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==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
  
The Hebrew alphabet consists entirely of consonants, though some can function as vowels. Vowels are indicated with a system of dots and dashes next to the letters, but these are usually omitted except in Bibles and children's books. It is common for words, especially foreign words, to be spelled in more than one way; the Abu'l`afia Synagogue has five different spellings of its name on its signs.
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The Hebrew alphabet consists entirely of consonants (an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abjad abjad]), though some can function as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mater_lectionis vowels]. Vowels are indicated with a system of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niqqud dots and dashes] next to the letters, but these are normally omitted except in Bibles and children's books. It is common for words, especially foreign words, to be spelled in more than one way; the ''Abu-l`afia''  Synagogue has five different spellings of its name on its signs.
  
The accent is usually on the last syllable; most of the exceptions are segolates (words in which ''segol'', the e-sound, was inserted after the accent), such as ''elef'' "thousand". Some words have a diphthong "ua" or "ia" which is one syllable but sounds like two, like English "oil". This is called ''pattaḥ g'nuva'' "stolen a-sound" and occurs in ''shavu`a'' "week", which is accented on the "u".
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The stress is usually on the last syllable; most of the exceptions are segol-ates (words in which ''segol'', the /e/-sound), such as ''elef'' "thousand". Some words have a diphthong "ua" or "ia" which is one syllable but sounds like two, like English "oil". This is called ''pata<u>h</u> gnuva'' "stolen /a/-sound" and occurs in שבוע ''shavua[`]''&nbsp; "week", which is stressed on the ''-u-.''
  
Six letters (בגדכפת) are pronounced differently when they have a dot, or ''daghesh'' in them. In conversational Hebrew, only three (בכפ) are pronounced differently when they contain a ''daghesh''.
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In conversational Hebrew, only three letters (בכפ) are pronounced differently when they contain a dot in the center called a ''dagesh''.
  
Five letters (מנצפכ) have a different form at the end of a word (םןץףך, respectively). These are named by adding סופית (''so-FEET'') "final" to the name of the letter, e.g. נון סופית (Noon So-feet)
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Five letters (מנצפכ) have a different form at the end of a word (םןץףך, respectively). These are named by adding סופית (''sofit - so-FEET'') "final" to the name of the letter, e.g. נון סופית (''nun sofit - noon so-feet'')
  
The letter ''shin'' is pronounced differently according to the position of the dot over it.
+
; <big> א </big>&nbsp; alef (<big>'</big>, a): glottal-stop {{IPA|/ʔ/}} or silent (sometimes used as the letter '''a''' when rendering English in Hebrew)
 +
; <big> ב בּ </big>&nbsp; bet, vet (b, v): with a dot like '''''b'''ig''; without a dot like ''mo'''v'''e''
 +
; <big> ג  </big>&nbsp; gimel (g) : like '''''g'''o''
 +
; <big> ד </big>&nbsp; dalet (d) : like '''''d'''ark''
 +
; <big> ה </big>&nbsp; he (h) : like '''''h'''e'' or silent at the end of a word with a preceding ''-a'' or ''-e''
 +
; <big> ו </big>&nbsp; vav (v, o, u) : like '''''v'''iolin''; some dialects pronounce as '''''w'''eek''; also '''''o'''r'' or ''m'''oo'''n'' when used as a vowel
 +
; <big> ז </big>&nbsp; zayin (z) : like '''''z'''oo''
 +
; <big> ח </big>&nbsp; <u>h</u>et (<u>h</u>) : Normally as Scottish '''ch''' in ''lo'''ch''''' and as German ''Ba'''ch''''' {{IPA|/χ/}}. Some people pronounce it as the Arabic '''ح''' {{IPA|/ħ/}}
 +
; <big> ט </big>&nbsp; tet (t) : as '''t''' in ''s'''t'''ick''
 +
; <big> י </big>&nbsp; yud (y, e, i) : like '''''y'''et''; also ''s'''ay''''' or ''hon'''ey''''' when used as a vowel
 +
; <big> כ כּ ך </big>&nbsp; kaf, khaf (k, kh) : with a dot like ''s'''k'''ip''; without a dot like the Scottish '''ch''' in ''lo'''ch''''' and as German ''Ba'''ch''''' {{IPA|/χ/}}
 +
; <big> ל </big>&nbsp; lamed (l) : like '''''l'''eave'', pronounced more forward in the mouth.
 +
; <big> מ ם </big>&nbsp; mem (m) : like '''''m'''other''
 +
; <big> נ ן </big>&nbsp; nun (n) : like '''''n'''ever''
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; <big> ס </big>&nbsp; samekh (s) : like '''''s'''ome''
 +
; <big> ע &nbsp; `</big>ayin (<big>`</big>) : similar to Cockney pronunciation of ''wa'''t'''er'' {{IPA|/ʔ/}} and sometimes silent. Some people pronounce it as a constriction of the throat as in the Arabic '''ع''' {{IPA|/ʕ/}}
 +
; <big> פ פּ ף </big>&nbsp; peh, feh (p, f) : with a dot like ''s'''p'''oon''; without a dot ''o'''ff'''''
 +
; <big> צ ץ </big>&nbsp; tsadi (ts) : as ''boo'''ts'''''
 +
; <big> ק </big>&nbsp; qof (q) : As in ''s'''k'''ip''
 +
; <big> ר </big>&nbsp; resh (r) : pronounced as the French '''r''' {{IPA|[ʁ]}}. Some pronounce it rolled as in Spanish ''bu'''rr'''o'' {{IPA|[r]}}
 +
; <big> שׁ שׂ </big>&nbsp; sin, shin (sh, s) : with a right-hand dot like '''''sh'''oot'' {{IPA|[ʃ]}}, or with a left-hand dot like '''''s'''ee''
 +
; <big> ת </big>&nbsp; tav (t) : as '''t''' in ''s'''t'''ick''
  
 +
Adding an apostrophe (''geresh'') to some letters may change their sounds.
  
; א aleph : glottal stop or silent ('sometimes used as the letter '''a''' when rendering English in Hebrew')
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; <big> <span dir="rtl"> ג' </span> </big> : as '''j''' in '''''j'''am'' {{IPA|[dʒ]}}
; ב בּ bet, vet : with a dot like '''b'''ear; without a dot like ma'''v'''en
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; <big> <span dir="rtl"> ז' </span> </big> : as '''s''' in ''plea'''s'''ure'' {{IPA|[ʒ]}}
; ג גּ gimel, ghimel : like '''g'''one; some dialects pronounce without a dot similar to French quat'''r'''e or and Arabic '''غ'''
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; <big> <span dir="rtl"> צ' ץ' </span> </big> &nbsp;&nbsp; (tsh) : as '''ch''' in '''''ch'''at'' {{IPA|[tʃ]}}
; ד דּ dalet, dhalet : like '''d'''u'''d'''e; some dialects pronounce without a dot similar to 'ba'''th'''e
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; ה he : like '''h'''arp; silent at the end of a word, unless it has a dot in it
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; ו vav : like '''v'''iolin; some dialects pronounce as '''w'''eek; also '''o'''r or t'''u'''ne when used as a vowel
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; ז zayin : like '''z'''any
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; ח ḥet : aspirated '''h''' as in the Arabic '''ح'''; some pronounce it as the Scottish lo'''ch'''
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; ט ṭet : hard '''t''' like '''t'''uck
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; י yud : like '''y'''et; also s'''ay''' or hon'''ey''' when used as a vowel
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; כ כּ ך kaf, khaf : with a dot like '''k'''eep; without a dot like the Scottish lo'''ch'''
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; ל lamed : like '''l'''eave
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; מ ם mem : like '''m'''other
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; נ ן nun : like '''n'''ever
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; ס samekh : like '''s'''ome
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; ע `ayin : constriction of the throat as in the Arabic '''ع'''; similar to Cockney pronunciation of wa'''t'''er
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; פ פּ ף peh, pheh : with a dot like u'''p'''on; without a dot el'''f'''
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; צ ץ ṣadi : hard '''s''' as in the Arabic '''ص'''; some pronounce it simply as boo'''ts'''
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; ק qof : as in the Arabic '''ق''', similar to '''k'''ite, but from the part of the throat where one would pronounce '''g'''; some pronounce it as simply as boo'''k'''
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; ר resh : rolled as in Spanish bu'''rr'''o
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; שׁ שׂ sin, shin : with a right-hand dot like '''sh'''oot, or with a left-hand dot like '''s'''eem
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; ת תּ tav, thav : softer '''t''' like ba'''t'''; some dialects pronounce without a dot as gla'''ss''' or tee'''th'''
+
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
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{{infobox|Common signs|
 
