Hitchhiking in Japan
This article is a travel topic
Hitchhiking in Japan is the key to true budget travel in the country and the way to escape the country's ruinously expensive domestic transport costs, where an hour on the Shinkansen can set you back ¥10,000. Coupled with camping, you can effectively cut down your daily budget to food and admission fees alone — although it is wise to allow for the occasional (literal) rainy day.
Hitchhiking does present its own unique challenges, but the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that not only is hitching possible, it's downright easy... once you know how.
Where to hitch
It is almost impossible to hitch out of Tokyo or any large Japanese city by waving your thumb on the Ginza. Thus, to get out, you have to find the places where drivers going out congregate, which in practice means service areas (サービスエリア sābisu eria, SA) or parking areas (PA) on the large toll expressways (高速道路 kōsokudōro) connecting Japan's major cities. As you might guess, service areas are larger and better equipped than parking areas (with the special exception of Mekari/Dannoura, see below), but surprisingly few Japanese are familiar with the difference so it's easier to label them all service areas.
A useful rule of thumb (pun intended) is that if you can get somewhere on a train for less than 2000 yen, hitchhiking the distance is unlikely to be worth the trouble – for instance destinations around Tokyo such as Mount Fuji, Hakone and Nikko – until you actually get there, that is. All three regions have expensive local transport but plenty of unhurried tourists driving about, always a good combination for the hitchhiker.
Getting on the expressway
Due to a complex conspiracy, all SA/PAs are located as inconveniently as possible, and entrance to them from outside on foot is officially prohibited. However, the inconvenience is manageable when you know the route (are you willing to sit on a local train for an hour to save 9000 yen?) and, as so often happens in Japan, official regulations go unenforced or downright ignored.
Aside from SA/PAs, the second way to get on the expressway is to hitch outside an interchange. ICs do tend to be a bit closer to town, but in Tokyo they are usually in the middle of very heavy traffic and with few, if any, places where hitching is even remotely possible, so getting rides also takes considerably longer. It is generally preferable to sit on a local for an extra half an hour and maybe even pay a few yen for the privilege of not having to choke on exhaust for an hour.
The third method would be to take a long-distance bus that uses the expressway and stops at a parking area along the way. However, cataloguing which routes go where on which roads and which service areas they stop at would be a fairly difficult enterprise, you'll also need to buy a rather expensive bus ticket just to get on the thing, and you'll probably freak out the bus attendants who will certainly notice if the only gaijin on the bus doesn't come back from the break.
An untested but quite valid possibility along these lines is to free yourself from the difficulties of hitching out of Tokyo by taking the cheap 3500 yen Orion "youth" (misnomer) night-bus towards Gifu via Nagoya, ideally on a Friday night. You truly get what you pay for here, but it makes a stop around sunrise at a major service area just east of Nagoya. If you can perhaps persuade the driver that this is in fact close to where you want to be ("Thats my friend's house, right over there, really!" - again, this is untested) you will be both on the expressways at an optimal place and awake early enough to get a morning headstart on a long-westbound hitch.
Hitching on the expressway
At the SA/PA itself, the best place to hitch is near the offramp to the expressway, ideally so that you're visible from the buildings — this way drivers can see you as they go in and think about picking you up before they get in their car and make the choice. From a service area with decent traffic, you are very likely to get a ride within minutes. My suggestion here would be to hitch in front of the shops or at the end, close to the toilets. Reason for this is A: most people go to the toilet and B: you can talk to them so they will see you are a nice person as Japanese can be very suspicious.
Once you've made it onto the expressway, it's easy to keep bouncing from one SA/PA to the next one, but a decent highway map is imperative so you know the best place to get off if your destination and your driver's path diverge. Whenever possible, aim for SAs instead of PAs: not only do they have handy things like restaurants, maps and info counters, but they are much busier and thus much easier to hitchhike from. It's entirely possible to cover 500 kilometers or more in a single day by using expressways.
Note that it is illegal to stop a car or walk on foot anywhere on the expressway itself, including tollbooths, and you will be rapidly picked up by the highway police if you try. Do not allow your driver to drop you off outside a service area.
