Brick Lane is the name of a small but diverse neighborhood in the East End of London. The Brick Lane area has come to be known as "Banglatown" in recent years on account of many of its inhabitants' and proprietors' background in the Indian subcontinent (and especially Bangladesh). The neighborhood - now complete with its own annual festival! - takes its name from the street of the same name (Brick Lane, an historic core thoroughfare) and is now most famous for its curry restaurants, markets, specialty shops and vibrant but relaxed nightlife.
Although now largely a Bengali (and other subcontinental) neighborhood, within living memory this was a Jewish neighborhood (and before that, it was a Huguenot neighhorhood). Besides a few obvious remnants of this history, such as a few remaining bagel delis, there are subtler remnants, such as small synagogues in the back streets. The larger synagogues have mostly turned into mosques.
Travelers to London would probably find it easiest to catch a train or tube to one of the stations listed below, then make the short (5-10 min) walk to Brick Lane:
Brick Lane is famous for its large number of Indian and Bangladeshi restaurants packed into a relatively small area, with a particular concentration between Woodseer Street and Fournier Street. The old-style, flock wallpaper curry houses have now largely given way to shiny, light wood and aluminium eateries for the tourists and the City workers. Whichever style you go for though, it's always worth checking they've got a license to sell alcohol before taking up a table. For 24-hour eating there are the two famous bagel shops at the north end of Brick Lane, serving up fresh bagels at a rapid rate.