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Japanese phrasebook

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Revision as of 17:49, 1 February 2005 by Nickpest (Talk | contribs)

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Japanese (日本語 nihongo) is spoken in Japan, and essentially nowhere else. The language is distinct from Chinese and Korean, although the written form uses Chinese (kanji) characters, and is not known to be related to any other language.

Grammar

Japanese generally employs a subject-object-verb order, using particles to mark the grammatical functions of the words: 私がハンバーガーを食べる watashi-ga hamburger-o taberu, "I-subject hamburger-object eat". It is common to omit subjects and even objects if these are clear from previous context.

Verbs and adjectives conjugate by tense and politeness level, but not by person or number. There is no verb "to be" as such, but the polite copula desu can be used in most cases: John desu ("I am John"), Ringo desu ("This is an apple"), Akai desu ("It is red"), etc. Note that the exact meaning will depend on the implied subject!

The good news is that Japanese has none of the following: gender, declensions or plurals. Nouns never conjugate and almost all verbs are regular.

Reading and writing

Reading and writing Japanese are advanced skills which take years of work to gain much real proficiency. Japanese themselves use three different writing systems of various complexity, two of which (hiragana' and katakana) are syllabic and relatively easy to learn with 50 characters each, but the clincher is the set of over 2000 Chinese characters known as kanji. The set of hiragana characters is illustrated below.

There are also several competing systems for rendering Japanese in the Latin alphabet, although the Hepburn system is the most common and is used on Wikitravel as well. Do not be surprised if you see these words romanized differently elsewhere.

Pronunciation guide

Japanese is not a tonal language like Chinese or Thai, and is comparatively easy to pronounce.

Vowels

Japanese has both short and long vowels and the distinction is often important. In romanized Japanese, long vowels are marked with a macron, so that ō represents "long O".

Hiragana characters (ひらがな)
a i u e o

a

i

u

e

o
k
ka

ki

ku

ke

ko
s
sa

shi

su

se

so
t
ta

chi

tsu

te

to
n
na

ni

nu

ne

no
h
ha

hi

fu

he

ho
m
ma

mi

mu

me

mo
y
ya

yu

yo
r
ra

ri

ru

re

ro
w
wa

(w)o

n
g
ga

gi

gu

ge

go
z
za

ji

zu

ze

zo
d
da

ji

zu

de

do
b
ba

bi

bu

be

bo
p
pa

pi

pu

pe

po
ky きゃ
kya
  きゅ
kyu
  きょ
kyo
sh しゃ
sha
  しゅ
shu
  しょ
sho
ch ちゃ
cha
  ちゅ
chu
  ちょ
cho
hy ひゃ
hya
  ひゅ
hyu
  ひょ
hyo
gy ぎゃ
gya
  ぎゅ
gyu
  ぎょ
gyo
j じゃ
ja
  じゅ
ju
  じょ
jo
by びゃ
bya
  びゅ
byu
  びょ
byo
a あ/ア 
like 'a' in "father"
i い/イ 
like 'i' in "machine"
u う/ウ 
like 'oo' in "hoop"
e え/エ 
like 'e' in "set"
o お/オ 
like 'o' in "rope"
n ん/ン 
short 'n' at the end of a syllable, pronounced as 'm' before 'b', 'p' or 'm'.

Note that "u" is often weak at the end of syllables. In particular, the common endings -desu and -masu are pronounced as "des'" and "mas'" respectively.

Consonants

k かきくけこ 
like 'k' in "king"
like 'g' in "go"
like 's' in "sit"
like 'z' in "haze"
like 't' in "top"
like 'd' in "dog"
like 'n' in "nice"
like 'h' in "help"
like 'p' in "pig"
like 'b' in "bed"
like 'm' in "mother"
like 'y' in "yard"
like 'r' in "row" (actually a sound between 'l' and 'r', but closer to 'r')
like 'w' in "wall"
ch 
(t before i) like 'ch' in "touch"
sh 
(s before i) like 'sh' in "sheep"
ts 
(t before u) like 'ts' in "hot soup"
(h before u) like 'f' in "far"
(d before i) like 'j' in "jar"

Accent and intonation

Avoid placing too much emphasis on particular words or syllables. Japanese does have stress and intonation, but it is significantly flatter than English. Mastering word stress is a more advanced topic and neglecting it at this point should not interfere with meaning. Just trying to keep your intonation relatively flat will make your attempts to speak Japanese more comprehensible to local listeners. When asking questions, you can raise the tone at the end, as in English.