{{infobox|Common signs|
; OPEN :
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OPEN - פתוח (''patua<u>h</u> - pah-TU-akh'')<br />
; CLOSED :
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CLOSED - סגור (''sagur - sah-GUR'')<br />
; ENTRANCE :
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ENTRANCE - כניסה (''knisah - k-nee-SAH'')<br />
; EXIT :
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EXIT - יציאה (''yetsi'ah - yet-see-AH'')<br />
; PUSH :
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PUSH - דחוף (''d<u>h</u>of - d-KHOF'')<br />
; PULL :
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PULL - משוך (''msho<u>h</u> - m-SHOKH'')<br />
; TOILET :
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TOILET - שרותים (''sherutim - sher-oo-TEEM'')<br />
; MEN :
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MEN - גברים (''gvarim - g-va-REEM'')<br />
; WOMEN :
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WOMEN - נשים (''nashim - nah-SHEEM'')<br />
; FORBIDDEN :}}
+
FORBIDDEN - אסור (''asur - ah-SOOR'')}}
  
;Hello. (Peace) :שלום. (''shalom - shah-LOHM'')<br>The Hebrew greeting, literally "peace."  The English "Hi" is also used.
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;Hello. (Peace) : .שלום (''shalom - shah-LOHM'')<br>The Hebrew greeting, literally "peace."  The English "Hi" is also used.
;Bye. (Peace) :שלום. (''shalom - shah-LOHM'')<br>Yes, the greeting is the same for the start and end of conversation. See also "See you later".
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;Bye. (Peace) : .שלום (''shalom - shah-LOHM'')<br>Yes, the greeting is the same for the start and end of conversation. See also "See you later".
;See you later. :להתראות. (''lehitra'ot - leh-hit-rah-'OHT'')<br>The most common farewell greeting, besides the English "Bye". Again, the English "Bye" is also used.
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;See you later. : .להתראות (''lehitra'ot - leh-hit-rah-'OHT'')<br>The most common farewell greeting, besides the English "Bye". Again, the English "Bye" is also used.
;Good morning. :בוקר טוב (''boker tov - BOH-ker TOHV'')
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;Good morning. : .בוקר טוב (''boker tov - BOH-ker TOHV'')
;Good afternoon. :צהריים טובים (''tsohorayim tovim - tsoh-hoh-RAH-yeem toh-VEEM'') (literally: "good noon", afternoon is אחר-צהריים - ''ahar tsohorayim tovim - aKHAR tsoh-hoh-RAH-yeem toh-VEEM'')
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;Good afternoon. : .צהריים טובים (''tsohorayim tovim - tsoh-hoh-RAH-yeem toh-VEEM'') (literally: "good noon", afternoon is אחר-צהריים - ''a<u>h</u>ar tsohorayim tovim - aKHAR tsoh-hoh-RAH-yeem toh-VEEM'')
;Good evening. :ערב טוב (''erev tov - EH-rev TOHV'')
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;Good evening. : .ערב טוב (''`erev tov - EH-rev TOHV'')
;Good night. :לילה טוב (''laylah tov - LIGH-lah TOHV'')
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;Good night. : .לילה טוב (''laylah tov - LIGH-lah TOHV'')
 
;How are you? (What's your wellbeing/peace?)- addressing to a man. :&#8235;מה שלומך?&#8236; (''mah shlomkha? - mah shlom-KHAH'')
 
;How are you? (What's your wellbeing/peace?)- addressing to a man. :&#8235;מה שלומך?&#8236; (''mah shlomkha? - mah shlom-KHAH'')
 
;How are you? (What's your wellbeing/peace?)- addressing to a woman. :&#8235;מה שלומך?&#8236; (''mah shlomekh? - mah shloh-MEKH'')
 
;How are you? (What's your wellbeing/peace?)- addressing to a woman. :&#8235;מה שלומך?&#8236; (''mah shlomekh? - mah shloh-MEKH'')
;How are you? (What's being heard?). :&#8235;מה נשמע?&#8236; (''mah nishma? - mah nish-MAH'')
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;How are you? (What's being heard?). :&#8235;מה נשמע?&#8236; (''mah nishma[`]? - mah nish-MAH'')
;What's up? (What's happening?).  : ?מה קורה (''mah kore? - mah kor-EH'')
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;What's up? (What's happening?).  : ?מה קורה (''mah koreh? - mah kor-EH'')
; Thank you. :תודה (''todah - toh-DAH'')
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;What's up #2? (What are the matters?).  : ?מה העיניינים (''mah ha-`inyanim? - mah ha-`in-ya-NIM?'')
; Please/ You're welcome. :בבקשה (''bevakashah - be-vah-kuh-SHAH'')
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; Thank you. : .תודה (''todah - toh-DAH'')
; Excuse me. :סליחה (''slihah - slee-KHAH'')
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; Please/ You're welcome (In request). : .בבקשה (''bevakashah - be-vah-kuh-SHAH'')
; I don't understand. (said by a man). :אני לא מבין (''ani lo mevin - ahni loh meh-VEEN'')
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; Excuse me. (Forgiveness) : .סליחה (''sli<u>h</u>ah - slee-KHAH'')
; I don't understand. (said by a woman). :אני לא מבינה (''ani lo mevinah - ahni loh meh-VEENA'')
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; I don't understand. (said by a man). : .אני לא מבין (''ani lo mevin - ahni loh meh-VEEN'')
 +
; I don't understand. (said by a woman). : .אני לא מבינה (''ani lo mevinah - ahni loh meh-VEENA'')
  
; What is your name? (said to a man). :?מה שמך (''ma shimcha'')
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; What is your name? (said to a man). : ?מה שמך (''ma shimkha'')
; What is your name? (said to a woman). :?מה שמך (''ma shmech'')
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; What is your name? (said to a woman). : ?מה שמך (''ma shmekh'')
; My name is... : שמי  ("shmi")
+
; My name is... : שמי  (''shmi'')
 +
; My name is #2 (literally: I am called...) : קוראים לי (''kor'im li - kor-'EEM lee ...'')
 +
; How much is it?: כמה זה? (''kamah zeh? - KA-mah zeh'')
 +
; Cash : מזומן ("me-zu-MAN")
 +
; Cash only : מזומן בלבד (''mezuman bil-vad - me-zu-MAN beel-VAD'');
 +
; Credit : אשראי (''ashra'i - ash-RA-'ee'');
  
 
===Pronouns (כינויי גוף ''kinuye guf'')===
 
===Pronouns (כינויי גוף ''kinuye guf'')===
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; He :הוא (''hu - hoo'')
 
; He :הוא (''hu - hoo'')
 
; She :היא (''hi - hee'')
 
; She :היא (''hi - hee'')
; We :אנחנו (''anahnu - ah-NAKH-noo'')
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; We :אנחנו (''ana<u>h</u>nu - ah-NAKH-noo'')
 
; You (plural, masc.) :אתם (''atem - ah-TEM'')
 
; You (plural, masc.) :אתם (''atem - ah-TEM'')
 
; You (plural, fem.) :אתן (''aten - ah-TEN'')
 
; You (plural, fem.) :אתן (''aten - ah-TEN'')
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; Where from? :&#8235;מאיפה\מאין?&#8236; (''me'eifoh?/me'ayn? - meh-EY-foh/meh-Ah-een'')
 
; Where from? :&#8235;מאיפה\מאין?&#8236; (''me'eifoh?/me'ayn? - meh-EY-foh/meh-Ah-een'')
 
; When? :&#8235;מתי?&#8236; (''matai? - mah-TIGH'')
 
; When? :&#8235;מתי?&#8236; (''matai? - mah-TIGH'')
; Why? :&#8235;למה?&#8236; (''lamah? - LAH-mah''), &#8235;מדוע?&#8236; (''madua'? - mah-DOOah'')
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; Why? :&#8235;למה?&#8236; (''lamah? - LAH-mah''; lit. "What for?"), &#8235;מדוע?&#8236; (''madua[`]? - mah-DOOah'')
 
; How much? (also "how many") :&#8235;כמה?&#8236; (''kamah? - KAH-mah'')
 
; How much? (also "how many") :&#8235;כמה?&#8236; (''kamah? - KAH-mah'')
 
; Where are you from?  
 
