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'''Marathi''' is the main language of [[Maharashtra]], [[India]]. Marathi is written in the [[Devanagari]] script, like [[Hindi]] and some other Indian languages. It is the 4th most widely-spoken language in India, after [[Hindi]], Bengali and Telugu. Regional literature in Marathi dates back to around 1000 AD.
+
'''Marathi''' is the official language of the state of [[Maharashtra]] in [[India]], and one of the 22 official "scheduled" languages according to the Indian constitution. Marathi is written in the [[Devanagari]] script, like [[Hindi]] and some other Indian languages. It is the 4th most widely-spoken language in India, after [[Hindi]], Bengali and Telugu. Regional literature in Marathi dates back to around 1000 AD.
  
 
Marathi grammar is largely based on Sanskrit and Pali. Around 60% or more of the nouns in Marathi are derived directly from Sanskrit.  Also, Marathi shares many words with Hindi.  Unlike Hindi but like Sanskrit, Marathi has not 2 but 3 genders: masculine, feminine and neutral. Figuring out the gender of a word can sometimes be difficult, especially for English speakers.
 
Marathi grammar is largely based on Sanskrit and Pali. Around 60% or more of the nouns in Marathi are derived directly from Sanskrit.  Also, Marathi shares many words with Hindi.  Unlike Hindi but like Sanskrit, Marathi has not 2 but 3 genders: masculine, feminine and neutral. Figuring out the gender of a word can sometimes be difficult, especially for English speakers.
  
[[Goa]] was a Portuguese colony from the 16th to the 18th century, as a result of which Marathi has had influence from the [[Portuguese]] language. बटाटा (''ba-tA-tA'', potato) is a common example used in everyday speech.   
+
[[Goa]] was a Portuguese colony from the 16th to the 20th century, as a result of which Marathi has had influence from the [[Portuguese]] language. बटाटा (''ba-tA-tA'', potato) is a common example used in everyday speech.   
  
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
Line 159: Line 159:
 
----
 
----
  
'''Come:''' Ye
+
'''Details:''' Mahiti
  
'''Came:''' Aala
+
'''Amount:''' Rakkam
  
'''Will come :''' Aail
+
'''Bill :''' bil
  
 
----
 
----
  
'''What:''' Kaay
+
'''Rate:''' Kimmat
  
'''When:''' Kadhi
+
'''Quantity:''' Nag
  
 
'''Why:''' Ka
 
'''Why:''' Ka
  
'''How:''' Kasa, Kashee
+
'''How:''' Kasa, Kashee, kiti
  
 
'''Where:''' Kuthe
 
'''Where:''' Kuthe
  
'''Who:''' Konn
+
'''Who:''' Kon
  
 
== Conversation ==
 
== Conversation ==
 
+
; i love you ( maza tujhya-var prem ahe)
; May i have your attention please : ( "kripyA-dak-chadya)
+
; May i have your attention please : ( "Krupaya-laksha-dya)
 
; Hello. : नमस्कार ( ''na-ma-skA-r'' )
 
; Hello. : नमस्कार ( ''na-ma-skA-r'' )
; How are both of you? (''to a male'') : तू कसा आहेस? ( ''thU ka-sA A-he-s'' )   
+
; How are you? (''to a male'') : तू कसा आहेस? ( ''thU ka-sA A-he-s'' )   
 
; How are you? (''to a female'') : तू कशी आहेस? ( ''thU ka-shI A-he-s'' )
 
; How are you? (''to a female'') : तू कशी आहेस? ( ''thU ka-shI A-he-s'' )
 
; How are you? (''formal'') : आपण कसे आहात? ( ''A-pa-N ka-she A-hA-th'' )
 
; How are you? (''formal'') : आपण कसे आहात? ( ''A-pa-N ka-she A-hA-th'' )
; Fine, thank you. : मी ठीक आहे ( ''mI TI-k A-he'' )
+
; I am fine. : मी ठीक आहे ( ''mI TI-k A-he'' )
 
; What is your name? :  तुझं नाव काय आहे? ( ''thu-jha nA-v kA-y A-he'' )
 
; What is your name? :  तुझं नाव काय आहे? ( ''thu-jha nA-v kA-y A-he'' )
 
; What is your name? (''formal'') : आपले नाव काय आहे? ( ''A-pa-le nA-v kA-y A-he'' )  
 
; What is your name? (''formal'') : आपले नाव काय आहे? ( ''A-pa-le nA-v kA-y A-he'' )  
; My name is XYZ. : माझं नाव XYZ आहे ( ''mA-zha nA-v XYZ A-he'' )
+
; My name is XYZ. : माझं नाव XYZ आहे ( ''mA-zha nA-v XYZ A-he'' ) (!uses "z" in transliteration, but it is undefined!)
 