Phrase list

Saying no
The Japanese are famously reluctant to say the word "no", and in fact the language's closest equivalent, いいえ iie, is largely limited to denying compliments you have received. ("Your Japanese is excellent! "Iie, it is very bad!"). But there are numerous other ways of expressing "no", so here are a few to watch out for.

いいです。 結構です。
Ii desu. Kekkō desu. 
"It's good/excellent." Used when you don't want more beer, don't want your bentō lunch microwaved, and generally are happy to keep things as they are.
ちょっと難しいです・・・
Chotto muzukashii desu... 
Literally "it's a little difficult", but practically "it's completely impossible." Often just abbreviated to sucking in air through teeth, saying "chotto" and looking pained. Take the hint.
申し訳ないですけど・・・
Mōshiwakenai desukedo... 
"This is inexcusable but..." But no. Used by sales clerks and such to tell you that you cannot do or have something.
駄目です。
Dame desu. 
"It's no good." Used by equals and superiors to tell you that you cannot do or have something.


Basics

Hello. 
こんにちは。 Konnichiwa. (kon-nee-chee-WAH)
How are you? 
お元気ですか。 O-genki desu ka? (oh-GEN-kee dess-KAH?)
Fine, thank you. 
元気です。 Genki desu. (GEN-kee dess)
What is your name? 
お名前は何ですか。 O-namae wa nan desu ka? (oh-NAH-mah-eh wah NAHN dess-KAH?)
My name is ____ . 
私の名前は ____ です。 Watashi no namae wa ____ desu. (wah-TAH-shee no nah-mah-eh wa ____ dess)
Nice to meet you. 
始めまして。 Hajimemashite. (hah-jee-meh-MOSH-teh)
Please. (request) 
お願いします。 Onegai shimasu. (oh-neh-gigh shee-moss)
Please. (offer) 
どうぞ。 Dōzo. (DOH-zo)
Thank you. 
どうもありがとう。 Dōmo arigatō. (doh-moh ah-ree-GAH-toh)
You're welcome. 
どういたしまして。 Dō itashi mashite. (doh EE-tah-shee mosh-teh)
Yes. 
はい。 Hai. (HIGH)
No. 
いいえ。 Iie. (EE-eh)
Excuse me. 
すみません。 Sumimasen. (soo-mee-mah-sen)
I'm sorry. 
御免なさい。 Gomen-nasai. (goh-men-nah-sigh)
Goodbye. (long-term) 
さようなら。 Sayōnara. (sa-YOH-nah-rah)
Goodbye. (informal
それでは。 Sore dewa. (SOH-reh deh-wah)
I can't speak Japanese [well]. 
日本語「よく」話せません。 Nihongo [yoku] hanasemasen. (nee-hohn-goh [yo-koo] hah-nah-seh-mah-sen)
Do you speak English? 
英語を話せますか。 Eigo o hanasemasuka? (AY-goh oh hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH?)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
だれか英語を話せますか。 Dareka eigo o hanasemasuka? (dah-reh-kah AY-goh oh hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH?)
Help! 
たすけて! Tasukete! (tah-soo-keh-teh!)
Look out! 
あぶない! Abunai! (ah-boo-NIGH!)
Good morning. 
おはようございます。 Ohayō gozaimasu. (oh-hah-YOH go-zigh-moss)
Good evening. 
こんばんは。 Konbanwa. (kohm-bahn-wah)
Good night (to sleep
おやすみなさい。 Oyasuminasai. (oh-yah-soo-mee-nah-sigh)
I don't understand. 
わかりません。 Wakarimasen. (wah-kah-ree-mah-sen)
Where is the toilet? 
トイレはどこですか。 Toire wa doko desu ka? (toy-reh wah DOH-koh dess kah?)