; Where are you from?  
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:When speaking to a female: &#8235;את מדברת אנגלית?&#8236; (''at medaberet anglit? - aht meh-dah-BEH-ret ahn-GLEET?'')
 
:When speaking to a female: &#8235;את מדברת אנגלית?&#8236; (''at medaberet anglit? - aht meh-dah-BEH-ret ahn-GLEET?'')
  
===Numbers (מספרים ''misparim'')===
+
===Nominal Numbers (מספרים ''misparim'')===
 +
Hebrew has no true neuter. As such, numbers must agree with the subject in gender. When not describing a subject, the feminine is used (מספר סתמי).
  
 
; 0 :אפס (''efes - EH-fess'')
 
; 0 :אפס (''efes - EH-fess'')
; 1 :אחת (''ahat - ah-KHAT'')
+
; 1 :אחת (''a<u>h</u>at - ah-KHAT'') masc.: אחד (''eh-KHAD'')
; 2 :שתיים (''shtayim - SHTAH-yeem'')
+
; 2 :שתיים (''shtayim - SHTAH-yeem'') masc.: שניים (''sh-NA-yim'')
; 3 :שלש (''shalosh - shah-LOSH'')
+
; 3 :שלוש (''shalosh - shah-LOSH'') masc.: שלושה (''shlo-SHAH'')
; 4 :ארבע (''arba' - AHR-bah'')
+
; 4 :ארבע (''arba[`] - AHR-bah'') masc.: ארבעה (''ahr-ba-AH'')
; 5 :חמש (''hamesh - khah-MESH'')
+
; 5 :חמש (''<u>h</u>amesh - khah-MESH'') masc.: חמשה (''khah-mee-SHAH'')
; 6 :שש (''shesh - shesh'')
+
; 6 :שש (''shesh - shesh'') masc.: ששה (''shi-SHAH'')
; 7 :שבע (''sheva' - SHEH-vah'')
+
; 7 :שבע (''sheva[`] - SHEH-vah'') masc.: שבעה (''shiv-AH'')
; 8 :שמונה (''shmoneh - shmo-NEH'')
+
; 8 :שמונה (''shmoneh - shmo-NEH'') masc.: שמונה (''shmo-NAH'')
; 9 :תשע (''tesha' - TEY-shah'')
+
; 9 :תשע (''tesha[`] - TEY-shah'') masc.: תשעה (''tish-AH'')
; 10 :עשר ('''eser - EH-sehr'')
+
; 10 :עשר ('''eser - EH-sehr'') masc.: עשרה (''ah-sa-RAH'')
; 11 :אחת עשרה (''ahat-'esreh - ah-khat es-REH'')
+
; 11 :אחת עשרה (''a<u>h</u>at-`esreh - ah-khat es-REH'') masc.: אחד עשר (''ah-KHAD ah-SAR'')
; 12 :שתים עשרה (''shtem-'esreh - shtem es-REH'')
+
; 12 :שתים עשרה (''shtem-`esreh - shtem es-REH'') masc.: שניים עשר (''SHNEH-yim ah-SAR'')
; 13 :שלוש עשרה (''shlosh-'esreh - shlosh es-REH'')
+
; 13 :שלוש עשרה (''shlosh-`esreh - shlosh es-REH'') masc.: שלושה עשר (''shlo-SHAH ah-SAR'')
; 14 :ארבע עשרה (''arba'-'esreh - ar-bah es-REH'')
+
; 14 :ארבע עשרה (''arba'-`esreh - ar-bah es-REH'') masc.: ארבעה עשר (''ar-ba-AH ah-SAR'')
; 15 :חמש עשרה (''hamesh-'esreh - kha-mesh es-REH'')
+
; 15 :חמש עשרה (''<u>h</u>amesh-'esreh - kha-mesh es-REH'') masc.: חמשה עשר (kha-mi-SHAH ah-SAR)
; 16 :שש עשרה (''shesh-'esreh - shesh es-REH'')
+
; 16 :שש עשרה (''shesh-`esreh - shesh es-REH'') masc.: ששה עשר (''shi-SHAH ah-SAR'')
; 17 :שבע עשרה (''shva'-'esreh - shva es-REH'')
+
; 17 :שבע עשרה (''shva[`]-`esreh - shva es-REH'') masc.: שבעה עשר (''shiv-AH ah-SAR'')
; 18 :שמונה עשרה (''shmonah-'esreh - shmo-nah es-REH'')
+
; 18 :שמונה עשרה (''shmonah-`esreh - shmo-nah es-REH'') masc.: שמונה עשר (''shmo-NAH ah-SAR'')
; 19 :תשע עשרה (''tshah-'esreh - tshah es-REH'')
+
; 19 :תשע עשרה (''tshah-'esreh - tshah es-REH'') masc.: תשעה עשר (''tish-AH ah-SAR'')
; 20 :עשרים ('''esrim - es-REEM'')
+
; 20 :עשרים (''`esrim - es-REEM'') (m./f.)
; 25 :עשרים וחמש ('''esrim vehamesh - es-REEM ve-khah-MESH'')
+
; 25 :עשרים וחמש (''`esrim ve<u>h</u>amesh - es-REEM ve-khah-MESH'') masc.: עשרים וחמשה (esrim VE<u>h</u>ami-SHA
 
; 30 :שלשים (''shloshim - shlo-SHEEM'')
 
; 30 :שלשים (''shloshim - shlo-SHEEM'')
; 40 :ארבעים (''arba'im - ar-bah-EEM'')
+
; 40 :ארבעים (''arba`im - ar-bah-EEM'')
; 50 :חמשים (''hamishim - khah-mee-SHEEM'')
+
; 50 :חמשים (''<u>h</u>amishim - khah-mee-SHEEM'')
 
; 60 :ששים (''shishim - shee-SHEEM'')
 
; 60 :ששים (''shishim - shee-SHEEM'')
; 70 :שבעים (''shiv'im - shiv-EEM'')
+
; 70 :שבעים (''shiv`im - shiv-EEM'')
 
; 80 :שמונים (''shmonim - shmo-NEEM'')
 
; 80 :שמונים (''shmonim - shmo-NEEM'')
; 90 :תשעים (''tish'im - tish-EEM'')
+
; 90 :תשעים (''tish`im - tish-EEM'')
 
; 100 :מאה (''me'ah - MEH-'ah'')
 
; 100 :מאה (''me'ah - MEH-'ah'')
 
; 200 :מאתיים (''matayim - m'ah-TAH-yeem'')
 
; 200 :מאתיים (''matayim - m'ah-TAH-yeem'')
 
; 300 :שלש מאות (''shlosh-me'ot - sh-LOSH meh-'OHT'')
 
; 300 :שלש מאות (''shlosh-me'ot - sh-LOSH meh-'OHT'')
 
; 1000 :אלף (''elef - EH-lef'')
 
; 1000 :אלף (''elef - EH-lef'')
; 1% :אחוז (''ahuz - ah-KHOOZ ah-KHAD'')
+
; 1% :אחוז (''a<u>h</u>uz - ah-KHOOZ ah-KHAD'', masc.)
; 5% :חמישה אחוזים (''hamishah ahuzim - kha-misha ah-KHOOZIM'')  
+
; 5% :חמישה אחוזים (''<u>h</u>amishah a<u>h</u>uzim - kha-misha ah-KHOOZIM'')  
; 100% :מאה אחוז (''me'ah ahuz - MEH-'ah ah-KHOOZ'')
+
; 100% :מאה אחוזים (''me'ah a<u>h</u>uzim - MEH-'ah ah-khoo-ZIM'')
; Half :חצי (''hetsi - KHE-tsee'')
+
; Half :חצי (''<u>h</u>etsi - KHE-tsee'')
; Quarter :רבע (''reva' - REH-vah'')
+
; Quarter :רבע (''reva[`] - REH-vah'')
 
; More :יותר (''yoter - yoh-TEHR'')
 
; More :יותר (''yoter - yoh-TEHR'')
; Less :פחות (''pahot - pah-KHOHT'')
+
; Less :פחות (''pa<u>h</u>ot - pah-KHOHT'')
  
 
===Time (זמן ''zman'')===
 
===Time (זמן ''zman'')===
Line 158: Line 168:
 
; Today :היום (''hayom - hah-YOHM'')
 
; Today :היום (''hayom - hah-YOHM'')
 
; Yesterday :אתמול (''etmol - et-MOHL'')
 
; Yesterday :אתמול (''etmol - et-MOHL'')
; Tomorrow :מחר (''mahar - mah-KHAHR'')
+
; Tomorrow :מחר (''ma<u>h</u>ar - mah-KHAHR'')
 
; The day before yesterday :שלשום (''shilshom - shil-SHOHM'')
 
; The day before yesterday :שלשום (''shilshom - shil-SHOHM'')
; The day after tomorrow :מחרתיים (''mahratayim - makh-rah-TAH-yeem'')
+
; The day after tomorrow :מחרתיים (''ma<u>h</u>ratayim - makh-rah-TAH-yeem'')
  
  
====Days of the week (ימי השבוע ''yame hashavua''')====
+
====Days of the week (ימי השבוע ''yame hashavua[`]'')====
  
 
Except for Shabbat, these are ordinal numbers. But both these and the names of the first 6 letters in the Hebrew Alfa-Beit are used.
 
