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'''Kashmiri''' (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the [[Jammu and Kashmir]] state of [[India]].  It has about 4,611,000 speakers: 4,391,000 of whom reside in India and 105,000 of whom reside in [[Pakistan]].  While Kashmiri belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family of languages it is sometimes placed in a geographical sub-grouping called Dardic.  It is one of the 23 scheduled languages of India.
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'''Kashmiri''' (कॉशुर, کٲشُر ''Koshur'') is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the [[Jammu and Kashmir]] state of [[India]].  It has about 4,611,000 speakers: 4,391,000 of whom reside in India and 105,000 of whom reside in [[Pakistan]].  While Kashmiri belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family of languages it is sometimes placed in a geographical sub-grouping called Dardic.  It is one of the 23 scheduled languages of India.
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 +
== Writing ==
 +
 
 +
Kashmiri has remained a spoken language up to the present times, though some manuscripts were written in the past in the Sharada script, and then in Perso-Arabic script. Currently, Kashmiri is written in either the Perso-Arabic script (with some modifications) or the Devanagari script. Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is practically unique, in that it regularly indicates all vowel sounds
 +
 
 +
Literacy in Kashmiri is continuously neglected due to various political reasons and lack of formal education in it. It is now mostly relevant in its spoken form, and the speakers of this language are also decreasing in number. Note that the primary official language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is not Kashmiri, but Urdu. Some Kashmiri speakers use English or Hindi as a second language.  In the past few decades, Kashmiri was introduced as a subject at the university and the colleges of the valley. At present, attempts are on for inclusion of Kashmiri in school curriculum.
  
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 +
 +
There are 17 vowels and 27 consonants in Kashmiri.
  
 
===Vowels===
 
===Vowels===
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 +
'''ė''': As in Op'''e'''n
 +
'''ë''': Extended '''ė'''
 +
'''å''': Same as ''e'' in ''p'''e'''rturb''
 +
'''ä''': Extended sound of ''a''
 +
'''a''': same as '''u''' in '''u'''p
 +
'''ā''': As '''u''' in '''u'''p
 +
'''i''': as '''i''' in s'''i'''t
 +
'''ī''': as '''ee''' in s'''ee'''
 +
'''u''': as '''u''' in p'''u'''t
 +
'''ū''': as '''oo''' in z'''oo'''
 +
'''ê''': as '''e''' in t'''e'''n
 +
'''e''': as '''a''' in p'''a'''y
 +
'''ō''': as '''o''' in '''o'''h!
 +
'''ö''': as '''wo''' in s'''wo'''t
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'''o''': as '''o''' in h'''o'''me
 +
'''ņ''': as '''n''' in si'''n'''g
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'''~''': as '''i''' in s'''i'''p spoken faintly
  
 
===Consonants===
 
===Consonants===
  
===Common diphthongs===
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'''k''': same as '''c''' in '''c'''at
 +
'''kh''': same as '''kh''' in '''kh'''an
 +
'''g''': as '''g''' in '''g'''ot
 +
'''c''': as '''zz''' in pi'''zz'''a
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'''çh''': sounds like '''ts''' as in hu'''ts'''
 +
'''c''': same as '''ch''' in '''ch'''in
 +
'''ch''': same as '''ch''' in '''ch'''urch
 +
'''j''': same as '''j''' in '''j'''ug
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'''th''': as in '''th'''atch
 +
'''d''': like '''th''' in '''th'''en
 +
'''n''': as '''n''' in '''n'''o
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'''ţ''': like '''t''' in '''t'''eacher
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'''ţh''': as '''th''' in '''th'''ug
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'''đ''': as '''d''' in '''d'''id
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'''p''': as '''p''' in '''p'''en
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'''ph''': as '''f''' in '''f'''all
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'''b''': like '''b''' in '''b'''oy
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'''m''': like '''m''' in '''m'''an
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'''y''': like '''y''' in '''y'''es
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'''r''': like '''r''' in '''r'''ed
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'''l''': like '''l''' in '''l'''eg
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'''v''': as '''v''' in '''v'''an
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'''sh''': as '''sh''' in '''sh'''e
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'''s''': as '''s''' in '''s'''o
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'''z''': as '''z''' in '''z'''oo
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'''h''': as '''h''' in '''h'''ow
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
  
 
===Basics===
 
===Basics===
; Hello. : . ('' '')
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; Hello : Talking to a Muslim (''assalām ‘alaikum'') Talking to a Hindu (''namaskār'')  
; Hello. (''informal'') : . ('' '')
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; Hello (''informal''): (''halo '')
; How are you? : ? ('' ?'')
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; How are you?: (''Toh chiv väri ?'')
 