Outside the expressway system on ordinary toll-free national highways (国道 kokudō), there are also occasional service areas of a sort, known as Michi-no-Eki (道の駅), lit. "Road stations" . With about 900 scattered all around Japan, these are excellent places to get dropped off, fuel up, consult maps and grab rides.
Other traditional favorites include the offramps of roadside gas stations and convenience stores. The keys are visibility and accessibility: drivers have to be able to spot you in advance, and they have to be able to stop and pick you up without endangering themselves or others.
Note that it is illegal to hitchhike near road crossings or from bus stops, although in rural areas where buses drop by just 2-3 times a day the latter is often tolerated. The very end of a merging lane after a crossing is also OK, as long as you are more than 5 meters away from the crossing itself. In general, hitchhiking is legal and Japanese police don't hassle hitchhikers, but they do have fairly wide-ranging powers to act on anything that disturbs or distracts traffic, so use common sense.
How to hitch
Except for the occasional impoverished student in the wide expanses of Hokkaido, there is very little tradition of hitchhiking in Japan, and you will more likely than not be the first hitchhiker that your driver has ever even seen, much less picked up. The key to hitchhiking is thus to assuage these fears and look as harmless and friendly as possible.
The top worries of a Japanese driver when they see a hitchhiking gaijin are: Can he communicate? Does he know how to behave? The quick way to answer those questions is with a sign: 日本語できる！ (Nihongo dekiru!), literally "Japanese can!", is just six characters and works like a charm. And you don't really need to know Japanese all that well to use such a sign, as long as you can communicate... somehow... Please only write it down if you can speak a little, otherwise it will be an awkward ride for the both of you. Keep in mind that most Japanese understand basic English words when written down; it's the key once you get lost in translation.
Second on the agenda is appearance. This is not the place for a mop of unruly hair, ripped jeans and sunglasses — foreigners are by default scary, and you need to do your best to look like you stepped out of an L.L. Bean catalog. Neat trousers, clean shirt, a hat to protect you from the sun instead of sunglasses. If you have a huge rucksack, put it off to the side and make sure it's clean and that there are no things sticking out. Cute emoji on your hitching sign, or smiles in the gaps in your kanji characters can be a surprisingly effective addition in Japan.
With these down pat, it's time to assume the pose and hitch. Hitchhiking being an unusual phenomenon, the best-recognized pose will be the classic Western style: left hand extended straight, thumb up, facing traffic and a winning smile on your face. Try to look drivers in the eye as they approach and perhaps even make a small bow of appreciation, especially if they slow down to take a better look at you or, better yet, loop back for a second look. And persevere: you may get picked up by the first car, or you may have to wait a while, but you will be picked up sooner or later.
Once the car does stop, a window will roll down and you will almost always be asked a simple question: Doko made? ("To where?") Do not make the mistake of giving your final destination, as the driver may assume that you will insist on going all the way. (This is also why it's usually not wise to use a destination sign.) Instead, pick the nearest major waypoint and state X no hō ("In the direction of X"). I personally ask in the service area if they can drop me off at the next major service area. Once in the car they will ask you where you are going and you will ask them and so you can ride along until you want to get out.
An alternative sign which can be quite handy is 次のＳＡ お願いいたします (tsugi no saabisu eria onegai itashimasuuu~); literally next service area, pretty please, with a cherry on top. This has a fair few advantages in that the duration of the ride is made very clear. Naturally, once you reach the final service area before your destination, flip the sign over and scrawl your actual destination on the back to get off the expressway itself. When undertaking this last step, being very slow and methodic using a rather thin pen can be quite advantageous because the very act of seeing a foreigner actually writing kanji on a sign themselves, from memory will attract more than a couple of viewers and potential rides.
When to hitch
Like other tourism in Japan, the best times of year are spring and fall, when it's not too hot and not too cold. Hitching in the summer risks sunburn and dehydration, while winter is simply too cold. I'm hitching right now (today 17th of December 2009) and the colder it is, the more friendly people are. SO stay in the service area with a nice hot drink and just approach the people.
Distasteful as it may be to get up at 6 AM on vacation, as a hitchhiker you must get an early start. Many of the longest rides are available early in the morning, and your hitchhiking day will come to an end when the sun goes down.