Except for Shabbat, these are ordinal numbers. But both these and the names of the first 6 letters in the Hebrew Alfa-Beit are used.
Line 170: Line 180:
 
; Monday :יום שני (''yom sheni - yohm shey-NEE'')
 
; Monday :יום שני (''yom sheni - yohm shey-NEE'')
 
; Tuesday :יום שלישי (''yom shlishi - yohm shlee-SHEE'')
 
; Tuesday :יום שלישי (''yom shlishi - yohm shlee-SHEE'')
; Wednesday :יום רביעי (''yom revi'i - yohm rvee-EE'')
+
; Wednesday :יום רביעי (''yom revi`i - yohm rvee-EE'')
; Thursday :יום חמישי (''yom hamishi - yohm khah-mee-SHEE'')
+
; Thursday :יום חמישי (''yom <u>h</u>amishi - yohm khah-mee-SHEE'')
 
; Friday :יום ששי (''yom shishi - yohm shee-SHEE'')
 
; Friday :יום ששי (''yom shishi - yohm shee-SHEE'')
 
; Saturday :שבת (''shabat - shah-BAHT'')
 
; Saturday :שבת (''shabat - shah-BAHT'')
  
====Months (חודשים ''hodashim'')====
+
====Months (חודשים ''<u>h</u>odashim'')====
  
 
In everyday life, most Israelis use the Gregorian Calendar. The month names pronunciation resembles Central-European (e.g. German) pronunciation.
 
In everyday life, most Israelis use the Gregorian Calendar. The month names pronunciation resembles Central-European (e.g. German) pronunciation.
Line 192: Line 202:
 
; December : דצמבר ("Detsember")
 
; December : דצמבר ("Detsember")
  
For holidays and events, Israeli Jews and Jews worldwide use a lunisolar calendar, in which the month begins at the new moon and a thirteenth month is added every few years. The months with Tishrei (Sept.-Oct.) and run through Elul (August-September); thus Elul 5760 is followed by Tishrei 5761. Besides meaning "spring" and "Nisan", "Aviv" is also the name of a stage that the growth of barley reaches at that time.
+
For holidays and events, Israeli Jews and Jews worldwide use a lunisolar calendar, in which the month begins at the new moon and a thirteenth month is added every few years. The months start with Tishrei (Sept.-Oct.) and run through Elul (August-September); thus Elul 5760 is followed by Tishrei 5761. "Aviv," the word for "spring," is sometimes substituted for "Nisan" and is also the name of a stage that the growth of barley reaches at that time.
  
 
; Tishrei : תשרי (''tishrey - tish-REY'')
 
; Tishrei : תשרי (''tishrey - tish-REY'')
; Heshvan : חשון (''ḥeshvan - ḥesh-VAN'')
+
; Heshvan : חשון (''<u>h</u>eshvan - kḥesh-VAN'', also מרחשון ''mar-khash-VAN'')
 
; Kislev : כסלו (''kislev - kis-LEV'')
 
; Kislev : כסלו (''kislev - kis-LEV'')
; Tevet : טבת (''tevet - tey-VET'')
+
; Tevet : טבת (''tevet - teh-VET'')
; Shevat : שבט (''shevat - shuh-VAT'')
+
; Shevat : שבט (''shevat - SHVAT'')
 
; Adar : אדר (''adar - ah-DAR'')
 
; Adar : אדר (''adar - ah-DAR'')
 
; Second Adar (the leap month) : אדר שני (''adar sheni - ah-DAR shey-NEE'') or אדר ב (''adar beth - ah-DAR beth)
 
; Second Adar (the leap month) : אדר שני (''adar sheni - ah-DAR shey-NEE'') or אדר ב (''adar beth - ah-DAR beth)
; Nisan : ניסן (''nisan - nee-SAHN'')
+
; Nissan : ניסן (''nisan - nee-SAHN'')
 
; Iyar : אייר (''iyar - ee-YAHR'')
 
; Iyar : אייר (''iyar - ee-YAHR'')
 
; Sivan : סיון (''sivan - see-VAHN'')
 
; Sivan : סיון (''sivan - see-VAHN'')
Line 211: Line 221:
  
 
; Day :יום (''yom - yom'')
 
; Day :יום (''yom - yom'')
; Week :שבוע (''shavua' - shah-VOOah'')
+
; Week :שבוע (''shavua[`] - shah-VOOah'')
; Month :חודש (''hodesh - KHO-desh'')
+
; Month :חודש (''<u>h</u>odesh - KHO-desh'')
 
; Year :שנה (''shanah - shah-NAH'')
 
; Year :שנה (''shanah - shah-NAH'')
; Hour :שעה (''sha'ah - shah-AH'')
+
; Hour :שעה (''sha`ah - shah-AH'')
 
; Minute :דקה (''daqah - dah-KAH'')
 
; Minute :דקה (''daqah - dah-KAH'')
 
; Second :שניה (''shniyah - shnee-YAH'')
 
; Second :שניה (''shniyah - shnee-YAH'')
 
; Time :זמן (''zman - zmahn'')
 
; Time :זמן (''zman - zmahn'')
  
====Seasons (עונות '''onot'')====
+
====Seasons (עונות ''`onot'')====
  
 
; Spring :אביב (''aviv - ah-VEEV'')
 
; Spring :אביב (''aviv - ah-VEEV'')
 
; Summer :קיץ (''kayits - KAH-yits'')
 
; Summer :קיץ (''kayits - KAH-yits'')
 
; Autumn :סתיו (''stav - stahv'')
 
; Autumn :סתיו (''stav - stahv'')
; Winter :חורף (''horef - KHO-ref'')
+
; Winter :חורף (''<u>h</u>oref - KHO-ref'')
; What time is it? :מה השעה? (''mah hasha'ah? - mah hah-shah-AH?'')
+
; What time is it? :מה השעה? (''mah hasha`ah? - mah hah-shah-AH?'' lit. ''What is the hour?'')
  
===Colors (צבעים ''tsva'im'')===
+
===Colors (צבעים ''tsva`im'')===
; black : שחור (''shahor - sha-KHOR'')
+
; black : שחור (''sha<u>h</u>or - sha-KHOR'')
 
; white : לבן (''lavan - la-VAN'')
 
; white : לבן (''lavan - la-VAN'')
 
; gray : אפור (''afor - a-FOR'')
 
; gray : אפור (''afor - a-FOR'')
 
; red : אדום (''adom - a-DOM'')
 
; red : אדום (''adom - a-DOM'')
; blue : כחול (''kahol - ka-KHOL'')
+
; blue : כחול (''ka<u>h</u>ol - ka-KHOL'')
; yellow : צהוב (''tsahov - tza-HOV'')
+
; yellow : צהוב (''tsahov - tsa-HOV'')
 
; green : ירוק (''yaroq - ya-ROK'')
 
; green : ירוק (''yaroq - ya-ROK'')
 
; orange : כתום (''katom - ka-TOM'')
 
; orange : כתום (''katom - ka-TOM'')
 
; purple : סגול (''sagol - sa-GOL'')
 
; purple : סגול (''sagol - sa-GOL'')
; brown : חום (''hum - khum'')
+
; brown : חום (''<u>h</u>um - khum'')
  
===Transportation (תחבורה ''tahburah'')===
+
===Transportation (תחבורה ''ta<u>h</u>burah'')===
  
