Difference between revisions of "Khachmaz"
Revision as of 08:55, 15 August 2007
Khachmaz is a major city in Northeastern Azerbaijan's Khachmaz region. It is located about 10km from the Caspian Sea, below Khudat, and to the east of Guba. According to allmetsat.com, it is located at 41-28N, 48-48E at an elevation of 27m.
The most northeastern region of Azerbaijan, Xaçmaz (or Khachmaz/Khachmas) is sandwiched between the Caucasus Mountains in Quba (Guba) and Quzar (Gusar), regions to the west, and the Caspian Sea to the east. The southern border greets Devechi and the region stretches north to Russia. Khachmas city is located toward the bottom third of the region. It is about 10km from the Caspian Sea and the border to Devechi. About half that distance to the Guba border to Khachmas's west. It is substantially greater distance to the northern border.
Khachmaz is one of the most ancient regions of Azerbaijan. The antiquity of the city is evidenced by a number of cultural and historical monuments and ancient settlements and barrows of Bronze Age, Mosque-Madrasah, etc. More than 60 monuments of history and culture have been registered in the district. However many scientists believe that their number should be much higher since the region was already densely inhabited in the earliest times. Settlements, mounds and barrows of the Bronze Age have been found in many parts of the region. For a long time Khachmaz was a part of the Caucasian Albania, the Shirvanshahlar state, and the Quba Khanate. Many visitors to this area left valuable clues about Khachmaz’s history. Most of them tell about “Niyazabad” which was a huge port and settlement of Khachmaz during the middle ages. Among them are merchants, travellers, doctors, historians and diplomats, like Adam Oleary, Yan Streys, Entermany Bel, knyaz M. Baryatinsky, Eduarde, Loreny Chepmen, Ovliya Chelebi ,etc. In 1810 Quba Khanate was liquidated. And finally according to “Gulustan Treaty ” in 1813 between Russia and Persia all khanates of “Northern Azerbaijan” were occupied by Russia except Talish, Nakhchivan, Irevan khanates of Azerbaijan (they were occupied by Russia later after signing “ Turkmenchay Treaty ” with Persia in 1828, which divided the territory of Azerbaijan and it’s people into two parts). Khachmaz administrative region was formed on August 8, 1930. In 1963, the territory of Khachmaz region was liquidated and included into Guba and Gusar administrative regions. However, Khachmaz region was restored again in 1965. Reference: Xachmaz 75th Anniversary, 2005; Farqani Aliyev, local historian
The climate is moderate-warm here, subtropical, semi deserted and dry steppe. Annual quantity of precipitation is 300-350 mm; size of potential evaporation is 730-800 mm. An average temperature is 25-35 ° C in July and 1-2 ° C in January. Reference: Soviet Encyclopedia 1976.
The fastest transport between Baku and Khachmaz is by taxi. It takes two (2) hours. Going via Lada from Baku to Khachmaz costs 4-5 AZN per seat (4 persons) and going via by Mercedes costs 5 AZN per seat. To take a cab by yourself, expect to pay around 20 AZN.
By bus or marshrutka: Busses and marshrutkas depart from Shamakhinka bus station (Baku), every hour starting at 8 in the morning. Buses and marshrutkas are a comfortable option, but take longer than taxis. The trip from Baku to Khachmaz will take 3 hours via bus and it costs 3 AZN. The marshrutkas or minibuses usually depart every half an hour starting at 8 in the morning. It takes 2,5-3 hours to get to Khachmaz.
By train: There is an electric train service that runs between Baku and Khachmaz. The price of the ticket is 0.60 qepik (coins). The train leaves Baku at 08.00 AM. The night train Baku-Yalama costs 0.60 qepik and leaves Baku at 20.00 PM.
Transportation Taxis are quite convenient if you know where you want to go within the city. The are many taxis in Khachmaz. Service costs 1 AZN. The price can be changed depending where you are intended to go. The are not many marshrutkas served through Khachmaz city but you can still use some of them which cost only 20 qepic and goes from Big bazaar to Railway Station and goes back again.
Despite of the different tourist venues in Khachmaz, English is not widely spoken that is why it would be better to bring some phrasebooks in following languages:
Emergency Contact Numbers:
All hospitals either state or private are located in the city center.
Information gathered by Khachmaz English Conversation Club.