If the weather is bad, it's best to give up hitchhiking for the day and figure out something else to do. A sodden figure standing forlornly in the rain with his thumb out is not a pitiful figure in Japan, he's a dangerous lunatic. Again, just go inside and they will offer you drinks and food.
Who to hitch with
In Japan, as everywhere else, your gender matters when hitchhiking. On an ascending scale of difficulty, the best combinations are:
While a single girl (or woman) is likely to get picked up very fast, this has its risks: Japan has its fair share of perverts and predators and a lone hitchhiker in a foreign country is a vulnerable target.
As for who will pick you up, the range of humanity you will encounter is surprising and, once you've crossed the threshold into their car, the generosity and trust will amaze you. You will be picked up by young couples, grizzled old farmers, families with small children, traveling salesmen, single women, yakuza mobsters, Buddhist monks... and, almost without exception, you will be offered drinks and snacks, bought lunch and quite possibly offered a tatami for the night. But try to distinguish between offers of genuine goodwill and interest and offers out of duty or perceived obligation, as your driver is likely to feel that he is a host and he must treat you as an honored guest, despite any inconvenience or even financial expense that this might cause.
As a guest, you will not be allowed to pay any of the expenses, and even efforts to contribute something for gas and toll fares will most likely be delightfully refused. Be thankful for this, as Japan's expressway tolls are extremely high: for example, the trip from Tokyo to Osaka costs around ¥8000 in tolls alone. Instead, if you really want to thank your hosts, remember that Japan is the country of gifts and return gifts called okaeshi: it might be a good idea to carry some small souvenirs of your country or hometown, like a country pin, or cookies (wrapped of course) or even an airline bottle of liquor. With this you will have really sealed a wonderful human interchange, and you may even make a friend for life.
How to get out of Tokyo
Lots of expressways radiate off Tokyo's local highway system (首都 shuto). So what you want to do is pick a destination, match it to an expressway, and get to the closest PA/SA. Here's the list in clockwise order from west to east, you will probably find it useful to consult a 1:10000 Japanese map to get your bearings. Most English highway signs will not distinguish short and long vowels, but your driver will, so pronounce it right!
A preliminary note about buses: in general, Tokyo's commuter bus system sucks. They run very infrequently (typically 1/hr in the boonies), have a lunch break of several hours, and stop running early. Try to get to the bus station before 11 in the morning, or you'll probably have to wait until 2 in the afternoon for the next one!
Tōmei Expressway (東名)
Going South-west: Go to the Ebina service area. Go to the Shake station (study your map, this is why you can't go without) and ask a person at the station how to wlak. They will tell you it's too far (it is!) and so you ask them to give you a ride or know someone, that's how I did it. Otherwise take a taxi.
For: Fuji/Gotemba, Hakone, Nagoya, western Japan
Directions: Go to Tōkaichiba (十日市場) station on the JR Yokohama line through any one of a number of connections (Shibuya to Nagatsuta via Tokyu Den-en-toshi, Shibuya to Shin-Yokohama via Tokyu Toyoko, Shinjuku to Machida via Odakyu, etc.) The train trip is only 30 minutes, but it's a few hilly kilometers to the PA, so consult an area map before you set off - you'll find a good one outside the North exit of the station (the map was destroyed in April 2009). You will need to head East down the expressway about 2-3 kilometers. This is easiest along the Northern edge of the raised expressway. There is a small overpass very close to the PA, cross over it and walk down the slight hill. There is an area here where you can jump the 1.5m fence, or alternatively walk to the far Eastern end of the PA and go in the open entrance for highway bus passengers.
Alternative: Yōga IC (用賀), near Tokyu Den-en-toshi line (東急田園都市線) Yōga station (用賀駅)
Chūō Expressway (中央)
For: Fujiyoshida, Lake Kawaguchi, Nagano, Gifu, and (the slow route to) Nagoya & western Japan
Directions: Get to Kichijoji (吉祥寺) via Keio Inokashira from Shibuya or JR Chuo from Shinjuku, switch to JR Chuo (preferably a kaisoku commuter express to Takao, otherwise you'll have to change trains a few times) and go to either Toyoda (豊田) or Hino (日野). From Toyoda station (north exit), take Keio bus 日04 from platform 2 to Ishikawacho-higashi (石川町東). They run from 7:35 to 18:15, usually at 35 past the hour, but there is no 12:35 bus. The same bus runs to Hino station so you can catch it from there too. The distance is about 3 km and the bus route is reasonably straightforward, so it is also walkable if you're in the mood.