 
====Bus and train (אוטובוס ורכבת ''otobus verakevet'')====
 
====Bus and train (אוטובוס ורכבת ''otobus verakevet'')====
; How much is a ticket to _____? : כמה עולה כרטיס ל (''kamah 'ole kartis le___? - KA-ma `oLE karTIS le___?'')
+
; How much is a ticket to _____? : כמה עולה כרטיס ל (''kamah `ole kartis le___? - KA-ma `oLE karTIS le___?'')
; One ticket to _____, please. : כרטיס אחד ל___, בבקשה (''kartis ehad le___, bevakashah - karTIS eKHAD le___, bevakaSHA'')
+
; One ticket to _____, please. : כרטיס אחד ל___, בבקשה (''kartis e<u>h</u>ad le___, bevakashah - karTIS eKHAD le___, bevakaSHA'')
; Where does this train/bus go? : ?לאן הרכבת הזאת נוסעת?/לאן האוטובוס הזה נוסע (''le'an harakevet hazot nosa'at?/le'an ha'otobus haze nosea'? - le'anleAN haraKEvet haZOT noSA`at?/leAN haOtobus haZE noSEa?'')
+
; Where does this train/bus go? : ?לאן הרכבת הזאת נוסעת?/לאן האוטובוס הזה נוסע (''le'an harakevet hazot nosa`at?/le'an ha'otobus haze nosea[`]? - le'anleAN haraKEvet haZOT noSA`at?/leAN haOtobus haZE noSEa?'')
 
; Where is the train/bus to _____? : ?___איפה הרכבת ל___?/איפה האוטובוס ל (''eifoh harakevet le___?/eifoh ha'otobus le___? - EIfo haraKEvet le___?/EIfo haOtobus le___?'')
 
; Where is the train/bus to _____? : ?___איפה הרכבת ל___?/איפה האוטובוס ל (''eifoh harakevet le___?/eifoh ha'otobus le___? - EIfo haraKEvet le___?/EIfo haOtobus le___?'')
; Does this train/bus stop in _____? : הרכבת הזאת עוצרת ב___?/האוטובוס הזה עוצר ב(''harakevet hazot 'otseret be___?/ha'otobus haze 'otser be___? -  haraKEvet haZOT oTZEret be___?/haOtobus haZE oTZER be___?'')
+
; Does this train/bus stop in _____? : הרכבת הזאת עוצרת ב___?/האוטובוס הזה עוצר ב(''harakevet hazot `otseret be___?/ha'otobus haze `otser be___? -  haraKEvet haZOT oTSEret be___?/haOtobus haZE oTSER be___?'')
; When does the train/bus for _____ leave? : מתי יוצאת הרכבת ל___?/מתי יוצא האוטובוס ל (''matai yotset harakevet le___?/matai yotse ha'otobus le___? - maTAI yoTZET haraKEvet le___?/maTAI yoTZE haOtobus le___?'')
+
; When does the train/bus for _____ leave? : מתי יוצאת הרכבת ל___?/מתי יוצא האוטובוס ל (''matai yotset harakevet le___?/matai yotse ha'otobus le___? - maTAI yoTSET haraKEvet le___?/maTAI yoTSE haOtobus le___?'')
; When will this train/bus arrive in _____? : מתי הרכבת הזאת מגיעה ל___?/מתי האוטובוס הזה מגיע ל (''matai harakevet hazot magi'ah le___? matai ha'otobus haze magia' le___? - maTAI haraKEvet haZOT magi`A le___?/maTAI haOtobus haZE magi`A le___?'')
+
; When will this train/bus arrive in _____? : מתי הרכבת הזאת מגיעה ל___?/מתי האוטובוס הזה מגיע ל (''matai harakevet hazot magi`ah le___? matai ha'otobus haze magia[`] le___? - maTAI haraKEvet haZOT magi`A le___?/maTAI haOtobus haZE magi`A le___?'')
  
 
====Directions (כיוונים ''kivunim'')====
 
====Directions (כיוונים ''kivunim'')====
; How do I get to _____ ? : איך אני מגיע/ה ל (''eikh ani magia'/magi'ah le___? - eikh aNI maGI`a/magi`A(f) le___?'')
+
; How do I get to _____ ? : איך אני מגיע/ה ל (''eikh ani magia[`]/magi`ah le___? - eikh aNI maGI`a/magi`A(f) le___?'')
; ...the train station? : תחנת הרכבת (''...tahanat harakevet? - takhaNAT haraKEvet'')
+
; ...the train station? : תחנת הרכבת (''...ta<u>h</u>anat harakevet? - takhaNAT haraKEvet'')
; ...the bus station? : תחנת האוטובוס (''...tahanat ha'otobus? - takhaNAT haOtobus'')
+
; ...the bus station? : תחנת האוטובוס (''...ta<u>h</u>anat ha'otobus? - takhaNAT haOtobus'')
; ...the airport? : שדה התעופה (''...sde hate'ufah? - sde hateuFA'')
+
; ...the airport? : שדה התעופה (''...sde hate`ufah? - sde hateuFA'')
; ...downtown? : מרכז העיר (''...merkaz ha'ir? - merKAZ ha`IR'')
+
; ...downtown? : מרכז העיר (''...merkaz ha`ir? - merKAZ ha`IR'')
; ...the youth hostel? : אכסניית נוער (''...akhsaniyat no'ar? - akhsaniYAT NO`ar'')
+
; ...the youth hostel? : אכסניית נוער (''...akhsaniyat no`ar? - akhsaniYAT NO`ar'')
 
; ...the _____ hotel? : מלון (''...malon ___? - maLON ___?'')
 
; ...the _____ hotel? : מלון (''...malon ___? - maLON ___?'')
 
; ...the American/British/French/Chinese/Indian/Russian/Polish consulate? : הקונסוליה ה אמריקאית/בריטית/צרפתית/סינית/הודית/רוסית/פולנית (''konsuliyah ha'amerikait/habritit/hatsarfatit/hasinit/hahodit/harusit/hapolanit? - HaKonSULia ha ahmehriKAHit/BRItit/tsorfaTIT/SInit/HOdit/ruSIT/polaNIT?'')
 
; ...the American/British/French/Chinese/Indian/Russian/Polish consulate? : הקונסוליה ה אמריקאית/בריטית/צרפתית/סינית/הודית/רוסית/פולנית (''konsuliyah ha'amerikait/habritit/hatsarfatit/hasinit/hahodit/harusit/hapolanit? - HaKonSULia ha ahmehriKAHit/BRItit/tsorfaTIT/SInit/HOdit/ruSIT/polaNIT?'')
 
; Where are there a lot of... : איפה יש הרבה (''eifoh yesh harbeh... - EIfo yesh harBE...'')
 
; Where are there a lot of... : איפה יש הרבה (''eifoh yesh harbeh... - EIfo yesh harBE...'')
 
; ...hotels? : מלונות (''...melonot? - meloNOT'')
 
; ...hotels? : מלונות (''...melonot? - meloNOT'')
; ...restaurants? : מסעדות (''...mis'adot? - mis`aDOT'')
+
; ...restaurants? : מסעדות (''...mis`adot? - mis`aDOT'')
 
; ...bars? : ברים (''...barim? - BArim'')
 
; ...bars? : ברים (''...barim? - BArim'')
 
; ...things to see? : דברים לראות (''...dvarim lir'ot? - dvaRIM lirOT'')
 
; ...things to see? : דברים לראות (''...dvarim lir'ot? - dvaRIM lirOT'')
 
; Can you show me on the map? : אפשר להראות לי במפה (''efshar lehar'ot li bamapah? - efSHAR leharOT li bamaPA'')
 
; Can you show me on the map? : אפשר להראות לי במפה (''efshar lehar'ot li bamapah? - efSHAR leharOT li bamaPA'')
; street : רחוב (''rehov - reKHOV'')
+
; street : רחוב (''re<u>h</u>ov - reKHOV'')
 
; Go left. : לך שמאלה (''lekh smolah - lekh SMOla'')
 
; Go left. : לך שמאלה (''lekh smolah - lekh SMOla'')
 
; GO right. : לך ימינה (''lekh yeminah - lekh yaMIna'')
 
; GO right. : לך ימינה (''lekh yeminah - lekh yaMIna'')
Line 272: Line 282:
 
; straight ahead : ישר (''yashar - yaSHAR'')
 
; straight ahead : ישר (''yashar - yaSHAR'')
 
; towards the _____ : לכיוון (''lekivun ___ - lekiVUN'')
 
