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Difference between revisions of "Lao phrasebook"

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(Basics)
Line 85: Line 85:
 
; Thank you. : (''Khawp Jai'')
 
; Thank you. : (''Khawp Jai'')
 
; It's nothing. : (''Baw Pen Nyung.'')
 
; It's nothing. : (''Baw Pen Nyung.'')
; Yes. : (''Maen Laeow/Doy/Eur'')
+
; Yes. : (''Maen Laeow/Doi/Eur/Jao'')
 
; No. : (''Baw'')
 
; No. : (''Baw'')
 
; Excuse me/I'm Sorry. (''Begging Pardon'') :  (''Khǎw Thôht'')
 
; Excuse me/I'm Sorry. (''Begging Pardon'') :  (''Khǎw Thôht'')

Revision as of 08:58, 25 September 2010

Lao script

Lao (ພາສາລາວ pháa-sǎa láo) is the main language of Laos. Thai is also closely related to Lao, and the Isaan dialect spoken in the northeast is, with minor differences in vocabulary aside, virtually identical to Lao.

                      ==Pronunciation guide==

Lao is a tonal language with six tones in the Vientiane dialect: low, mid, high, rising, high falling, and low falling. Meanings are dependent on the tone, so try not to inflect your sentences; in particular, questions should be pronounced as flat statements, without the rising intonation ("...yes?") typical to English questions.

The script used to write Lao has the same Brahmic base as Thai and Khmer, and Thai readers will be able to figure out most of it. The Lao written language is essentially alphabetic and, thanks to extensive post-revolutionary meddling, now considerably more phonetic than Thai or Khmer. Still, there are 30 consonants, 15 vowel symbols plus 4 tone marks to learn, and the Lao also share the Thai aversion to spaces between words. Lao remains a bit of challenge to pick up, even though it is usually considered easier to learn than Thai.

Lao romanization is bedeviled by the incompatibility between French and English pronunciation. Most older transliterations are French-based, while newer ones are English-based. The French-style "Vientiane", for example, is more accurately spelled "Wiang Chan" in English. Wikitravel uses a modern English-based orthography modeled on the Thai system, but the French transliterations have been noted below when appropriate.

Contents

Vowels

Instant Lao
Speak Thai already? Here's a three-step program for instant Lao fluency:

  • The letter "r" must be eliminated.
    • At the beginning of a word, "r" turns into "l": roiloi "hundred"
    • Within a word, "r" turns into "l": karunaakalunaa "please"
    • In a cluster, "r" disappears completely: prathetpathet "country"
  • All "ch" turn into "x" (pronounced "s"). changxang "elephant"
  • Say baw instead of mai when you want to say "no" or ask a question.

Of course, there's quite a bit more to it than that, but it's a start!


Lao has a complicated set of vowels that distinguishes between vowel length (short and long) and vowel position (front and back). Vowel signs are always written around consonants.

French transliterations use "ou" for "u" (eg. "Louang Prabang") and often tag an unpronounced "e" at the end of words to stop the consonant from being swallowed (eg. "Kaysone Phomvihane").

like in the 'i' in 'nit'
ii 
like in the 'ee' in 'beer' or 'Feet'
like in the 'u' in 'bum'
aa 
like in the 'a' in 'father'
ae 
like in the 'a' in 'fat'
like in the 'e' in 'fence'
eh 
like in the 'a' in 'bait'
like in the 'u' for 'fruit'
ou 
like in the 'oo' in 'mood'
aw 
like in the 'aw' in 'saw'
am 
like in the 'um' in 'drum'
oe 
not found in English, but similar to the 'uh' in 'huh'
eu 
not found in English, but similar to the 'i' in 'sir' or the 'eux' from the French 'deux'

Consonants

Lao distinguishes between aspirated ("with a puff of air") and unaspirated ("without a puff of air") consonants. Unaspirated consonants exist in English too, but never alone: compare the sound of 'p' in "pot" (aspirated) and "spot" (unaspirated). Many English speakers find it helpful to pronounce an imperceptible little "m" in front to 'stop' the puff.