Once at Ishikawachō-higashi, backtrack to the lights (I'm assuming you're coming from Toyoda), you'll see the highway on your left. Go to the highway, but not under it -- turn left, up the hill, then open the gate that you are not supposed to open, walk up to the SA fence and jump over the one-meter gate if it is locked. You're in!
Note: Chuo branches a few times, be sure you know what branch you want to go to and what branch your driver will go to. The first is Ootsuki Junction (大月), where the road splits between the Nagano and Fujiyoshida branches; the last SA before the junction is Dangōzaka (談合坂).
Kan'etsu Expressway (関越)
For: Niigata, Sado Island, Japan Sea coast
Directions: Take the Tōbu Tōjō (東武東上) line from Ikebukuro to Tsuruse station. From the station, take Raifu Basu #4 to the Sentoraru Byōin (センとラル病院) stop, as usual it runs once per hour except during lunchtime. The bus will deposit you on the wrong side of the parking area, cross the bridge to get to the side going away from Tokyo. Alternatively, you can walk the 3 km or so from Fujimino station; there should also be a bus from Fujimino, but it didn't seem to exist...
Tōhoku Expressway (東北)
Directions: Go to Hasuda station on the JR Utsunomiya (宇都宮) line, starting from Shinjuku or Tokyo. Take the east exit and locate platform #3, take Tōbu (東武) bus #4 to Shiyakusho-mae (市役所前). Right before the stop the bus actually goes under the expressway, return to the bridge (don't go under it!) and head a few hundred meters up the hill/to the north along the expressway until you reach the PA. The gate may be locked, but the fence is low and jumping over it is no problem.
Jōban Expressway (常磐)
For: Mito, Iwaki, Sendai (slow route)
This highway was the bane of the hitchhiker, as there appeared to be no decent way of getting onto it but the relatively new Tsukuba Express railway line (opened 2005) has two stations near PA/SA. The nearest real service area, Moriya SA (守谷), is easily reached by Tsukuba express plus a 3 km walk. The IC and PA listed above are unexplored possibilities. One sure way: take a ¥2000 train to Mito and start there...
Warning: If you get on at Mukōjima IC, the road soon joins Shuto C2, after which C2 branches off again towards the Tōhoku Expressway. Make sure you know where your driver is going!
Higashi-Kantō Expressway (東関東)
What, you're going to hitchhike to catch your flight!? Do yourself a favor and take the train, Keisei'll get you there for 1000 yen. If you insist, you could try to catch the Expressway Bayshore Line (高速湾岸線) from Odaiba or Shin-Kiba, which transforms into the Higashi-Kantō.
How to get out of Nagoya
Going South West for Kyoto, Osaka, Hiroshima: Take a train to Ogaki Station and change for Mino Takada station and walk for about 30 minutes, one of my best spots so far! You need about 2.5 hours to get there. Going North-east for Yokohama, Tokyo: Take a train to one station after Mikawa-Toyota and walk for about 30-45 minutes. Again you need about 2.5 hours.
How to get out of Kansai
Going East towards Tokyo, take a train to Otsu. Its about 2-3 stops past Kyoto and every express train stops there. From the station, make your way south-east, up the hill. The Otsu service area (小津) is a true freak occurrance as it is a) close to a major train station and b) has a restaurant packing amazing views of Lake Biwa (weather pending) so expect tonnes of lunchtime traffic. Furthermore, the toilet and restaraunt entry are along a single undercover path so your posing position is obvious and sheltered. From the station, as the crow flies, you're heading about half a kilometre uphill, but in reality, the suburbs you'll walk through are a mess so its more 1-2 km. Generally just make your way uphill and left using major roads only, towards the highschool up on the hill. All the suburban streets are lengthy dead ends. Theres a poorly signposted on-ramp attached to the service area so you may see directions for that. Once you reach the steep busy road leading to the on-ramp, stick to the right-hand side and keep an eye out for a long set of concrete stairs. This is strictly the staff entry but the 1.5 m tall gate is typically left swinging in the breeze. Youkoso!