The Khachmaz region is very rich with monuments of history, culture and architecture. There are more than sixty of them in Khachmaz. The most significant are Sarkartapa, ancient city-fortress Khudat, Albanian mosque of early middle age (III-IV centuries), a mosque-madrasa of Shah Abbas of XV-XVI centuries in Garaqurtlu, a village in Khachmaz, ancient settlements and the barrows of the Bronze Age, the famous “Iron gate” of Derbent fortress becoming a symbol of its inaccessibility. The fortifications “Baba-al-Abvat” were constructed in VIII-VII centuries B.C and protected from invasion the northern boundaries of Azerbaijan. Today Khachmaz borders with Russia here. In the village of Shykhlar the tourists can see the earliest monument of the mausoleum of the Middle ages- a mosque of Sheikh Yusif ( XV century ). At the top of the mountain Galadag the ruins of Gaurgala fortress have been kept. Reference: Azerbaijan Tourism Regions, 2005.
Historical Places of Note in Khachmaz
Albanian mosque (early middle age)
The history relates to (III-IV centuries). This church is evidence of the Albanian State of Azerbaijan people. There is a similar mosque in Gabala which had been a capital of Albanian State for centuries.
Historical Places of Note in Khachmaz Rayon
Sarkartapa (Bronze Age)
The Sarkartapa monument (also called “Sarkar gishlaghy “Sarkar winter camp”) is a important historical monument of in Khachmaz. 150 monuments have been registered as the result of an archaeological expedition under the direction of Cabbar Khalilov.
The Sarkartapa findings have been spread all over the world and caused the special interest for the participants of the Conference of Archaeologists held in Baku in 1985.
Bostanly (Early middle ages)
Bostanly village is one of the more interesting places of the Khachmaz city. As a result of archaeological excavations many interesting findings were discovered that have been kept at Regional Ethnography Museum. There is a hill 20-25 meters high called “Maidens’ Hill”. The territory is 500 sq. km. And very close to this monument there is another interesting place which is called “Seven sisters" tombs with Arabian manuscripts on them. Many legends about seven sisters are told among the people.
One of the ancient cities-fortresses –Khudat (Khudat is Charisma) is very attractive for it’s parameters. It had been a capital of Guba Khanate in early XVIII centure. In 1735 in concern with transference of the residence of Fatali-khan from Khudat to Guba, the city had lost its importance.
Mosque of Sheikh Yusif (XV)
This Mosque is one of the earliest monuments of mausoleum group that was widely used in construction of XVI-XVII centuries has been kept in the village of Shikhlar. Sheikh Yusif was an outstanding scientist-philosopher of Azerbaijan people. He was buried along with his wife and son and four of his followers in this mosque.
There Are 5 (five) Museums in Khachmaz City.
Was founded in 25 september of 1981 year. This museum is located in the city center. Outside of the Museum you can see some historical monuments too. But the most interesting things that will be amazing for tourists can be seen inside of the museum. The history of ancient Khachmaz is built on archeological, ethnographic, anthropological and written historical resources. Archeological excavations in the territory of Khachmaz revealed patterns of rich material and spiritual culture related to the Early Bronze Age. The museum is very rich with archeological monuments of different periods of history. There are more than 4000 historical exhibits are kept there. Among them special interest cause original scientific works of the well-known orientalist Abuabdullah Mahammad-bin Albukhari " Aljazaily sani" and the “ Classification of Koran” of well-known mathematician, philosopher from Chilaqyr Hajaly Effendi. This book is considered to be the second basic book after the “Koran” in the Islamic World.
The museum was founded in 1976. This museum will give you comprehensive information about the people of Khachmaz land, their pictures and belongings. As it is known 8739 people from Khachmaz took part in the Second World War and 2800 of them heroically have perished. Some of them are well-known outside of Azerbaijan. Also, the 230 people who became victims of the Armenian aggression (of the Nagorny Karabakh war) (Mountainous Karabakh) are commemorated.
Heydar Aliyev’s Museum
Museum is located in the park after Heydar Aliyev- the National Leader of Azerbaijan people. There you can get valuable information about his life and activities. The Museum of Prominent Figures
This under open sky museum is one of the most interesting places of Khachmaz city for its numerous statues of the most famous in the world prominent figures of Azerbaijan people. It is also a nice park with accompanying water fountains and lights where the people congregate.