; Nice to meet you. :  तुम्हाला भेटून आनंद झाला ( ''thu-mhA-lA bhe-tU-n A-na-ndha jhA-lA'' )
 
; Nice to meet you. :  तुम्हाला भेटून आनंद झाला ( ''thu-mhA-lA bhe-tU-n A-na-ndha jhA-lA'' )
 
; Please. :  कृपया ( ''ktR-pa-yA'' )
 
; Please. :  कृपया ( ''ktR-pa-yA'' )
Line 196: Line 196:
 
; Yes. : हो ( ''ho'' )
 
; Yes. : हो ( ''ho'' )
 
; No. : नाही ( ''nA-hI'' )
 
; No. : नाही ( ''nA-hI'' )
; Excuse me. :  
+
; Excuse me. : Excuse me/'Ek minute' (one minute)/कृपया (please)
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') :  . ('' '')
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') :  . ('' '')
; I'm sorry. :  मला माफ करा ( ''ma-lA mA-f ka-rA'' )
+
; Please forgive me. :  मला माफ करा ( ''ma-lA mA-f ka-rA'' )
; Goodbye : ("we'll meet again") पुन्हा भेटू ( ''pU-nhA bhe-tU'' )
+
; Goodbye :(Accha/Tata) ("we'll meet again") पुन्हा भेटू ( ''pU-nhA bhe-tU'' )
 
; I can't speak Marathi : मला मराठी बोलता येत नाही ( ''ma-lA ma-rA-TI bo-la-thA ye-th nA-hI'' )
 
; I can't speak Marathi : मला मराठी बोलता येत नाही ( ''ma-lA ma-rA-TI bo-la-thA ye-th nA-hI'' )
; Do you speak English? :  तुम्हाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( ''thu-mhA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA?'' )
+
; Do you know English? :  तुम्हाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( ''thu-mhA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA?'' )
 
;  Is there someone here who speaks English? : इथे कुणाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( ''i-The ku-NA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA'' )
 
;  Is there someone here who speaks English? : इथे कुणाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( ''i-The ku-NA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA'' )
; Help :  मदत ( ''ma-dha-th'' )
+
; Help :  मदत ( ''ma-dha-th'' ), 'Vaachvaa' ('Save me')
; Look out! : ("careful!") ! (''sA-va-kA-sh'')
+
; Look out! : ("careful!, steady!") ! (''sA-va-kA-sh'')
 
; Good night. :  शुभ रात्री ( ''shu-bha rA-thrI'' )
 
; Good night. :  शुभ रात्री ( ''shu-bha rA-thrI'' )
 
; I don't understand. :  मला समजत नाही ( ''ma-lA sa-ma-ja-tha nA-hI'' )
 
; I don't understand. :  मला समजत नाही ( ''ma-lA sa-ma-ja-tha nA-hI'' )
 
; Say it again. : पुन्हा सांगा! (''pu-nhA sA-nGA'')
 
; Say it again. : पुन्हा सांगा! (''pu-nhA sA-nGA'')
 
; What should I do? : Mee kaay karu shakto?
 
; What should I do? : Mee kaay karu shakto?
; Where should I go? : Mee kuthe jaaile paahije?
+
; Where should I go? : Mee kuthe gele paahije?
 
; How many did you take? : Tu kiti ghetle?
 
; How many did you take? : Tu kiti ghetle?
 
; How did you come? : Tu kasa aala?
 