Problems

Leave me alone. 
ほっといて。 (hottoite.)
Don't touch me! 
さわらないで! (sawaranaide!)
I'll call the police. 
警察をよびます。 (keisatsu o yobimasu)
Police! 
警察! (keisatsu)
Stop! Thief! 
待て! どろぼう! (mate! dorobō!)
I need your help. 
たすけてください。 (tasukete kudasai)
It's an emergency. 
緊急です。 (kinkyū desu)
I'm lost. 
迷子です。 (maigo desu)
I lost my bag. 
かばんをなくしました。 (kaban o nakushimashita)
I dropped my wallet. 
財布をおとしました。 (saifu o otoshimashita)
I'm sick. 
病気です。 (byōki desu)
I've been injured. 
けがしました。 (kega shimashita)
Please call a doctor. 
医者を呼んでください。 (isha o yonde kudasai)
Can I use your phone? 
電話を使っていいですか? (denwa o tsukatte iidesuka)

Numbers

While Arabic (Western) numerals are employed for most uses in Japan, you will occasionally still spot Japanese numerals at eg. markets and the menus of fancy restaurants. The characters used are nearly identical to Chinese numerals, and like Chinese, Japanese uses groups of 4 digits, not 3. "One million" is thus 百万 (hyaku-man), literally "hundred tenthousands".

There are both Japanese and Chinese readings for most numbers, but presented below are the more commonly used Chinese readings. Note that, due to superstition (shi also means "death"), 4 and 7 typically use the Japanese readings yon and nana instead.

〇, 零 (zero or rei)
一 (ichi)
二 (ni)
三 (san)
四 (yon or shi)
五 (go)
六 (roku)
七 (nana or shichi)
八 (hachi)
九 (kyū)
10 
十 ()
11 
十一 (jū-ichi)
12 
十二 (jū-ni)
13 
十三 (jū-san)
14 
十四 (jū-yon)
15 
十五 (jū-go)
16 
十六 (jū-roku)
17 
十七 (jū-nana)
18 
十八 (jū-hachi)
19 
十九 (jū-kyuu)
20 
二十 (ni-jū)
21 
二十一 (ni-jū-ichi)
22 
二十に (ni-jū-ni)
23 
二十三 (ni-jū-san)
30 
三十 (san-jū)
40 
四十(yon-jū)
50 
五十 (go-jū)
60 
六十 (ro-ku-jū)
70 
七十(nana-jū)
80 
八十 (hachi-jū)
90 
九十 (kyū-jū)
100 
百 (hyaku)
200 
二百 (ni-hyaku)
300 
三百 (san-byaku)
1000 
千 (sen)
2000 
二千 (ni-sen)
10,000 
一万 (ichi-man)
1,000,000 
百万 (hyaku-man)
100,000,000 
一億 (ichi-oku)
1,000,000,000,000 
一兆 (itchō)
number _____ (train, bus, etc.
_____番 (____ ban)
half 
半分 (hanbun)
less (few) 
少ない (sukunai)
more (many) 
多い (ooi)

Time

now 
今 (ima)
later 
後で (atode)
before 
前に (mae ni)
before ___ 
___ の前に ( ___ no mae ni)
morning 
朝 (asa)
afternoon 
午後 (gogo)
evening 
夕方 (yūgata)
night 
夜 (yoru)

Clock time

For clock times, you will be understood if you simply substitute gozen 午前 for "AM" and gogo 午後 for PM, although other time qualifiers like 朝 asa for morning and 夜 yoru for night may be more natural. The 24-hour clock is also commonly used in official contexts such as train schedules.

six o'clock AM 
朝6時 (asa rokuji)
nine o'clock AM 
午前9時 (gozen kuji)
noon 
正午 (shōgo)
one o'clock PM 
午後1時 (gogo ichiji.)
two o'clock PM 
午後2時 (gogo niji)
midnight 
夜12時 (yoru jūniji)

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
_____ 分 (fun or pun)
_____ hour(s) 
_____ 時間 (jikan)
_____ day(s) 
_____ 日 (nichi)
_____ week(s) 
_____ 週間 (shūkan)
_____ month(s) 
_____ ヶ月 (kagetsu)
_____ year(s) 
_____ 年 (nen)

Days

today 
今日(kyō)
yesterday 
昨日(kinō)
tomorrow 
明日(ashita)
this week 
今週(konshū)
last week 
先週(senshū)
next week 
来週(raishū)
Sunday 
日曜日 (nichiyōbi)
Monday 
月曜日 (getsuyōbi)
Tuesday 
火曜日 (kayōbi)
Wednesday 
水曜日 (suiyōbi)
Thursday 
木曜日 (mokuyōbi)
Friday 
金曜日 (kin'yōbi)
Saturday 
土曜日 (doyōbi)

Months

Months are very orderly in Japanese, just add the suffic -gatsu to the ordinal number.