For Westbound traffic, find your way to the service area in Kobe (神戸) or camp out a road close to one of the ETC entry points around Kobe.
How to get out of Hiroshima/Iwakuni
Miyajima service area (宮島) is roughly a half hour walk uphill from JR Miyauchikushido (ＪＲ宮内串戸) station, Hatsukaichi, stuck halfway between the urban centres of Hiroshima and Iwakuni. Like almost all service areas west of Kansai, Miyajima packs a formal entry point for those on foot, and attached auxilliary carpark such that outside visitors may patronise the restaurants, so don't worry about fence-jumping, your entry is 100% legal. Use this area even if eastbound because the next closest is quite the trek, practically in Okayama. Being situated near peaceful Hiroshima, you'll find the locals are extremely friendly towards foreigners so even hitching up the the service area itself is a possibility. Remember, north side to go east, south side to go west.
Alternately, you could try departing from the expressway bypass onramp about 500 m from the station, but the walk is usually worth the effort.
Incidently, the cheap train ticket to this particular service area from Hiroshima/Iwakuni makes it a rather nice stopover if trying to hitch from southern Kyushu to Nagoya/Nagano/Tokyo or vice-versa, furthered by the fact that both towns host cheap station-front (駅前) smoke-free manga cafes to sleep in.
How to get out of Kyushu
Obviously, this depends on where in Kyushu you are, but there are a few points worth noting:
The biggest service area on the entire island is Koga (古賀), just north-east of Fukuoka. An easy place to get a ride in both directions, and also just a touch north of the central four-way interchange -- ensure you confirm your desination with your rides.
If heading north on to Honshu, there is an extremely long gap, 2-3 times the usual between service areas so you'll have to make a stop over at a parking area, which is OK because...
The busiest rest stop in the region is not a service area. Let's repeat this once more: Kyushu's busiest expressway rest stop is Mekari parking area (めかり) in Mojiko, Kitakyushu. Whilst a parking area in name, both Mekari, and its southbound sister parking area Dannoura (壇之浦) over the bridge in Shimonoseki (on Honshu), are practically service areas. Dannoura even has its own dedicated motel. They pack amazing views of the Kanmon straights, once of the world's busiest shipping lanes and the restaurants and souvenier shops stock Fugu (deadly pufferfish, the famous local delicacy). As you can therefore imagine, they see an insane amount of traffic. Locals will claim that on weekends, every last Japanese tourist stops at these areas without fail. Furthermore, if you happen to be starting from Kitakyushu or Shimonoseki, both areas are an easy saunter up a well marked path: follow the backstreets uphill from the fish market for Dannoura, take the stone steps besides near the Kanmon tunnel pedestrian elevator under the bridge for Mekari.
Basically all service areas and the aforementioned special parking areas in Kyushu provide formal back entrances and auxilliary parking to allow farmers or tourists use of the restaurant or viewing platform facilities so if you can identify one close to a train station on Google Earth or Yahoo! Maps, expect easy and legal entry.
Getting into Tokyo
95% of the time, once on the expressway, getting back to Tokyo is a piece of cake: your driver is also going to Tokyo, so he'll drop you off at the nearest train or subway station, and you can find your way home. Problems arise the other 5% of the time, when your driver is going either through Tokyo or to a part of Tokyo extremely far from your part of Tokyo. What to do?
Your driver may exit the expressway just so you can get off, but this is a waste of time and money for him, as he has to fight his way back and pay an extra toll, so don't count on it. The driver may also try to drop you off at a tollbooth or at an interchange, which will either get you in hot water from the authorities or dead from being hit by a car. The least of three evils is thus getting dropped off at a service area.
Moral of the story: when near a big city, feel free to reject rides that aren't going close enough. There will be more.