; Fine, thank you. :  . ('' '')
 
; Fine, thank you. :  . ('' '')
 
; What is your name? :  ? ('' ?'')
 
; What is your name? :  ? ('' ?'')

Revision as of 13:14, 28 October 2007

Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. It has about 4,611,000 speakers: 4,391,000 of whom reside in India and 105,000 of whom reside in Pakistan. While Kashmiri belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family of languages it is sometimes placed in a geographical sub-grouping called Dardic. It is one of the 23 scheduled languages of India.

Contents

Writing

Kashmiri has remained a spoken language up to the present times, though some manuscripts were written in the past in the Sharada script, and then in Perso-Arabic script. Currently, Kashmiri is written in either the Perso-Arabic script (with some modifications) or the Devanagari script. Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is practically unique, in that it regularly indicates all vowel sounds

Literacy in Kashmiri is continuously neglected due to various political reasons and lack of formal education in it. It is now mostly relevant in its spoken form, and the speakers of this language are also decreasing in number. Note that the primary official language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is not Kashmiri, but Urdu. Some Kashmiri speakers use English or Hindi as a second language. In the past few decades, Kashmiri was introduced as a subject at the university and the colleges of the valley. At present, attempts are on for inclusion of Kashmiri in school curriculum.

Pronunciation guide

There are 17 vowels and 27 consonants in Kashmiri.

Vowels

ė: As in Open ë: Extended ė å: Same as e in perturb ä: Extended sound of a a: same as u in up ā: As u in up i: as i in sit ī: as ee in see u: as u in put ū: as oo in zoo ê: as e in ten e: as a in pay ō: as o in oh! ö: as wo in swot o: as o in home ņ: as n in sing ~: as i in sip spoken faintly

Consonants

k: same as c in cat kh: same as kh in khan g: as g in got c: as zz in pizza çh: sounds like ts as in huts c: same as ch in chin ch: same as ch in church j: same as j in jug th: as in thatch d: like th in then n: as n in no ţ: like t in teacher ţh: as th in thug đ: as d in did p: as p in pen ph: as f in fall b: like b in boy m: like m in man y: like y in yes r: like r in red l: like l in leg v: as v in van sh: as sh in she s: as s in so z: as z in zoo h: as h in how

Phrase list

Basics

Hello 
Talking to a Muslim (assalām ‘alaikum) Talking to a Hindu (namaskār)
Hello (informal)
(halo )
How are you?
(Toh chiv väri ?)
Fine, thank you. 
. ( )
What is your name? 
 ? ( ?)
My name is ______ . 
______ . ( _____ .)
Nice to meet you. 
. ( )
Please. 
. ( )
Thank you. 
. ( )
You're welcome. 
. ( )
Yes. 
. ( )
No. 
. ( )
Excuse me. (getting attention
. ( )
Excuse me. (begging pardon
. ( )
I'm sorry. 
. ( )
Goodbye 
. ( )
Goodbye (informal
. ( )
I can't speak name of language [well]. 
[ ]. ( [ ])
Do you speak English? 
 ? ( ?)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
 ? ( ?)
Help! 
 ! ( !)
Look out! 
 ! ( !)
Good morning. 
. ( )
Good evening. 
. ( )
Good night. 
. ( )
Good night (to sleep
. ( )
I don't understand. 
. ( )
Where is the toilet? 
 ? ( ?)

Problems

Numbers

Time

Clock time

Duration

Days

Months

Writing time and date

Colors

Transportation

Bus and train

Directions

Taxi

Lodging

Money

Eating

Bars

Shopping

Driving

Authority

Learning more

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Variants

Actions

Destination Docents

In other languages