January 
1月 (ichigatsu)
February 
2月 (nigatsu)
March 
3月 (sangatsu)
April 
4月 (shigatsu)
May 
5月 (gogatsu)
June 
6月 (rokugatsu)
July 
7月 (shichigatsu)
August 
8月 (hachigatsu)
September 
9月 (kugatsu)
October 
10月 (jūgatsu)
November 
11月 (jūichigatsu)
December 
12月 (jūnigatsu)

Writing time and date

Dates are written in year/month/day (day of week) format, with markers:

2004年3月24日(火)

Note that Imperial era years, based on the name and duration of the current Emperor's reign, are also frequently used. 2004 in the Gregorian calendar corresponds to Heisei 16 (平成16年), which may be abbreviated as "H16". Dates like "16/03/24" (March 24, Heisei 16) are also occasionally seen.

Colors

Many of the English words for colors are widely used and understood by almost all Japanese. These are indicated after the slash.

black 
黒 / ブラック (kuro / burakku)
white 
白 / ホワイト (shiro / howaito)
gray 
灰色 / グレー (hai-iro / gurē)
red 
赤 / レッド (aka / reddo)
blue 
青 / ブルー (ao / burū)
yellow 
黄色 / イエロー (kiiro / ierō)
green 
緑 / グリーン (midori / guriin)
orange 
オレンジ (orenji)
purple 
紫 / パープル (murasaki / pāpuru)
brown 
茶色 / ブラウン (chairo / buraun)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
_____ までいくらですか (_____ made ikura desuka?)
One ticket to _____, please. 
_____ まで一枚お願いします(_____ made ichimai onegaishimasu)
Where does this train/bus go? 
この[電車/バス]はどこ行きですか (kono densha/basu wa doko yuki desuka?)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
_____ 行きの[電車/バス]はどこですか? (_____ yuki no densha/basu wa doko desuka?)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
この[電車/バス]は _____ に止まりますか (kono densha/basu wa _____ ni tomarimasuka?)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
_____ 行きの[電車/バス]は何時に出発しますか(_____ yuki no densha/basu wa nanji ni shuppatsu shimasuka?)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
この[電車/バス]は何時に _____ に着きます? (kono densha/basu wa nanji ni _____ ni tsukimasuka?)

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
_____ はどちらですか? (_____ wa dochira desu ka?)
...the train station? 
駅... (eki...)
...the bus station? 
バス停... (basu tei..)
...the airport? 
空港... (kūkō...)
...downtown? 
街の中心... (machi no chūshin...)
...the youth hostel? 
ユース・ホステル... (yūsu hosuteru...)
...the _____ hotel? 
_____ ホテル... (hoteru...)
...the _____ embassy/consulate? 
_____大使館/領事館... (_____ taishikan/ryōjikan...)
Where are there a lot of... 
...が多い所はどこですか? (...ga ooi tokoro wa doko desuka?)
...lodgings? 
宿... (yado...)
...restaurants? 
レストラン... (resutoran...)
...bars? 
バー... (baa)
...sites to see? 
見物... (mimono...)
Please show me on the map. 
地図で指して下さい。 (chizu de sashite kudasai)
street 
道 (michi)
Turn left. 
左へ曲がってください。 (Hidari e magatte kudasai.)
Turn right. 
右へ曲がってください。(Migi e magatte kudasai.)
left 
左 (hidari)
right 
右 (migi)
straight ahead 
まっすぐ (massugu)
towards the _____ 
_____ へ向かって (e mukatte)
past the _____ 
_____ の先 (no saki)
before the _____ 
_____ の前 (no mae)
Watch for the _____. 
_____が目印です。 (ga mejirishi desu)
intersection 
交差点 (kōsaten)
north 
北 (kita)
south 
南 (minami)
east 
東 (higashi)
west 
西 (nishi)
uphill 
上り (nobori)
downhill 
下り (kudari)

Taxi

Taxi! 
タクシー! (Taxi!)
Take me to _____, please. 
_____までお願いします。 (_____ made onegai shimasu.)
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
_____ までいくらですか? (_____ made ikura desuka)
Take me there, please. 
そこまでお願いします。 (soko made onegai shimasu.)

