 million
  • Family : Indo Aryan
  • Script : Devanagari
  • ISO 639-1 Code : mr
  • ISO 639-2/3 Code: mar


Marathi is the main language of Maharashtra, India. Marathi is written in the Devanagari script, like Hindi and some other Indian languages. It is the 4th most widely-spoken language in India, after Hindi, Bengali and Telugu. Regional literature in Marathi dates back to around 1000 AD.

Marathi grammar is largely based on Sanskrit and Pali. Unlike Hindi and similar to Sanskrit, Marathi has not 2, but 3 genders, masculine, feminine and neutral. Figuring out the gender of a word is very easy as it can be distinguished by the word's last vowel. This is not the case in many other Indian languages, such as Hindi or Urdu, where gender is probably the most difficult aspect of grammar.

Goa was a Portuguese colony from the 16th to the 18th century, as a result of which Marathi has had influence from the Portuguese language. बटाटा (ba-tA-tA, potato) is a common example used in everyday speech.

Pronunciation guide

See Learning Devanagari for detailed information on the subject. Marathi is nearly 100% phonetic, so pronunciation is not as much of a problem as it may seem at first glance. Anglophones tend to pronounce आ as in cat or bat. This sound is non-existent in Marathi, and you will not be easily understood if you pronounce it this way. Vowels are added to consonants, similar to other Devanagari languages, but picking up the Devanagari script is not that essential. You will manage fine with the romanization used in this phrasebook.


Vowels

In Marathi, vowels are added to consonants. Most of them are easy to pronounce, ऋ and ॠ are slightly challenging. Marathi vowels retain much of their original Sanskrit pronunciation making some of them different from their Hindi counterparts. A notable example is औ (au), pronounced as owl in Marathi but as Oxford in Hindi. ऑ (Ao) is a special vowel used for loan English words, and is pronounced as in doctor.

Devanagari Tranileration used here Examples
a as in allow
A as in hard
i as in hit
I as in mean
u as in put
U as in hoot
tR as in Brr! It's cold + a small u sound
TR similar to ऋ, slightly longer
लृ ltR as in life + ऋ
e as in main
ai as in fight
o as in Oh my God
au as in owl
अः aH as in huh?

Consonants

Many Marathi consonants come in three different forms: aspirated, unaspirated and retroflex.

Aspiration means with a puff of air, and is the difference between the sound of the letter p in English pin (aspirated) and spit (unaspirated). Retroflex consonants, on the other hand, are not really found in English. They should be pronounced with the tongue tip curled back. Practice with a native speaker, or just pronounce as usual — you'll usually still get the message across.

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent/Comments
k as in skip.
kh as in sinkhole.
g as in go.
gh as in doghouse.
G as in sing. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently.
ch as in church.
Ch as in pinchhit.
j as in jump.
jh as in dodge her.
nY as in canyon. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently.
t as in tick. Retroflex, but still a hard t sound similar to English.
T as in lighthouse. Retroflex
d as in doom. Retroflex
D as in mudhut. Retroflex
N retroflex n, as in grand.
th does not exist in English. more dental t, with a bit of a th sound. Softer than an English t.
Th aspirated version of the previous letter, not as in thanks or the.
dh dental d.
Dh aspirated version of the above.
n dental n.
p as in spin.
ph as in uphill.
b as in be.
bh as in abhor.
m as in mere.
y as in yet.
r as in Spanish pero, a tongue trip. Don't roll as in Spanish rr, German or Scottish English.
R as in ready. slightly different from the above.
l as in lean.
L as in Norwegian farlig. Retroflex lateral approximent
v as in Spanish vaca, between English v and w, but without the lip rounding of an English w.
sh as in shoot.
Sh almost indistinguishable retroflex of the above. slightly more aspirated.
s as in see.
h as in him.