In romanized Lao, the distinction is usually represented by writing aspirated consonants with "h" and unaspirated ones without it. In particular, "ph" represents a hard aspirated 'p' and not a soft 'f', and Phongsali is thus pronounced "Pongsalee". Likewise, "th" is a hard aspirated 't' and hence That Luang is pronounced "Tat Luang".

like 'b' in "bed"
not used in Wikitravel, but in other romanizations may represent 's'
like 'd' in "dog"
like 'f' in "fan"
not used in Wikitravel, but in other romanizations may represent unaspirated 'k'
like 'h' in "help"
like 'dg' in "edge"
like 'k' in "skate" (unaspirated)
kh 
like 'c' in "cat" (aspirated)
like 'l' in "love"
like 'm' in "mother"
like 'n' in "nice"
ny 
like 'ni' in "onion", can also be used at the beginning of words
ng 
like 'ng' in "sing", can also be used at the beginning of words
like 'p' in "spit" (unaspirated)
ph 
like 'p' in "pig" (aspirated)
not used the modern orthography, should be pronounced as 'l', 'h' or ignored
like 'ss' in "hiss",
like 't' sound in "stab"
th 
like 't' in "top"
not used in Wikitravel, but in other romanizations may represent 'w'
like 'w' in "weight"
like 'y' in "yes"
like 'ss' in "hiss", completely identical to 's'

Phrases

Phrases in this section are not consistently transcribed with BGN/PCGN and Wikitravel's romanization guidelines. If you are familiar with the language, please help fix them up!


Basics

Hello. 
(Sa-bai-Dee.)
What's Up? 
(Pen Jung Dai?)
How are you? 
(Sa-bai-Dee Baw?)
Fine, thank you. 
(Sa-bai-Dee.)
What is your name? 
(Seuh Jâo Maen/Bpen Nyung?)
My name is ______ . 
(Seuh Khàwy Maen/Bpen _____.)
Please. 
(Kalunaa)
Thank you. 
(Khawp Jai)
It's nothing. 
(Baw Pen Nyung.)
Yes. 
(Maen Laeow/Doi/Eur/Jao)
No. 
(Baw)
Excuse me/I'm Sorry. (Begging Pardon
(Khǎw Thôht)
Goodbye and Take Care 
(Sôhk Dee Der)
Do you speak English? 
(Jâo Wâo Pháa-Sǎa Ung-Kit Dai Baw?)
I can't speak English very well. 
(Khàwy Baw Wâo Pháa-Sǎa Ung-Kit Dai Dee)
I can't speak ____. 
(Khàwy Wâo Pháa-Sǎa ____ Baw Dai.)
Please speak slowly. 
(Kalunaa, Wâo Sah-Saah)
Do you understand? 
(Jâo Khào Jai Baw?)
--Yes. I understand. 
(Maen Laeow. Khàwy Khào Jai)
--No. I don't understand. 
(Baw. Khàwy Baw Khào Jai)
Go to sleep  
(Pai Náwn)
Where is the bathroom? 
(Hàwng Nâm Yuu Sǎi?)
(Ethnicity)I am ____. 
(Khoy Pen Khon ____.)

Problems

Leave me alone. 
Leave me alone. ('Ya kouan khoy')
Don't touch me! 
('Ya jup khoy)
I'll call the police. 
('Khoy si toh jang dtum louat.)
Police! 
Police! (Dtum louat!)
Stop! Thief! 
Stop! Thief! (Yud! Kee Luck)
can you help me?. 
I need your help. ('Suay khoy dai boh')
It's an emergency. 
It's an emergency. (souk sern)
I'm lost. 
(Khoy lohng taang)
I lost my wallet. 
(Khoy seeuh gkapow)
I lost my bag. 
(Khoy seeuh tong)
I'm sick. 
(Khoy pben kai/Khoy boh sabai)
I've been injured. 
(Khoy jep/Khoy Theug baad jep.)
I need a doctor. 
I need a doctor. (Khoy tong kan Maw')
Can I use your phone? 
(Khoy sai tolasup dai boh?)
May I talk to _______? (Khoy ko lom num _______?"")
I dont understand 
boh. koi boh dai kow jai

Numbers

Lao numbers are effectively identical to Thai, the two quirks worth noting being that 20 is sao (not yii-sip) and 100 is loi. Speakers of Cantonese will find many quite familiar.