; towards the _____ : לכיוון (''lekivun ___ - lekiVUN'')
; past the _____ : אחרי ה (''ahrey ha___ - akhaREY'')
+
; past the _____ : אחרי ה (''a<u>h</u>rey ha___ - akhaREY'')
 
; before the _____ : לפני ה (''lifney ha___ - lifNEY'')
 
; before the _____ : לפני ה (''lifney ha___ - lifNEY'')
; Watch for the _____. : חפש את ה (''hapes et ha___ - khaPES et ha___'')
+
; Watch for the _____. : חפש את ה (''<u>h</u>apes et ha___ - khaPES et ha___'')
; intersection : צומת (''tsomet - TZOmet'')
+
; intersection : צומת (''tsomet - TSOmet'')
; north : צפון (''tsafon - tzaFON'')
+
; north : צפון (''tsafon - tsaFON'')
 
; south : דרום (''darom - daROM'')
 
; south : דרום (''darom - daROM'')
; east : מזרח (''mizrah - mizRAKH'')
+
; east : מזרח (''mizra<u>h</u> - mizRAKH'')
; west : מערב (''ma'arav - ma`aRAV'')
+
; west : מערב (''ma`arav - ma`aRAV'')
; uphill : במעלה ההר (''b`ma`aleh ha`har - b`ma`aLEH ha`HAR'')
+
; uphill : במעלה ההר (''b-ma`aleh ha-har - b`ma`aLEH ha`HAR'')
 
; downhill : במורד ההר (''b`morad ha`har - b`moRAD ha`HAR'')
 
; downhill : במורד ההר (''b`morad ha`har - b`moRAD ha`HAR'')
  
 
====Taxi (מונית ''monit'')====
 
====Taxi (מונית ''monit'')====
 
; Taxi! : מונית (''monit! - moNIT!'')
 
; Taxi! : מונית (''monit! - moNIT!'')
; Take me to _____, please. : קח אותי ל____, בבקשה (''qah oti le___, bevakashah - kakh oTI le___, bevakaSHA'')
+
; Take me to _____, please. : קח אותי ל____, בבקשה (''qa<u>h</u> oti le___, bevakashah - kakh oTI le___, bevakaSHA'')
; How much does it cost to get to _____? : כמה זה עולה עד ל (''kamah ze 'oleh li 'ad le___? - KAma ze `oLE `ad le___'')
+
; How much does it cost to get to _____? : כמה זה עולה עד ל (''kamah ze `oleh li `ad le___? - KAma ze `oLE `ad le___'')
; Take me there, please. : קח אותי לשם בבקשה (''qah oti lesham, bevakashah - kakh oTI leSHAM, bevakaSHA'')
+
; Take me there, please. : קח אותי לשם בבקשה (''qa<u>h</u> oti lesham, bevakashah - kakh oTI leSHAM, bevakaSHA'')
 
; Could you use a counter/taximeter, please? : תוכל להשתמש במונה בבקשה? (''tukhal lehishtamesh bemoneh bevakasha? - tuKHAL le-hish-ta-MESH be-moNEH be-va-ka-SHA?''). A counter/taximeter (מונה - moneh) gives the price based on certain factors such as travel time and distance (plus initial price), rather than a fixed overprice. Luggage costs extra in either case.
 
; Could you use a counter/taximeter, please? : תוכל להשתמש במונה בבקשה? (''tukhal lehishtamesh bemoneh bevakasha? - tuKHAL le-hish-ta-MESH be-moNEH be-va-ka-SHA?''). A counter/taximeter (מונה - moneh) gives the price based on certain factors such as travel time and distance (plus initial price), rather than a fixed overprice. Luggage costs extra in either case.
  
Line 297: Line 307:
 
In some religious villages and small towns there are very few if any places that open on Shabbat.
 
In some religious villages and small towns there are very few if any places that open on Shabbat.
  
; A table for one person/two people, please. : בבקשה, שולחן לאחד /לשניים (b'vakaSHA, shulKHAN l'ekhAD/ lishnAIYM)
+
; A table for one person/two people, please. : בבקשה, שולחן לאחד /לשניים (''b-vakasha shul<u>h</u>an l'e<u>h</u>ad/ lishnayim'' b'vakaSHA, shulKHAN l'ekhAD/ lishnAIYM)
 
; Can I look at the menu, please? : אפשר תפריט בבקשה (Efshar tafrit, b'vakasha?)
 
; Can I look at the menu, please? : אפשר תפריט בבקשה (Efshar tafrit, b'vakasha?)
; I'm a vegetarian. : אני צמחוני /אני צמחונית (Ani tzimkhoni (masc)/ Ani tzimkhonit (fem))
+
; I'm a vegetarian. : אני צמחוני /אני צמחונית (Ani tsim<u>h</u>oni (masc)/ Ani tsim<u>h</u>onit (fem))
 
; I don't eat beef. : אני לא אוכל/ אני לא אוכלת בקר (Ani lo okhel bakar (masc)/ Ani lo okhelet bakar(fem))
 
; I don't eat beef. : אני לא אוכל/ אני לא אוכלת בקר (Ani lo okhel bakar (masc)/ Ani lo okhelet bakar(fem))
 
; I only eat kosher food. : אני  אוכל /אוכלת רק אוכל כשר (Ani okhel (masc)/okhelet (fem) raq okhel kasher)
 
; I only eat kosher food. : אני  אוכל /אוכלת רק אוכל כשר (Ani okhel (masc)/okhelet (fem) raq okhel kasher)
; Can you make it "lite", please? (''less oil/butter/lard'') : אפשר עם פחות שמן בבקשה (Efshar im pakhot shemen bevakashah)
+
; Can you make it "lite", please? (''less oil/butter/lard'') : אפשר עם פחות שמן בבקשה (Efshar `im pa<u>h</u>ot shemen bevakashah)
; breakfast : ארוחת בוקר (Arukhat boqer)
+
; breakfast : ארוחת בוקר (Aru<u>h</u>at boqer)
; lunch : ארוחת צהריים (Arukhat tzohorayim)
+
; lunch : ארוחת צהריים (Aru<u>h</u>at tsohorayim)
; supper : ארוחת ערב (Arukhat erev)
+
; supper : ארוחת ערב (Aru<u>h</u>at `erev)
; I want _____. : אני רוצה  _____. (Ani rotzeh (masc); Ani rotzah (fem))
+
; I want _____. : אני רוצה  _____. (Ani rotseh (masc); Ani rotsah (fem))
; I would like to eat _____. : אני רוצה לאכול _____. (Ani rotzeh/ rotzah le'ekhol)
+
; I would like to eat _____. : אני רוצה לאכול _____. (Ani rotseh/ rotsah le'ekhol)
; chicken : עוף (Off)
+
; chicken : עוף (`Off)
 
; beef : בקר (Baqar)
 
; beef : בקר (Baqar)
 
; fish : דג (Dag)
 
; fish : דג (Dag)
 
; cheese :  גבינה (Gvinah)
 
; cheese :  גבינה (Gvinah)
; eggs : ביצה (Beitzah)
+
; eggs : ביצה (Beitsah)
 
; salad : סלט (Salat)
 
; salad : סלט (Salat)
; (fresh) vegetables : ירקות (Y'raqot)
+
; (fresh) vegetables : ירקות (Y-raqot)
 
; (fresh) fruit : פירות (Peirot)
 
; (fresh) fruit : פירות (Peirot)
; bread : לחם (Lekhem)
+
; bread : לחם (Le<u>h</u>em)
 
; toast : טוסט (Tost)
 
; toast : טוסט (Tost)
 
; noodles : נודלז (Nudelz)
 
; noodles : נודלז (Nudelz)
 
; pasta : פסטה (Pastah)
 
; pasta : פסטה (Pastah)
 
; rice : אורז (Orez)
 
; rice : אורז (Orez)
; chickpeas:  חומוס (Khumus)
+
; chickpeas:  חומוס (<u>h</u>umus)
: hummus: חומוס (Khumus)
+
: hummus: חומוס (<u>h</u>umus)
 
; May I have a glass of _____? : אפשר כוס (Efshar qos)
 
; May I have a glass of _____? : אפשר כוס (Efshar qos)
 
; May I have a cup of _____? : אפשר כוס (Efshar qos)
 
; May I have a cup of _____? : אפשר כוס (Efshar qos)
Line 328: Line 338:
 