Phrase list

Basics

Hello. 
नमस्कार ( na-ma-skA-r )
How are you? (to a male
तू कसा आहेस? ( thU ka-sA A-he-s )
How are you? (to a female
तू कशी आहेस? ( thU ka-shI A-he-s )
How are you? (formal
आपण कसे आहात? ( A-pa-N ka-she A-hA-th )
Fine, thank you. 
मी ठीक आहे ( mI TI-k A-he )
What is your name? 
तुझ नाव काय आहे? ( thu-jha nA-v kA-y A-he )
What is your name? (formal
आपले नाव काय आहे? ( A-pa-le nA-v kA-y A-he )
My name is XYZ. 
माझ नाव XYZ आहे ( mA-zha nA-v XYZ A-he )
Nice to meet you. 
तुम्हाला भेटून आनंद झाला ( thu-mhA-lA bhe-tU-n A-na-ndha jhA-lA )
Please. 
कृपया ( ktR-pa-yA )
Thank you. 
धन्यवाद ( Dha-nya-vA-dh )
You're welcome. 
आपले स्वागत आहे ( A-pa-le svA-ga-tha A-he )--it is a literal welcome and not something you would say in response to "thank you"
Yes. 
हो ( ho )
No. 
नाही ( nA-hI )
Excuse me. 
Excuse me. (begging pardon
. ( )
I'm sorry. 
मला माफ करा ( ma-lA mA-f ka-rA )
Goodbye 
("we'll meet again") पुन्हा भेटू ( pU-nhA bhe-tU )
I can't speak Marathi 
मला मराठी बोलता येत नाही ( ma-lA ma-rA-TI bo-la-thA ye-th nA-hI )
Do you speak English? 
तुम्हाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( thu-mhA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA? )
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
इथे कुणाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( i-The ku-NA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA )
Help 
मदत ( ma-dha-th )
Look out! 
("careful!") ! (sA-va-kA-sh)
Good night. 
शुभ रात्री ( shu-bha rA-thrI )
I don't understand. 
मला समजत नाही ( ma-lA sa-ma-ja-tha nA-hI )
Say it again. 
पुन्हा सांगा! (pu-nhA sA-nGA)

Numbers

1 Ek

2 don

3 theen

4 ch-ar

5 pa-ch

6 sa-ha

7 saa-th

8 aa-tt

9 nau

10 da-ha 11 aka-raa 12 baa-raa 13 te-raa 14 chav-daa 15 pan-dha-raa 16 so-laa 17 sa-ta-raa 18 atha-raa 19 ako-nis 20 vees 21 ek-vees 22 ba-vees

Time

Clock time

Duration

How much time? 
किती वेळ? ( ki-thI ve-La )
Hour 
तास ( thA-sa )
Half an hour 
अर्धा तास ( A-DhA thA-sa )
15 minutes 
पाव तास ( pA-va thA-sa )
45 minutes 
पाउण तास ( pA-u-Na thA-sa )

Days

Monday 
सोमवार ( so-mavA-ra )
Tuesday 
मंगळवार ( ma-Gga-La-vA-ra )
Wednesday 
बुधवार ( bu-Dha-vA-ra )
Thursday 
गुरुवार ( gu-ru-vA-ra )
Friday 
शुक्रवार ( shu-kra-vA-ra )
Saturday 
शनिवार ( sha-ni-vA-ra )
Sunday 
रविवार ( ra-vi-vA-ra )

Months

Months for marathi calendar are different than English calendar. Chaitra,Vaishak,Jeshtha,Ashad,Shravan,Bhadrapad,Ashwin,Kartik,Margashish,Paush,Magh,Falgun.

Writing time and date

Colors

Red 
लाल ( lA-la )
Green 
हिरवा ( hi-ra-vA )
Blue 
निळा ( ni-LA )
Black 
काळा ( kA-lA )
White 
पांढरा ( pAn-Dha-rA )
Yellow 
पिवळा ( pi-va-LA )
Orange 
नारंगी ( nA-ra-GgI )

Transportation

Bus and train

Directions

Left: डावा  ;

Right: उजवा;

UP: वर;

Down: खाली

Left Side: डावी कडे

Right side: उजवी कडे

upside: वरती

downside: खालती

Taxi

Lodging

Money

Eating

Breakfast

नाश्ता ( nA-shthA )

Food

जेवण ( je-va-na )

Water

पाणी ( pA-nI )

Ice

बर्फ ( ba-rphA )

Tea

चाहा ( chA-hA )

Sugar

साखर ( sA-kha-ra )

Milk

दूध ( dhU-Dha )

Fruit

फळ ( pha-la )

Vegetable

भाजी ( bhA-jI )

Rice

भात ( bhA-tha )

Bars

Shopping

Driving

Authority

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