; How did you come? : Tu kasa aala?
Line 247: Line 247:
 
'''21''' ek-vees
 
'''21''' ek-vees
 
'''22''' ba-vees
 
'''22''' ba-vees
 +
'''23''' tee-vees
 +
'''24''' cho-vees
 +
'''25''' panch-vees
 +
'''26''' sav-vees
 +
'''27''' sata-vees
 +
'''28''' aatha-vees
 +
'''29''' akonn-tees
 +
'''30''' tees
  
 
===Time===
 
===Time===
Line 254: Line 262:
 
====Duration====
 
====Duration====
  
; How much time? : किती वेळ? ( ''ki-thI ve-La'' )
+
; Details : किती वेळ? ( ''ki-thI ve-La'' )
  
 
; What time is it? : किती वाजले? ( ''ki-thI wA-jle'' )
 
; What time is it? : किती वाजले? ( ''ki-thI wA-jle'' )
Line 298: Line 306:
 
; Green : हिरवा ( ''hi-ra-vA'' )
 
; Green : हिरवा ( ''hi-ra-vA'' )
 
; Blue : निळा ( ''ni-LA'' )
 
; Blue : निळा ( ''ni-LA'' )
; Black : काळा ( ''kA-lA'' )
+
; Black : काळा ( ''kA-LA'' )
 
; White : पांढरा ( ''pAn-Dha-rA'' )
 
; White : पांढरा ( ''pAn-Dha-rA'' )
 
; Yellow : पिवळा ( ''pi-va-LA'' )
 
; Yellow : पिवळा ( ''pi-va-LA'' )
Line 329: Line 337:
  
 
====Taxi====
 
====Taxi====
 +
I want to go at XYZ place.
 +
 +
mala XYZ zaga var zayecha aahe.
  
 
===Lodging===
 
===Lodging===
  
 
===Money===
 
===Money===
 +
paise
  
 
===Eating===
 
===Eating===
Line 340: Line 352:
  
 
'''Food'''
 
'''Food'''
:जेवण ( ''je-va-na'' )
+
:जेवण ( ''je-va-Na'' )
  
 
'''Water'''
 
'''Water'''
:पाणी ( ''pA-nI'' )
+
:पाणी ( ''pA-NI'' )
  
 
'''Ice'''
 
'''Ice'''
Line 358: Line 370:
  
 
'''Fruit'''
 
'''Fruit'''
:फळ ( ''pha-la'' )
+
:फळ ( ''pha-La'' )
  
 
'''Vegetable'''
 
'''Vegetable'''
Line 364: Line 376:
  
 
'''Rice'''
 
'''Rice'''
:भात ( ''bhA-tha'' )
+
:भात ( ''bhA-ta'' )
 +
 
 +
Bars
 +
 
 +
Details
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Quantity
  
===Bars===
 
  
===Shopping===
+
Amount
  
 
===Driving===
 
===Driving===
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{{outlinephrasebook}}
 
{{outlinephrasebook}}
 +
{{phrasebookguide}}

Revision as of 12:54, 7 December 2012

Quick Stats

  • Official language of : Maharashtra & Goa, India
  • Speakers : 90 million
    • Native : 70 million
    • Non-native : 20 million
  • Family : Indo Aryan
  • Script : Devanagari
  • ISO 639-1 Code : mr
  • ISO 639-2/3 Code: mar


Marathi is the official language of the state of Maharashtra in India, and one of the 22 official "scheduled" languages according to the Indian constitution. Marathi is written in the Devanagari script, like Hindi and some other Indian languages. It is the 4th most widely-spoken language in India, after Hindi, Bengali and Telugu. Regional literature in Marathi dates back to around 1000 AD.

Marathi grammar is largely based on Sanskrit and Pali. Around 60% or more of the nouns in Marathi are derived directly from Sanskrit. Also, Marathi shares many words with Hindi. Unlike Hindi but like Sanskrit, Marathi has not 2 but 3 genders: masculine, feminine and neutral. Figuring out the gender of a word can sometimes be difficult, especially for English speakers.

Goa was a Portuguese colony from the 16th to the 20th century, as a result of which Marathi has had influence from the Portuguese language. बटाटा (ba-tA-tA, potato) is a common example used in everyday speech.

Contents

Pronunciation guide

See Learning Devanagari for detailed information on the subject. Marathi is nearly 100% phonetic, so pronunciation is not as much of a problem as it may seem at first glance. Anglophones tend to pronounce आ as in cat or bat. This sound is non-existent in Marathi, and you will not be easily understood if you pronounce it this way. Vowels are added to consonants, similar to other Devanagari languages, but picking up the Devanagari script is not that essential. You will manage fine with the romanization used in this phrasebook.