Lao has its own set of numerals, but these are used quite rarely.

0  
(soon)
1  
(neung)
2  
(song)
3  
(saam)
4  
(sii)
5  
(haa)
6  
(hok)
7  
(jet)
8  
(paet)
9  
(kao)
10 
(sip)
11 
(sip-et)
12 
(sip-song)
13 
(sip-saam)
14 
(sip-sii)
15 
(sip-haa)
16 
(sip-hok)
17 
(sip-jet)
18 
(sip-paet)
19 
(sip-kao)
20 
(sao)
21 
(sao-et)
22 
(sao-song)
23 
(sao-saam)
30 
(saam-sip)
40 
(sii-sip)
50 
(haa-sip)
60 
(hok-sip)
70 
(jet-sip)
80 
(paet-sip)
90 
(kao-sip)
100 
(loi)
200 
(song loi)
300 
(saam loi)
1000 
(phan)
2000 
(song phan)
10,000 
(meun, sip phan)
100,000 
(saen, loi phan)
1,000,000 
(laan)
1,000,000,000 
(teu, phan laan)
1,000,000,000,000 
(laan laan)
number (train, bus, etc.
(nam-boe (lehk))
half 
(kheung)
less 
(nawy-kwaa)
more 
(iik)

Time

now 
(diow nee)
later 
la gon
before 
(deh gawn)
morning 
(dthawn sao)
afternoon 
(tiang/ton suwai)
evening 
(ton lang)
night 
(kaang keun)

Clock time

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
(na-thii)
_____ hour(s) 
(suua mohng)
_____ day(s) 
(meuh)
_____ week(s) 
(aathit)
_____ month(s) 
(duean)
_____ year(s) 
(bpii)

Days

Today 
(meuh nii)
Yesterday 
(Meuh wán nii)
Tomorrow 
(Meuh euhn)
This Week 
(aa-thit)
Last Week 
(Thit laeow)
Next Week 
(Thit naa)
Weekend 
(Sǎo aa-thit)
Sunday 
(wán aa-thit)
Monday 
(wán jan)
Tuesday 
(wán ang-kháan)
Wednesday 
(wán phuut)
Thursday 
(wán pha-hát)
Friday 
(wán súk)
Saturday 
(wán săo)

Months

January 
Deuan Máng-Kawn
February 
Deuan Kum-Pháa
March 
Deuan Mi-Náa
April 
Deuan Méh-Săa
May 
Deuan Pheut-Sá-Pháa
June 
Deuan Mi-Thú-Náa
July 
Deuan Kaw-La-Kót Da
August 
Deuan Sĭng-Hăa
September 
Deuan Kan-Yáa
October 
Deuan Tú-Láa
November 
Deuan Pha-Jík
December 
Deuan Than-Wáa

Colors

red 
(sii daeng)
orange 
(sii som)
yellow 
(sii lueang)
green 
(sii khiao)
blue 
(sii faa)
purple 
(sii muang)
brown 
(sii nam taan)
gray 
(sii ke thao)
black 
(sii dum)
white 
(sii khao)
Pink 
(sii bua)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
How much is a ticket to _____? (...)
One ticket to _____, please. 
One ticket to _____, please. (...)
Where does this train/bus go? 
Where does this train/bus go? (...)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
Where is the train/bus to _____? (...)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
Does this train/bus stop in _____? (...)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? (...)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
When will this bus arrive in _____? (...)
I just came from _____?

