Difference between revisions of "Lake District National Park"
Revision as of 13:21, 12 September 2012
Lake District National Park  is in North West England. It lies entirely within the modern county of Cumbria, shared historically by the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire. It is the largest National Park in the country (occupying 885 sq. miles) and is considered one of its most scenic regions and England's premier destination for hiking and climbing.
Cities, towns and villages
The Lake District comprises 16 lakes, 53 tarns, and several “waters”, although curiously Bassenthwaite is the only one actually named as a lake. All possess their own unique features and provide a comforting sense of permanence, standing as they do, framed by glorious backdrops of mountains, fells, and woodland.
Hills or mountains in the Lake District are known by the local name of Fells. The Lakeland Fells are England's only true mountain range and though not high by world standards (ie none being much over 3000 feet or 1000 metres) they nevertheless offer a huge number of challenging and rewarding hillwalks. All can be walked (as opposed to "climbed" with ropes etc) and due to the long tradition of recreational walking here there is an exceptional network of paths and routes. Additionally there is free access to virtually all areas above the "intake wall" (ie the last wall as you climb out of the valley).
According to the most respected authority (guidebook author A. Wainwright) there are 214 Fells, most of which offer a number of routes, plus many opportunities to ridge-walk between the fells.
The highest is Scafell Pike (pronounced "Score-fell"). This "highest" designation leads to a lot of traffic, and visitors who want to experience a high Lakeland Fell may want to choose another. Some of the slightly smaller fells are in fact much more rewarding to climb as well as offering better views. Great Gable and Helvellyn are popular choices. Less well-known hills include Grisedale Pike, Fairfield, and Bowfell.
The main attraction is the lakes and fells carved by glacial erosion and providing dramatic and inspiring scenery although much modified by man's intervention mainly by farming. It is the former home of cultural luminaries such as William Wordsworth and John Ruskin, and the walks and fells are famously documented by Alfred Wainwright.
First settled in the Stone Age (some residents still exist) and occupied by the Romans the area was heavily influenced by the Norse in their occupation circa 900A.D. They cleared the woods to produce charcoal to smelt lead in Glenridding and copper in the Borrowdale Valley and Coniston. They introduced the Herdwick sheep to the fells and left a legacy of language such as 'gill' gorge, 'beck' stream, 'tarn' lake, 'dale' valley and 'force' waterfall; of them all 'thwaite', a clearing in a wood, is the most common.
The Agricultural Revolution and the Enclosure Acts in the 18th century saw the erection of the dry stone walls which are a predominant feature on the fellsides. The 19th Century saw the advent of tourism with the arrival of the railway in the town of Windermere where it terminates.
The destination is popular with national and international visitors and this can easily cause congestion in busy periods at the most popular locations. Visitor attractions are numerous and not limited to scenic attractions.
Windermere station is most conveniently located for the Southern Lakes. The train from here travels to Oxenholme station on the main West Coast line. The Leeds-Settle-Carlisle line also links the lakes to Yorkshire.
For the northern lakes, it is best to travel to Penrith, from where it is possible to catch a bus to Keswick.
M6 motorway and enter the park via either the A590 from Junction 36 for the South Lakes, or the A66 at Penrith from Junction 40 for the North Lakes. Alternatively the A65 from Leeds connects to the A590 at Junction 36.
The closest airport to the Lake District is at Blackpool, served by Ryanair from London Stansted airport in Essex. Newcastle, Durham Tees Valley, Glasgow, Leeds/Bradford, Liverpool and Manchester airports are about a 2 hour drive away.
The area is served by multiple bus routes, many of them operated by Stagecoach. However, as this is a rural area, and routes are necessarily limited to the roads in the valleys, it is sensible to plan your travel in advance.
This also applies to getting around by car, with journey times being extended due to the slow winding roads. Bringing your own car to the lakes is the most popular option, but motorists may encounter hefty parking fees/restrictions in large towns, or even at the base of popular hill walking routes.
Budget travellers can book a day tour to get to see the best of the Lake District in a day. Mountain-goat  are one of the popular tour operators in the area. They also offer a pick-up from your accommodation if you are staying in Windermere or Bowness-on-Windermere.
It's also possible to travel the lake district by bicycle - however it's only reccomended for very experienced and well-prepared cyclists. It's definitely reccomended to be prepared for rain, wear high-visibility clothing and fit lights, as the weather in this part of the country changes very quickly and rain can cause road-conditions to be slippery and visibility is greatly reduced. Also be particularly cautious of traffic - although the roads are not busy, local drivers who are familiar with the roads tend to drive very fast so take particular care when approaching blind corners. Although bike-rental is available in some larger towns in the region, the bikes available are generally sub-standard mountain-bikes - a high-quality road, hybrid or touring bike is more highly reccomended. Fortunately bikes can be carried on all trains operating in the region (although a free reservation must be acquired before boarding).
The National Park features an extensive network of footpaths throughout the valleys and on the fells (the local term for mountains), allowing excellent access.
See also: Hikes in the Lake District
Traditional pubs tend to be more prevalent than restaurants in this region, and most of them will serve traditional english food at lunch and dinner time. With so much sheep farming in the hills of the lake district, roast lamb is a favourite local dish. Cumberland sausage is a speciality throughout Cumbria, and locally-caught Borrowdale trout is also popular.
This region presents many opportunities to drink a traditional English ale in a traditional English pub. This can be a very satisfying way to replace lost calories after a long day walking in the hills.
Pubs in remote areas can develop a surprisingly lively scene in the evenings, if they are popular with mountaineers. Otherwise you will need to head in to larger towns if you are looking for night life.
The best thing about Cumbria is the staggering number of breweries - around 25 to date.
A selection of country pubs are:
The most common accommodation option in the area is the Bed & Breakfast, many of which can be found in the villages and towns in the park, as well as at many farms. Please see the individual town/village articles for listings.
The mountains of the Lake District are by no means the largest or most extreme mountains of the world, but they can still present a serious threat to safety for walkers, and underestimating them can be fatal. Be sure to follow sensible safety precautions while walking . Clearly other outdoor sports have different risks associated with them.
Some of the area's mountain passes are extremely steep, with sharp corners and uneven road surfaces. Drivers should exercise extreme caution, particularly in poor wealther conditions.
The most obvious signs of crime are the police signs in Lakeland car parks warning you not to leave valuables on show in your car.
Be aware that, due to the mountainous nature of the terrain, mobile (cell) phone reception is notoriously poor in the Lake District and drivers or walkers who are in trouble often find it difficult to get a signal. This should be borne in mind when planning any sort of trip in this area.
From the Lake District, the natural extended itineraries would take you either north, through Carlisle into Scotland, or south towards the big cities of Manchester and Liverpool. Alternatively, for those interested in touring more of England's parks, the Yorkshire Dales are just east of the Lake District.WikiPedia:Lake District