Vowels

In Marathi, vowels are added to consonants. Most of them are easy to pronounce, ऋ and ॠ are slightly challenging. Marathi vowels retain much of their original Sanskrit pronunciation making some of them different from their Hindi counterparts. A notable example is औ (au), pronounced as owl in Marathi but as Oxford in Hindi. ऑ (Ao) is a special vowel used for loan English words, and is pronounced as in doctor.

Devanagari Tranileration used here Examples
a as in allow
A as in hard
i as in hit
I as in mean
u as in put
U as in hoot
tR as in Brr! It's cold + a small u sound
TR similar to ऋ, slightly longer
लृ ltR as in life + ऋ
e as in main
ai as in fight
o as in Oh my God
au as in owl
अः aH as in huh?

Consonants

Many Marathi consonants come in three different forms: aspirated, unaspirated and retroflex.

Aspiration means with a puff of air, and is the difference between the sound of the letter p in English pin (aspirated) and spit (unaspirated). Retroflex consonants, on the other hand, are not really found in English. They should be pronounced with the tongue tip curled back. Practice with a native speaker, or just pronounce as usual — you'll usually still get the message across.

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent/Comments
k as in skip.
kh as in sinkhole.
g as in go.
gh as in doghouse.
G as in sing. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently.
ch as in church.
Ch as in pinchhit.
j as in jump.
jh as in dodge her.
nY as in canyon. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently.
t as in tick. Retroflex, but still a hard t sound similar to English.
T as in lighthouse. Retroflex
d as in doom. Retroflex
D as in mudhut. Retroflex
N retroflex n, as in grand.
th does not exist in English. more dental t, with a bit of a th sound. Softer than an English t.
Th aspirated version of the previous letter, not as in thanks or the.
dh dental d.
Dh aspirated version of the above.
n dental n.
p as in spin.
ph as in uphill.
b as in be.
bh as in abhor.
m as in mere.
y as in yet.
r as in Spanish pero, a tongue trip. Don't roll as in Spanish rr, German or Scottish English.
R as in ready. slightly different from the above.
l as in lean.
L as in Norwegian farlig. Retroflex lateral approximent
v as in Spanish vaca, between English v and w, but without the lip rounding of an English w.
sh as in shoot.
Sh almost indistinguishable retroflex of the above. slightly more aspirated.
s as in see.
h as in him.

Basics

I: Mi

You: Tu

We: Aamhi

He: To

She: Tee

It: Te

This: Ha, Hee, He

That: To, Tee, Te


Details: Mahiti

Amount: Rakkam

Bill : bil


Rate: Kimmat

Quantity: Nag

Why: Ka

How: Kasa, Kashee, kiti

Where: Kuthe

Who: Kon

Conversation

i love you ( maza tujhya-var prem ahe)
May i have your attention please 
( "Krupaya-laksha-dya)
Hello. 
नमस्कार ( na-ma-skA-r )
How are you? (to a male
तू कसा आहेस? ( thU ka-sA A-he-s )
How are you? (to a female
तू कशी आहेस? ( thU ka-shI A-he-s )
How are you? (formal
आपण कसे आहात? ( A-pa-N ka-she A-hA-th )
I am fine. 
मी ठीक आहे ( mI TI-k A-he )
What is your name? 
तुझं नाव काय आहे? ( thu-jha nA-v kA-y A-he )
What is your name? (formal
आपले नाव काय आहे? ( A-pa-le nA-v kA-y A-he )
My name is XYZ. 
माझं नाव XYZ आहे ( mA-zha nA-v XYZ A-he ) (!uses "z" in transliteration, but it is undefined!)
Nice to meet you. 
तुम्हाला भेटून आनंद झाला ( thu-mhA-lA bhe-tU-n A-na-ndha jhA-lA )
Please. 
कृपया ( ktR-pa-yA )
Thank you. 
धन्यवाद ( Dha-nya-vA-dh )
You're welcome. 
आपले स्वागत आहे ( A-pa-le svA-ga-tha A-he )--it is a literal welcome and not something you would say in response to "thank you"
Yes. 
हो ( ho )
No. 
नाही ( nA-hI )
Excuse me. 
Excuse me/'Ek minute' (one minute)/कृपया (please)
Excuse me. (begging pardon
. ( )
Please forgive me. 
मला माफ करा ( ma-lA mA-f ka-rA )
Goodbye 
(Accha/Tata) ("we'll meet again") पुन्हा भेटू ( pU-nhA bhe-tU )
I can't speak Marathi 
मला मराठी बोलता येत नाही ( ma-lA ma-rA-TI bo-la-thA ye-th nA-hI )
Do you know English? 
तुम्हाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( thu-mhA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA? )
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
इथे कुणाला इंग्रजी येते का? ( i-The ku-NA-lA I-ngra-jI ye-the kA )
Help 
मदत ( ma-dha-th ), 'Vaachvaa' ('Save me')
Look out! 
("careful!, steady!") ! (sA-va-kA-sh)
Good night. 
शुभ रात्री ( shu-bha rA-thrI )
I don't understand. 
मला समजत नाही ( ma-lA sa-ma-ja-tha nA-hI )
Say it again. 
पुन्हा सांगा! (pu-nhA sA-nGA)
What should I do? 
Mee kaay karu shakto?
Where should I go? 
Mee kuthe gele paahije?
How many did you take? 
Tu kiti ghetle?
How did you come? 
Tu kasa aala?