Shuto Service Areas (aka Tokyo Re-entry)
If the service area is one of those listed in the Tokyo section above, you know how to get back. If not, you have been left at a service area not listed for a good reason. Almost all the 15+ parking areas on the Shuto are tiny (space for around 20 cars max), suspended multiple stories above the earth with entrance/exit possible only through staff quarters, and inconveniently located to boot. However, as getting out is a lesser crime, you may be able to sweet-talk somebody into unlocking those staff-only doors and letting you out, as long as you promise not to come back in.
The Shuto network is an indecipherable tangle that looks vaguely similar to the Tokyo subway system, except that most stations are accessible only when going in one direction and you have 5 seconds to decide whether to exit. The parking areas are omitted from most maps, only specialty maps will usually show them. One convention worth learning quickly: all routes and lanes going towards the center are nobori (上り, going up), whereas routes and lanes exiting Tokyo are kudari (下り, going down). The majority of Shuto parking areas are nobori-only, a small saving grace for the hitchhiker coming in, but yet another reason why they're useless for exiting Tokyo.
A historical footnote that may help your wrap your head around this warped system: The circular nature of the Tokyo Shuto system is actually derived from Edo's ancient expansionary-focussed spiral town planning and the expressway routes are named after how many towns (区) the semicircular route passes through. As such, larger numbers imply you are further from the centre. Incidently, major non-expressway routes through Tokyo follow this same system, Kanpachi-dori is circle 8, and the Yamanote train line is in fact circle 5 or 6 or something.
Shuto 3 (高速3号)
Connecting to: Tōmei
Yōga PA (用賀)
Access: Nobori only
Located at the very beginning of the Shuto, in Setagaya.
Shuto 4 (高速4号)
Connecting to: Chūō
Eifuku PA (永福)
Access: Nobori only
Small. Somewhat oddly located right next to a row of tollbooths and an exit (which thus cannot be used even illegally, since they'll spot you if you try to walk it!). If you do find your way out, Meidaimae station at the crossing of both Keio lines is nearby (ask for directions).
Yoyogi PA (代々木)
Access: Nobori only
A pathetic one-lane excuse for a parking area quite literally suspended three stories above the earth. Climbing over the fence would be easy if the drop weren't likely to kill you; there's also an expressway entrance nearby, but as noted earlier, walking on it is highly illegal and dangerous to boot. The third option was shown to me by a janitor to whom I pleaded my distress: at the furthestmost tip (from your arrival point) of the building is a door, which leads to a staircase, which leads outside. The doors along the route may, or may not, be locked. Once you do get out, one block straight and a few to the right will get you to Yoyogi station on the Yamanote/O-Edo lines. (Odakyu line Minami-Shinjuku station is also nearby.)
Note that it might theoretically even be possible to get into the PA this way, literally through the back door, but I wouldn't recommend it -- if the doors are locked you're out of luck, westbound is towards Tokyo, not out of it, the Shuto splits into about 17 different directions soon after the PA, and the PA deservedly gets little enough traffic as it is. And you'll annoy the friendly janitor.
Shuto 6 (高速6号)
Connecting to: Jōban
Kahei PA (加平）
Access: Kudari only
Located beside a highway entrance spiral, this one may actually be accessible from the ground. Kita-Ayase (北綾瀬) station on the 'Tokyo Metro' Chiyoda subway line is about half a kilometer to the east along the large road that crosses under the highway between the entrances.
Connecting to: Tōhoku, Jōban
Shuto S1 becomes C2 and merges briefly with 6 before splitting off again and heading off to Tokyo Bay. Confused? You will be.
Kawaguchi PA (川口）
Last verified: Never
Well, I can offer you the reassuring advice that it exists. And you even have a 50% chance of going in the right direction.
Tokyo Gaikan Expressway (東京外環自動車道)
Connecting to: Kan'etsu, Tōhoku, Jōban
Niikura PA (新倉）
Access: Both directions
Small. Close to Wakō-shi. Often omitted even from highway maps since it doesn't belong to either the kousokudouro or the shuto systems!
Will Ferguson has written two informative and entertaining books about hitchhiking in Japan.
The former is a better book for someone who intends to take the journey, while the second is a good read, in the style of the Bill Bryson travel books.