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
How do I get to _____ ? (khoy bpay _____ baep dai?)
...the bus station? 
...the bus station? (....)
...the airport? 
...the airport? (....deun bin)
...downtown? 
...downtown? (...nai meuang)
...the youth hostel? 
...the youth hostel? (...)
...the _____ hotel? 
...the _____ hotel? (...)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? (...)
Where are there a lot of... 
(___ lai yuu sai?)
...hotels? 
(...hong ham)
...restaurants? 
(....haan ahan?)
...bars? 
...bars? (...)
...sites to see? 
...sites to see? (...)
Can you show me on the map? 
Can you show me on the map? (...)
street 
(thanon)
alley 
(hom)
Turn left. 
(Liao saai.)
Turn right. 
(Liao kwaa.)
left 
(saai)
right 
(kwaa)
straight ahead 
(thaang naa)
towards the _____ 
towards the _____ (...)
past the _____ 
past the _____ (...)
before the _____ 
before the _____ (...)
Watch for the _____. 
(...la wung ____)
intersection 
(sii nyak)
north 
(neua)
south 
(tai)
east 
(ta wen ock)
west 
(ta wen tok)
uphill 
(keun koy)
downhill 
(long koy)

Taxi

Taxi! 
(Taak See)
Take me to _____, please. 
(Phaa Khoy Bpay____,Naeh.)
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
(Bpay ___ Thao Dai?)
Take me there, please. 
(Kalunaa, Phaa Khoy Bpay Yuu Phoon.)
Stop here.
(Jawt Yuu Nee)

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
(Jao mee hawng baw?)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
(Hawng tao dai hai khon neung(1 person)/song khon(2 people)?)
Does the room come with... 
(Hawng maa gap _____, baw?)
...blankets? 
(paa home)
...a bathroom? 
(...hawng naam?)
...a telephone? 
(...tohlasup?)
...a TV? 
(...thiiwii/tohlathut?)
May I see the room first? 
(Khoy berng hawng gawn dai bor?)
Do you have anything quieter? 
(Jao mee mit gwaa nee baw?)
...bigger? 
(ngai gwaa baw?)
...cleaner? 
(...kiang gwaa baw?)
...cheaper? 
...cheaper? (...)
Okay, I'll take it. 
(Doy,Khoy see aow.)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
(Koi see oue ____ keun.)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
Can you suggest another hotel? (...)
Do you have a safe? 
Do you have a safe? (...)
...lockers? 
...lockers? (...)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
Is breakfast/supper included? (...)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
What time is breakfast/supper? (...)
Please clean my room. 
(Ma mien hong koy.)
Can you wake me at _____? 
(Dthuen Khoy ____ moeng nah)
I want to check out. 
I want to check out. (...)

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? (...)
Do you accept British pounds? 
Do you accept British pounds? (...)
Do you accept credit cards? 
Do you accept credit cards? (...)
Can you change money for me? 
(Jao bian nguen hay koy dai bor?)
Where can I get money changed? 
Where can I get money changed? (...)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
Can you change a traveler's check for me? (...)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? (...)
What is the exchange rate? 
What is the exchange rate? (at-taa laek pian thao dai)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? (...)

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
(Dtho hai kon neung/song kon, nah.)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
Can I look at the menu, please? (...)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
(Khoy berng yuu nai heuan khua dai baw?)
Is there a house specialty? 
Is there a house specialty? (...)
Is there a local specialty? 
Is there a local specialty? (...)
I'm a vegetarian. 
(Khoy bpen khon jay/Khoy gin jay.)
I don't eat pork. 
(Khoy baw gin sein moo.)
I don't eat beef. 
(Khoy baw gin sein mua.)
I only eat kosher food. 
I only eat kosher food. (...)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
(Jao sai nam-manh noi nueng dai baw?)
fixed-price meal 
fixed-price meal (...)
à la carte 
à la carte (...)
breakfast 
(khao dtawn saow)
lunch 
(khao dtawn suay)
tea (meal
(Saa)
supper 
(khao dtawn laeng)
I want _____. 
(khoi yak_____.)
I want a dish containing _____. 
I want a dish containing _____. (...)
chicken 
(gai)
beef 
(neua)
fish 
(bpaa)
shrimp 
(goong)
crab 
(bpoo)
eggs 
(khai)
salad 
(yum phaak salat)
(fresh) vegetables 
(phaak)
(fresh) fruit 
(Maak Mai)
bread 
(khao jii)
rice noodles 
(pho)
wheat noodles 
(ba mii)
rice 
(khao)
beans 
(Maak Tua)
May I have a glass of _____? 
May I have a glass of _____? (...)
May I have a cup of _____? 
May I have a cup of _____? (...)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
May I have a bottle of _____? (...)
coffee 
(khaafeh)
hot tea 
(saa hawn)
iced tea with milk 
(saa nohm yen)
juice 
(naam mak mai)
water 
(naam)
beer 
(bia)
alcohol
(lao)
red/white wine 
(Lao daeng/kao)
May I have some _____? 
May I have some _____? (...)
salt 
(gkua)
black pepper 
(pik tai)
fish sauce 
(naam bpaa)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
Excuse me, waiter? (...)
I'm finished. 
(Khoy Laew)
It was delicious. 
(Saep lai lai.)
Please clear the plates. 
Please clear the plates. (...)
The check, please. 
The check, please. (...)