; ...coffee : ...קפה (Kafeh)
 
; ...coffee : ...קפה (Kafeh)
 
; ...tea (''drink'') : תה (Teh)
 
; ...tea (''drink'') : תה (Teh)
; ...juice : ...מיץ (Mitz)
+
; ...juice : ...מיץ (Mits)
 
; ...(bubbly) water : ...סודה (Sodah)
 
; ...(bubbly) water : ...סודה (Sodah)
 
; ...water : ...מים (Mayim)
 
; ...water : ...מים (Mayim)
Line 334: Line 344:
 
; ...red/white wine : ...יין אדום. יין לבן (Yain adom / Yain lavan)
 
; ...red/white wine : ...יין אדום. יין לבן (Yain adom / Yain lavan)
 
; May I have some _____? : אפשר (Efshar)
 
; May I have some _____? : אפשר (Efshar)
; salt : מלח (Melakh)
+
; salt : מלח (Mela<u>h</u>)
; black pepper : פלפל שחור (Pilpel shakhor)
+
; black pepper : פלפל שחור (Pilpel sha<u>h</u>or)
; Excuse me, waiter? (''getting attention of server''): סליחה (Slikhah)
+
; Excuse me, waiter? (''getting attention of server''): סליחה (Sli<u>h</u>ah)
 
; I'm finished. : סיימתי (Siamti)
 
; I'm finished. : סיימתי (Siamti)
; It was delicious. : היה מצוין (Hayah metzuyan)
+
; It was delicious. : היה מצוין (Hayah metsuyan)
; Please clear the plates. : אפשר לפנות (Efshar l'fanot)
+
; Please clear the plates. : אפשר לפנות (Efshar l-fanot)
; The check, please. : אפשר חשבון, בבקשה (Efshar kheshbon, b'vakasha)
+
; The check, please. : אפשר חשבון, בבקשה (Efshar <u>h</u>eshbon, b-vakasha)
 
; Where is the bathroom ? : איפה השירותים ? (Eifo Hasherutim?)
 
; Where is the bathroom ? : איפה השירותים ? (Eifo Hasherutim?)
  
Line 346: Line 356:
 
[[ru:Иврит разговорник]]
 
[[ru:Иврит разговорник]]
 
{{usablephrasebook}}
 
{{usablephrasebook}}
 +
{{phrasebookguide}}

Revision as of 09:17, 29 January 2013

Modern Hebrew is spoken as a daily language in Israel and in parts of the Palestinian Territories. Biblical Hebrew is used as a religious language by Jews worldwide. It is written with a different alphabet than European languages, and is written from right to left.


Contents

Pronunciation guide

The Hebrew alphabet consists entirely of consonants (an abjad), though some can function as vowels. Vowels are indicated with a system of dots and dashes next to the letters, but these are normally omitted except in Bibles and children's books. It is common for words, especially foreign words, to be spelled in more than one way; the Abu-l`afia  Synagogue has five different spellings of its name on its signs.

The stress is usually on the last syllable; most of the exceptions are segol-ates (words in which segol, the /e/-sound), such as elef "thousand". Some words have a diphthong "ua" or "ia" which is one syllable but sounds like two, like English "oil". This is called patah gnuva "stolen /a/-sound" and occurs in שבוע shavua[`]  "week", which is stressed on the -u-.

In conversational Hebrew, only three letters (בכפ) are pronounced differently when they contain a dot in the center called a dagesh.

Five letters (מנצפכ) have a different form at the end of a word (םןץףך, respectively). These are named by adding סופית (sofit - so-FEET) "final" to the name of the letter, e.g. נון סופית (nun sofit - noon so-feet)

א   alef (', a)
glottal-stop (IPA: /ʔ/)
or silent (sometimes used as the letter a when rendering English in Hebrew)
ב בּ   bet, vet (b, v)
with a dot like big; without a dot like move
ג   gimel (g) 
like go
ד   dalet (d) 
like dark
ה   he (h) 
like he or silent at the end of a word with a preceding -a or -e
ו   vav (v, o, u) 
like violin; some dialects pronounce as week; also or or moon when used as a vowel
ז   zayin (z) 
like zoo
ח   het (h
Normally as Scottish ch in loch and as German Bach (IPA: /χ/)

. Some people pronounce it as the Arabic ح (IPA: /ħ/)

ט   tet (t) 
as t in stick
י   yud (y, e, i) 
like yet; also say or honey when used as a vowel
כ כּ ך   kaf, khaf (k, kh) 
with a dot like skip; without a dot like the Scottish ch in loch and as German Bach (IPA: /χ/)
ל   lamed (l) 
like leave, pronounced more forward in the mouth.
מ ם   mem (m) 
like mother
נ ן   nun (n) 
like never
ס   samekh (s) 
like some
ע   `ayin (`
similar to Cockney pronunciation of water (IPA: /ʔ/)
and sometimes silent. Some people pronounce it as a constriction of the throat as in the Arabic ع (IPA: /ʕ/)
פ פּ ף   peh, feh (p, f) 
with a dot like spoon; without a dot off
צ ץ   tsadi (ts) 
as boots
ק   qof (q) 
As in skip
ר   resh (r) 
pronounced as the French r (IPA: [ʁ])

. Some pronounce it rolled as in Spanish burro (IPA: [r])

שׁ שׂ   sin, shin (sh, s) 
with a right-hand dot like shoot (IPA: [ʃ])

, or with a left-hand dot like see

ת   tav (t) 
as t in stick

Adding an apostrophe (geresh) to some letters may change their sounds.

ג'  
as j in jam (IPA: [dʒ])
ז'  
as s in pleasure (IPA: [ʒ])
צ' ץ'    (tsh) 
as ch in chat (IPA: [tʃ])


Phrase list

Hebrew verbs conjugate according to the gender of the sentence's subject: different verb forms must thus be used when referring to men and women. These have been noted below when appropriate.

Basics

Common signs

OPEN - פתוח (patuah - pah-TU-akh)
CLOSED - סגור (sagur - sah-GUR)
ENTRANCE - כניסה (knisah - k-nee-SAH)
EXIT - יציאה (yetsi'ah - yet-see-AH)
PUSH - דחוף (dhof - d-KHOF)
PULL - משוך (mshoh - m-SHOKH)
TOILET - שרותים (sherutim - sher-oo-TEEM)
MEN - גברים (gvarim - g-va-REEM)
WOMEN - נשים (nashim - nah-SHEEM)
FORBIDDEN - אסור (asur - ah-SOOR)


Hello. (Peace) 
.שלום (shalom - shah-LOHM)
The Hebrew greeting, literally "peace." The English "Hi" is also used.
Bye. (Peace) 
.שלום (shalom - shah-LOHM)
Yes, the greeting is the same for the start and end of conversation. See also "See you later".
See you later. 
.להתראות (lehitra'ot - leh-hit-rah-'OHT)
The most common farewell greeting, besides the English "Bye". Again, the English "Bye" is also used.
Good morning. 
.בוקר טוב (boker tov - BOH-ker TOHV)
Good afternoon. 
.צהריים טובים (tsohorayim tovim - tsoh-hoh-RAH-yeem toh-VEEM) (literally: "good noon", afternoon is אחר-צהריים - ahar tsohorayim tovim - aKHAR tsoh-hoh-RAH-yeem toh-VEEM)
Good evening. 
.ערב טוב (`erev tov - EH-rev TOHV)
Good night. 
.לילה טוב (laylah tov - LIGH-lah TOHV)
How are you? (What's your wellbeing/peace?)- addressing to a man. 
‫מה שלומך?‬ (mah shlomkha? - mah shlom-KHAH)
How are you? (What's your wellbeing/peace?)- addressing to a woman. 
‫מה שלומך?‬ (mah shlomekh? - mah shloh-MEKH)
How are you? (What's being heard?). 
‫מה נשמע?‬ (mah nishma[`]? - mah nish-MAH)
What's up? (What's happening?).  
 ?מה קורה (mah koreh? - mah kor-EH)
What's up #2? (What are the matters?).  
 ?מה העיניינים (mah ha-`inyanim? - mah ha-`in-ya-NIM?)
Thank you. 
.תודה (todah - toh-DAH)
Please/ You're welcome (In request). 
.בבקשה (bevakashah - be-vah-kuh-SHAH)
Excuse me. (Forgiveness) 
.סליחה (slihah - slee-KHAH)
I don't understand. (said by a man). 
.אני לא מבין (ani lo mevin - ahni loh meh-VEEN)
I don't understand. (said by a woman). 
.אני לא מבינה (ani lo mevinah - ahni loh meh-VEENA)
What is your name? (said to a man). 
 ?מה שמך (ma shimkha)
What is your name? (said to a woman). 
 ?מה שמך (ma shmekh)
My name is... 
שמי (shmi)
My name is #2 (literally
I am called...) : קוראים לי (kor'im li - kor-'EEM lee ...)
How much is it?
כמה זה? (kamah zeh? - KA-mah zeh)
Cash 
מזומן ("me-zu-MAN")
Cash only 
מזומן בלבד (mezuman bil-vad - me-zu-MAN beel-VAD);
Credit 
אשראי (ashra'i - ash-RA-'ee);