Carpet museum is also one of the wonderful places to have a look. Despite it’s recent founding, there are many ancient carpets in the museum along with carpet weaving tools like ( kargyla, khava,qyr, scissors etc) interesting carpet designs, dolls dressed in ancient national style, picture gallery and other interesting exhibits. Both of the Museums ( Fighting’s Glory Museum and Carpet Museum) are located in the Park of Culture and Rest.
Heydar Aliyev’s Park
Very nice park with green trees, flowers, accompanying water fountains and lights, cafes and tea-houses. Heydar Aliyev’s Museum, Khazar Cinema-Club and Chess school are located in this park too.
Park of Culture and Rest
Gives to city the special beauty. The park is full with monuments of different animals made of stone. Among them there are statues of a monkey, giraffe, elephants, deer, wolf, fox, leopard, wild birds and others. There have been created artificial reservoirs with fishes floating inside, the rivers flowing all the day long and with accompanying water fountains full of green artificial and real frogs. Some people call this place Zoo Park too because of such diversity. One of the favorite places of children “Café Cirtdan- Dwarf”, Fighting’s Glory Museum and Carpet Museum, Post –office and other nice cafes are located here.
Another nice park with accompanying water fountains, lights and restoran/cafés.
The House of Culture Music School Youth Sport Complex Club of Railwaymen Chess School Mosques Church (Russian) The Entertaining Centers Football stadium Khazar Cinema Club Central Library Children’s Rest and Amusements Center Carpet Plant Old tradition of carpet weaving still is flourishing in the Khachmaz region and local carpet masters successfully continue its further development. Their artwork products always give a plentiful material for researchers as well as for creative adaptation and usage in various related branches of culture. Vocational School Railway Station Gulalan Reserve Modular Power Station Khachmaz modular type power station produces on average 1,6-1,8 mln kw/hour of electricity daily. All 10 generators of the station have been connected to the network in December, this year. Having produced 1,607 megawatt electricity on the first day, the modular station raised the output up to 1,821 megawatts two days later on December 10. 35-40 megawatts and 45-50 megawatts of the electricity produced in this power station is diverted via electro conductive lines to Guba-Gusar and Khachmaz-Davachy regions respectively to supply a need of residents. Source: www.azregionaldevelopment.org
Qafqaz Tinned Food Factory As the continuation of the policy - meeting consumers needs on the top level according to strategical activity program of “Azersun Holding” in Xachmaz region of Azerbaijan Republic “Qafqaz Konserv Zavodu”, began operation on 12.09.2003. The whole volume of total capital investment of “Qafqaz Konserv Zavodu” increased to roughly 17 million dollars. “Qafqaz Konserv Zavodu” holds the power of processing 30-32 thousand tons fruit and vegetable and 6 thousand tons meat in a season. It works as the buyer of the agricultural products of the northern region of the Country. Tomato paste, tomato puree, green pea, cucumber and cayenne pickles, eggplant caviar, different meat and vegetable tins are produced at the Cannery. 50-60% of products is sold inside the country, the other part is exported. Source: www.azersunholding.com
Most consumer goods are available throughout Khachmaz and in larger quantities than many of Azerbaijan's smaller cities. The Bazaar carries most goods at very affordable prices (though quality may be suspect - typical for Azerbaijan) and some craftsmen are available.
Below is a list of Khachmas restaurants and cafés.
This is a list of restaurants and cafés near Khachmas city
In Khachmaz like most towns and cities in Azerbaijan, a Çay Xana (a tea house) is easy to find. In summers, cold beer is easy is also easily accessible. Some places will serve instant coffees.
By taxi: The are 2 (two) Auto Stations in Khachmaz city. First one is Minibus station from where you can get out mainly to Baku and other cities. There you can get different kinds of cars The price to Baku will be around 5 AZN for a shared cab.
marshrutka and bus: The are 2 (two) Auto Stations in Khachmaz city. First one is Minibus station from where you can get out mainly to Baku and other cities. There you can get a marshrutka for 3-5 AZN. The telephone number is: 050 471 65 25. The second one services the transport mainly to the villages of the city. The prices are different depending on the distance from city. Weekends buses can be harder to come by and can cost more than the usual 3 AZN.
By train: The Railway Station is located very close to the city center. There is an electric and night train service that runs between Baku and Khachmaz. The first one leaves Khachmaz at 08.00 AM and the second one at 05.45 PM. The price is 0,60 qepik.