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
空いてる部屋ありますか? (Aiteru heya arimasuka?)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
一人/二人用の部屋はいくらですか? (Hitori/futari-yō no heya wa ikura desuka?)
Is the room Japanese/Western style? 
和室/洋室ですか? (Washitsu/yōshitsu desuka?)
Does the room come with... 
部屋は ... 付きですか? (Heya wa ___ tsuki desuka?)
...bedsheets? 
ベッドのシーツ... (beddo no shiitsu...)
...a bathroom? 
風呂場 (furoba...)
...a telephone? 
電話 (denwa...)
...a TV? 
テレビ? (terebi...)
May I see the room first? 
部屋を見てもいいですか? (heya o mitemo ii desuka?)
Do you have anything quieter? 
もっと[静かな]部屋ありますか? (motto [shizukana] heya arimasuka?)
...bigger? 
広い (hiroi)
...cleaner? 
きれいな (kirei na)
...cheaper? 
安い (yasui)
OK, I'll take it. 
はい、これで良いです。(hai, kore de ii desu.)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
_____ 晩泊まります。(____ ban tomarimasu.)
Do you know another place to stay? 
他の宿はご存知ですか? (hoka no yado wa gozonji desuka?)
Do you have [a safe?] 
[金庫]ありますか? ([kinko] arimasuka?)
...lockers? 
...ロッカー? (rokkaa (locker))
Is breakfast/supper included? 
朝食/夕食は付きますか? (chōshoku/yūshoku wa tsukimasuka?)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
朝食/夕食は何時ですか? (chōshoku/yūshoku wa nanji desuka?)
Please clean my room. 
部屋を掃除してください。 (heya o sōji shite kudasai)
Please wake me at _____. 
_____ に起こしてください。 (____ ni okoshite kudasai.)
I want to check out. 
チェックアウトです。(chekku auto (check out) desu.)

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
アメリカ/オーストラリア/カナダドルは使えますか (Amerika/ōsutoraria/kanada doru ha tsukae masuka?)
Do you accept British pounds? 
イギリスポンドは使えますか? (igirisu pondo wa tsukaemasuka?)
Do you accept credit cards? 
クレジットカードは使えますか? (kurejitto kaado (credit card) wa tsukaemasuka?)
Can you change money for me? 
お金両替できますか? (okane ryōgae dekimasuka?)
Where can I get money changed? 
お金はどこで両替できますか? (okane wa doko de ryōgae dekimasuka?)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
ドラベラー・チェック両替できますか? ((traveler's check) ryōgae dekimasuka?)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
ドラベラー・チェックはどこで両替できますか? ((traveler's check) wa doko de ryōgae dekimasuka?)
What is the exchange rate? 
為替レートはいくらですか?(kawase reeto wa ikura desu ka?)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
ATM はどこにありますか? (ATM wa doko ni arimasuka?)