Bars

Do you serve alcohol? 
(Jao khaiy lao baw?)
Is there table service? 
Is there table service? (...)
A beer/two beers, please. 
A beer/two beers, please. (...)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
A glass of red/white wine, please. (...)
A pint, please. 
A pint, please. (...)
A bottle, please. 
A bottle, please. (...)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
_____ and _____, please. (...)
whiskey 
whiskey (...)
vodka 
vodka (...)
rum 
rum (...)
club soda 
club soda (...)
tonic water 
tonic water (...)
orange juice 
(naam maak gieng)
Coke (soda
Coke (naam coke)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
Do you have any bar snacks? (...)
One more, please. 
(aow eek nae)
Another round, please. 
Another round, please. (...)
When is closing time? 
(Si bpit jak mohng?)

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
Do you have this in my size? (...)
How much is this? 
(anee tor dai?)
That's too expensive. 
(phaeng lai lai)
Would you take _____? 
(____ dai bor?)
expensive 
(phaeng)
cheap 
(tuke)
I can't afford it. 
(Khoi seu baw dai)
I don't want it. 
(Khoy bor yak ow)
You're cheating me. 
(Jao Phit Khoy)
I'm not interested. 
(Khoi bor son jai)
Okay, I'll take it. 
(Khoy si ow.)
Can I have a bag? 
(khoy ow tong dai bor?)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
Do you ship (overseas)? (...)
I need... 
(khoy dtong gaan...)
...toothpaste. 
(ya si phan)
...a toothbrush. 
(mik si phan)
...tampons. 
...tampons. (...)
...detergent. 
("fep")
...soap. 
(saabuu)
...shampoo. 
(saapom)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
(yaa kae puat)
...cold medicine. 
(yaa vhut)
...stomach medicine. 
(yaa dee tawng)
...a razor. 
(bai-miit thae)
...an umbrella. 
(khanyu)
...sunblock lotion. 
...sunblock lotion. (...)
...a postcard. 
(bat pai-sa-nii)
...postage stamps. 
(sa-taem)
...batteries. 
(taan)
...writing paper. 
(jiia)
...a pen. 
(bik)
...English-language books. 
(bpuem phaasaa ung-kit)
...English-language magazines. 
...English-language magazines. (...)
...an English-language newspaper. 
...an English-language newspaper. (nang _____ phaasaa ung-kit)
...an English-English dictionary. 
...an English-English dictionary. (...)

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
I want to rent a car. (koy yuk soow lout)
Can I get insurance? 
Can I get insurance? (Koi suh in-so-laing dy bow)
stop (on a street sign
stop (yout/sow)
one way 
one way (mai laew)
yield 
yield (...)
no parking 
no parking (jawt u nee bow dy)
speed limit 
speed limit (...)
gas (petrol) station 
gas station (paum na mun)
petrol 
petrol (num-mun)
diesel 
diesel (num-mun ka suay)

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
(kow buh da het ee sung peete)
It was a misunderstanding. 
It was a misunderstanding. (...)
Where are you taking me? 
(Jao sii pha khoy bai sai)
Am I under arrest? 
(Khoy teuk jop bor)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
(English: khawy maa ta ung-kit)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. (...)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
I want to talk to a lawyer. (...)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Can I just pay a fine now? (...)

pa saa ung-kit bor? Khoy coup jai lai lai khon chop lout

This is a usable phrasebook. It explains pronunciation and the bare essentials of travel communication. An adventurous person could use it to get by, but please plunge forward and help it grow!


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