Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. It has about 4,611,000 speakers: 4,391,000 of whom reside in India and 105,000 of whom reside in Pakistan. While Kashmiri belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family of languages it is sometimes placed in a geographical sub-grouping called Dardic. It is one of the 23 scheduled languages of India.
Kashmiri has remained a spoken language up to the present times, though some manuscripts were written in the past in the Sharada script, and then in Perso-Arabic script. Currently, Kashmiri is written in either the Perso-Arabic script (with some modifications) or the Devanagari script. Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is practically unique, in that it regularly indicates all vowel sounds
Literacy in Kashmiri is continuously neglected due to various political reasons and lack of formal education in it. It is now mostly relevant in its spoken form, and the speakers of this language are also decreasing in number. Note that the primary official language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is not Kashmiri, but Urdu. Some Kashmiri speakers use English or Hindi as a second language. In the past few decades, Kashmiri was introduced as a subject at the university and the colleges of the valley. At present, attempts are on for inclusion of Kashmiri in school curriculum.
There are 17 vowels and 27 consonants in Kashmiri.
ė: As in Open; ë: Extended ė; å: Same as e in perturb; ä: Extended sound of a; a: same as u in up; ā: As u in up; i: as i in sit; ī: as ee in see u: as u in put ū: as oo in zoo ê: as e in ten e: as a in pay ō: as o in oh! ö: as wo in swot o: as o in home ņ: as n in sing ~: as i in sip spoken faintly
k: same as c in cat kh: same as kh in khan g: as g in got c: as zz in pizza çh: sounds like ts as in huts c: same as ch in chin ch: same as ch in church j: same as j in jug th: as in thatch d: like th in then n: as n in no ţ: like t in teacher ţh: as th in thug đ: as d in did p: as p in pen ph: as f in fall b: like b in boy m: like m in man y: like y in yes r: like r in red l: like l in leg v: as v in van sh: as sh in she s: as s in so z: as z in zoo h: as h in how
Writing time and date
Bus and train