Numbers

1 Ek एक

2 don दोन

3 tIn तीन

4 ch-ar चार

5 pa-ch पाच

6 sa-ha सहा

7 saa-th सात

8 aa-th आठ

9 nau नऊ

10 da-ha दहा

11 aka-raa 12 baa-raa 13 te-raa 14 chav-daa 15 pan-dha-raa 16 so-laa 17 sa-ta-raa 18 atha-raa 19 ako-nis 20 vees 21 ek-vees 22 ba-vees 23 tee-vees 24 cho-vees 25 panch-vees 26 sav-vees 27 sata-vees 28 aatha-vees 29 akonn-tees 30 tees

Time

Clock time

Duration

Details 
किती वेळ? ( ki-thI ve-La )
What time is it? 
किती वाजले? ( ki-thI wA-jle )
Hour 
तास ( thA-sa )
Half an hour 
अर्धा तास ( A-DhA thA-sa )
15 minutes 
पाव तास ( pA-va thA-sa )
45 minutes 
पाउण तास ( pA-u-Na thA-sa )

Days

Monday 
सोमवार ( so-mavA-ra )
Tuesday 
मंगळवार ( ma-Gga-La-vA-ra )
Wednesday 
बुधवार ( bu-Dha-vA-ra )
Thursday 
गुरुवार ( gu-ru-vA-ra )
Friday 
शुक्रवार ( shu-kra-vA-ra )
Saturday 
शनिवार ( sha-ni-vA-ra )
Sunday 
रविवार ( ra-vi-vA-ra )

Months

Months for marathi calendar are different than English calendar. Chaitra,Vaishak,Jeshtha,Ashad,Shravan,Bhadrapad,Ashwin,Kartik,Margashish,Paush,Magh,Falgun.

However, The Julian calendar is used in Maharashtra as well as the rest of India for everyday purposes, and therefore the English names for months are understood by native Marathi speakers.

Writing time and date

Date 
तारीख ( tA-rI-kha )
Time
वेळ ( ve-la )

Colors

Red 
लाल ( lA-la )
Green 
हिरवा ( hi-ra-vA )
Blue 
निळा ( ni-LA )
Black 
काळा ( kA-LA )
White 
पांढरा ( pAn-Dha-rA )
Yellow 
पिवळा ( pi-va-LA )
Orange 
नारंगी ( nA-ra-GgI )

Transportation

Car 
गाडी ( gA-di )

Bus and train

Bus 
बस ("ba-sa") or गाडी ( gA-di ) (Same as car)

Directions

Left: डावा  ; Dawa

Right: उजवा; Ujwa

UP: वर; var

Down: खाली Khali

Left Side: डावी कडे Dawikade

Right side: उजवी कडे Ujwikade

upside: वरती Varti

downside: खालती Khalti

Taxi

I want to go at XYZ place.

mala XYZ zaga var zayecha aahe.

Lodging

Money

paise

Eating

Breakfast

नाश्ता ( nA-shthA )

Food

जेवण ( je-va-Na )

Water

पाणी ( pA-NI )

Ice

बर्फ ( ba-rphA )

Tea

चहा ( cha-hA )

Sugar

साखर ( sA-kha-ra )

Milk

दूध ( dhU-Dha )

Fruit

फळ ( pha-La )

Vegetable

भाजी ( bhA-jI )

Rice

भात ( bhA-ta )

Bars

Details


Quantity


Amount

Driving

Authority

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