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
一人/二人です。 (hitori/futari desu)
Please bring a menu. 
メニュー下さい。 (menu kudasai.)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
調理場を見てもいいですか? (chōriba o mite mo ii desu ka?)
Is there a house specialty? 
お勧めありますか? (O-susume arimasuka?)
Is there a local specialty? 
この辺の名物ありますか? (Kono hen no meibutsu arimasuka?)
Please choose for me. 
お任せします。 (O-makase shimasu.)
I'm a vegetarian. 
ベジタリアンです。 (Bejitarian desu.)
I don't eat pork. 
豚肉はだめです。 (Butaniku wa dame desu.)
I don't eat beef. 
牛肉はだめです。(Gyūniku wa dame desu.)
I don't eat raw fish. 
生の魚はだめです。(Nama no sakana wa dame desu.)
Please do not use too much oil. 
油を控えて下さい。(Abura o hikaete kudasai.)
fixed-price meal 
定食 (teishoku)
a la carte 
一品料理 (ippinryōri)
breakfast 
朝食 (chōshoku)
lunch 
昼食 (chūshoku)
light meal/snack 
軽食 (keishoku)
supper 
夕食 (yūshoku)
Please bring _____. 
_____ 下さい。(_____ kudasai.)
I want a dish containing _____. 
_____が入ってるもの下さい。 (____ ga haitteru mono kudasai.)
chicken 
鶏肉 (toriniku)
beef 
牛肉 (gyūniku)
fish 
魚 (sakana)
ham 
ハム (hamu)
sausage 
ソーセージ (sōseeji)
cheese 
チーズ (chiizu)
eggs 
卵 (tamago)
salad 
サラダ (sarada)
(fresh) vegetables 
(生)野菜 ( (nama) yasai)
(fresh) fruit 
(生)果物 ( (nama) kudamono)
bread 
パン (pan)
toast 
トースト (tōsuto)
noodles 
麺類 (menrui)
pasta 
パスタ (pasta)
rice 
ご飯 (gohan)
beans 
豆 (mame)
May I have a glass/cup of _____? 
_____ を一杯下さい。 (____ o ippai kudasai.)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
_____ を一本下さい。 (_____ o ippon kudasai.)
coffee 
コーヒー (kōhii)
green tea 
お茶 (o-cha)
black tea 
紅茶 (kōcha)
juice 
果汁 (kajū)
water 
水 (mizu)
beer 
ビール (biiru)
red/white wine 
赤/白ワイン (aka/shiro wain)
Do you have _____? 
_____ ありますか? (_____ arimasuka?)
chopsticks 
お箸 (o-hashi)
fork 
フォーク (fōku)
spoon 
スプーン (supūn)
salt 
塩 (shio)
black pepper 
胡椒 (koshō)
soy sauce 
醤油 (shōyu)
ashtray 
灰皿 (haizara)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server
済みません (sumimasen)
(when starting a meal) 
いただきます。(itadakimasu)
It was delicious. (when finishing a meal) 
ご馳走さまでした。 (Go-chisō-sama deshita.)
Please clear the plates. 
お皿を提げてください。 (Osara o sagete kudasai.)
The check, please. 
お勘定下さい。 (O-kanjo kudasai.)

Bars

Sake talk
Sake, known in Japanese as 日本酒 nihonshu, has a vocabulary all its own. Here is a brief introduction.

冷やし hiyashi 
Chilled sake. The way to drink better sake.
熱燗 atsukan 
Heated sake. Recommended only in winter with cheap sake.
一合 ichigō 
The standard measure for servings of sake, around 180 milliliters.
一升瓶 isshōbin 
The standard sake bottle, containing 10 , ie. 1.8 liters.
masu 
A square wooden box traditionally used to drink sake, contains (approximately) one . Drink from the corner.


Do you serve alcohol? 
お酒ありますか? (O-sake arimasuka?)
Is there table service? 
テーブルサービスありますか? (Tēburu sābisu arimasuka?)
A beer/two beers, please. 
ビール一杯/二杯下さい。(Biiru ippai/nihai kudasai.)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
赤/白ワイン一杯下さい。(Aka/shiro wain ippai kudasai.)
A mug (of beer), please. 
ビールのジョッキ下さい。(Biiru no jokki kudasai.)
A bottle, please. 
ビン下さい. (Bin kudasai.)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
_____ と _____ 下さい。(...)
sake 
日本酒 (nihonshu)
Japanese liquor 
焼酎 (shōchū)
whiskey 
ウイスキー (uisukii)
vodka 
ウォッカ (wokka)
rum 
ラム (ramu)
water 
水 (mizu)
club soda 
ソーダ (sōda)
tonic water 
トニックウォーター (tonikku uōtā)
orange juice 
オレンジジュース (orenji jūsu)
cola (soda
コーラ (kōra)
with ice 
オンザロック (onzarokku)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
おつまみありますか? (o-tsumami arimasuka?)
One more, please. 
もう一つください。 (Mō hitotsu kudasai.)
Another round, please. 
もう一回りください。 (Mō ichi-mawari kudasai.)
When is closing time? 
閉店は何時ですか? (Heiten wa nanji desuka?)

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
私のサイズでありますか? (Watashi no saizu de arimasuka?)
How much is this? 
いくらですか? (Ikura desuka?)
That's too expensive. 
高過ぎます。 (Takasugimasu.)
Would you take _____? 
_____円はどうですか? (_____ wa dō desuka?)
expensive 
高い (takai)
cheap 
安い (yasui)
I can't afford it. 
その位お金は持ってないです。 (Sono kurai o-kane wa mottenai desu.)
I don't want it. 
要らないです。 (Iranai desu.)
You're cheating me. 
騙してるんだ。 (Damashiteru n da.) Use with caution!
I'm not interested. 
興味ないです。 (Kyōmi nai desu.)
OK, I'll take it. 
はい、それにします。 (Hai, sore ni shimasu.)
Can I have a bag? 
袋もらってもいいですか? (Fukuro moratte mo ii desuka?)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
海外まで発送出来ますか? (Kaigai made hassō dekimasuka?)
I need... 
___を欲しいです。 (____ ga hoshii desu.)
...toothpaste. 
歯磨き (hamigaki)
...a toothbrush. 
歯ブラシ (ha-burashi)
...tampons. 
タンポン (tanpon)
...soap. 
石鹸 (sekken)
...shampoo. 
シャンプー (shanpū)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
鎮痛剤 (chintsūzai)
...cold medicine. 
風邪薬 (kazegusuri)
...stomach medicine. 
胃腸薬 (ichōyaku)
...a razor. 
剃刀 (kamisori)
...an umbrella. 
傘 (kasa)
...sunblock lotion. 
日焼け止め (hiyakedome)
...a postcard. 
葉書 (hagaki)
...postage stamps. 
切手 (kitte)
...batteries. 
電池 (denchi)
...writing paper. 
紙 (kami)
...a pen. 
ペン (pen)
...English-language books. 
英語の本 (eigo no hon)
...English-language magazines. 
英語の雑誌 (eigo no zasshi)
...an English-language newspaper. 
英語の新聞 (eigo no shinbun)
...a Japanese-English dictionary. 
和英辞典 (waei jiten)
...an English-Japanese dictionary. 
英和辞典 (eiwa jiten)

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
レンタカーお願いします。 (rent-a-car onegaishimasu.)
Can I get insurance? 
保険入れますか? (hoken hairemasuka?)
stop (on a street sign
止まれ (tomare)
one way 
一方通行 (ippō tsukō)
caution 
徐行 (jokō)
no parking 
駐車禁止 (chūsha kinshi)
speed limit 
制限速度 (seigen sokudo)
gas (petrol) station 
ガソリンスタンド (gasorin sutando)
petrol 
ガソリン (gasorin)
diesel 
軽油/ディーゼル (keiyu / diizeru)

Authority

In Japan, you can legally be incarcerated for twenty-three (23) days before you are charged, but you do have the right to see a lawyer after the first 48 hours of detention. Note that if you sign a confession, you will be convicted.

I haven't done anything (wrong). 
何も(悪いこと)してません。(Nani mo (warui koto) shitemasen.)
It was a misunderstanding. 
誤解でした。 (Gokai deshita.)
Where are you taking me? 
どこへ連れて行くのですか? (Doko e tsurete yukun desuka?)
Am I under arrest? 
私は逮捕されてるのですか? (Watashi wa taiho sareterun desuka?)
I am a citizen of ____. 
____ の国民です。 (____ no kokumin desu.)
I want to meet with the ____ embassy. 
____ 大使館と会わせて下さい。 (____ taishikan to awasete kudasai.)
I want to meet with a lawyer. 
弁護士と会わせて下さい。(Bengoshi to awasete kudasai.)
Can it be settled with a fine? 
罰金で済みますか? (Bakkin de sumimasuka?)
Note: You can say this to a traffic cop, but bribery is highly unlikely to work in Japan.

Learning more

Learn more by visiting http://www.japanese-online.com/LANGUAGE/index.htm

One of the best online sources for study aids is at http://www.manythings.org/japanese/

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