Pronouns (כינויי גוף kinuye guf)

אני (ani - ah-NEE)
You (singular, masc.) 
אתה (atah - ah-TAH)
You (singular, fem.) 
את (at - aht)
He 
הוא (hu - hoo)
She 
היא (hi - hee)
We 
אנחנו (anahnu - ah-NAKH-noo)
You (plural, masc.) 
אתם (atem - ah-TEM)
You (plural, fem.) 
אתן (aten - ah-TEN)
They (plural, masc.) 
הם (hem - hem)
They (plural, fem.) 
הן (hen - hen)

Asking Questions (שאלות she'elot)

Who? 
‫מי?‬ (mi? - mee)
What? 
‫מה?‬ (mah? - mah)
Where is ...? 
‫איפה?‬ (eyfoh? - EY-foh)
Where to? 
‫לאן?‬ (le'an? - leh-AH-n)
Where from? 
‫מאיפה\מאין?‬ (me'eifoh?/me'ayn? - meh-EY-foh/meh-Ah-een)
When? 
‫מתי?‬ (matai? - mah-TIGH)
Why? 
‫למה?‬ (lamah? - LAH-mah; lit. "What for?"), ‫מדוע?‬ (madua[`]? - mah-DOOah)
How much? (also "how many") 
‫כמה?‬ (kamah? - KAH-mah)
Where are you from?
When speaking to a male: ‫מאיפה אתה?‬ (me'eifoh atah? - meh-EY-foh ah-TAH)
When speaking to a female: ‫מאיפה את?‬ (me'eifoh at? - meh-EY-foh aht)
Do you speak English?
When speaking to a male: ‫אתה מדבר אנגלית?‬ (atah medaber anglit? - ah-TAH meh-dah-BEHR ahn-GLEET?)
When speaking to a female: ‫את מדברת אנגלית?‬ (at medaberet anglit? - aht meh-dah-BEH-ret ahn-GLEET?)

Nominal Numbers (מספרים misparim)

Hebrew has no true neuter. As such, numbers must agree with the subject in gender. When not describing a subject, the feminine is used (מספר סתמי).

אפס (efes - EH-fess)
אחת (ahat - ah-KHAT) masc.: אחד (eh-KHAD)
שתיים (shtayim - SHTAH-yeem) masc.: שניים (sh-NA-yim)
שלוש (shalosh - shah-LOSH) masc.: שלושה (shlo-SHAH)
ארבע (arba[`] - AHR-bah) masc.: ארבעה (ahr-ba-AH)
חמש (hamesh - khah-MESH) masc.: חמשה (khah-mee-SHAH)
שש (shesh - shesh) masc.: ששה (shi-SHAH)
שבע (sheva[`] - SHEH-vah) masc.: שבעה (shiv-AH)
שמונה (shmoneh - shmo-NEH) masc.: שמונה (shmo-NAH)
תשע (tesha[`] - TEY-shah) masc.: תשעה (tish-AH)
10 
עשר ('eser - EH-sehr) masc.: עשרה (ah-sa-RAH)
11 
אחת עשרה (ahat-`esreh - ah-khat es-REH) masc.: אחד עשר (ah-KHAD ah-SAR)
12 
שתים עשרה (shtem-`esreh - shtem es-REH) masc.: שניים עשר (SHNEH-yim ah-SAR)
13 
שלוש עשרה (shlosh-`esreh - shlosh es-REH) masc.: שלושה עשר (shlo-SHAH ah-SAR)
14 
ארבע עשרה (arba'-`esreh - ar-bah es-REH) masc.: ארבעה עשר (ar-ba-AH ah-SAR)
15 
חמש עשרה (hamesh-'esreh - kha-mesh es-REH) masc.: חמשה עשר (kha-mi-SHAH ah-SAR)
16 
שש עשרה (shesh-`esreh - shesh es-REH) masc.: ששה עשר (shi-SHAH ah-SAR)
17 
שבע עשרה (shva[`]-`esreh - shva es-REH) masc.: שבעה עשר (shiv-AH ah-SAR)
18 
שמונה עשרה (shmonah-`esreh - shmo-nah es-REH) masc.: שמונה עשר (shmo-NAH ah-SAR)
19 
תשע עשרה (tshah-'esreh - tshah es-REH) masc.: תשעה עשר (tish-AH ah-SAR)
20 
עשרים (`esrim - es-REEM) (m./f.)
25 
עשרים וחמש (`esrim vehamesh - es-REEM ve-khah-MESH) masc.: עשרים וחמשה (esrim VEhami-SHA
30 
שלשים (shloshim - shlo-SHEEM)
40 
ארבעים (arba`im - ar-bah-EEM)
50 
חמשים (hamishim - khah-mee-SHEEM)
60 
ששים (shishim - shee-SHEEM)
70 
שבעים (shiv`im - shiv-EEM)
80 
שמונים (shmonim - shmo-NEEM)
90 
תשעים (tish`im - tish-EEM)
100 
מאה (me'ah - MEH-'ah)
200 
מאתיים (matayim - m'ah-TAH-yeem)
300 
שלש מאות (shlosh-me'ot - sh-LOSH meh-'OHT)
1000 
אלף (elef - EH-lef)
1% 
אחוז (ahuz - ah-KHOOZ ah-KHAD, masc.)
5% 
חמישה אחוזים (hamishah ahuzim - kha-misha ah-KHOOZIM)
100% 
מאה אחוזים (me'ah ahuzim - MEH-'ah ah-khoo-ZIM)
Half 
חצי (hetsi - KHE-tsee)
Quarter 
רבע (reva[`] - REH-vah)
More 
יותר (yoter - yoh-TEHR)
Less 
פחות (pahot - pah-KHOHT)

Time (זמן zman)

Today 
היום (hayom - hah-YOHM)
Yesterday 
אתמול (etmol - et-MOHL)
Tomorrow 
מחר (mahar - mah-KHAHR)
The day before yesterday 
שלשום (shilshom - shil-SHOHM)
The day after tomorrow 
מחרתיים (mahratayim - makh-rah-TAH-yeem)


Days of the week (ימי השבוע yame hashavua[`])

Except for Shabbat, these are ordinal numbers. But both these and the names of the first 6 letters in the Hebrew Alfa-Beit are used.

Sunday 
יום ראשון (yom rishon - yohm ree-SHOHN)
Monday 
יום שני (yom sheni - yohm shey-NEE)
Tuesday 
יום שלישי (yom shlishi - yohm shlee-SHEE)
Wednesday 
יום רביעי (yom revi`i - yohm rvee-EE)
Thursday 
יום חמישי (yom hamishi - yohm khah-mee-SHEE)
Friday 
יום ששי (yom shishi - yohm shee-SHEE)
Saturday 
שבת (shabat - shah-BAHT)

Months (חודשים hodashim)

In everyday life, most Israelis use the Gregorian Calendar. The month names pronunciation resembles Central-European (e.g. German) pronunciation.

January 
ינואר ("Yanuar")
February 
פברואר ("Februar")
March 
מרץ ("Merts")
April 
אפריל ("April")
May 
מאי ("May - Mah-ee)
June 
יוני ("Yuni - Yuh-nee")
July 
יולי ("Yuli - Yuh-lee")
August 
אוגוסט ("Ogust - O-guh-st")
September 
ספטמבר ("September")
October 
אוקטובר ("October")
November 
נובמבר ("November")
December 
דצמבר ("Detsember")

For holidays and events, Israeli Jews and Jews worldwide use a lunisolar calendar, in which the month begins at the new moon and a thirteenth month is added every few years. The months start with Tishrei (Sept.-Oct.) and run through Elul (August-September); thus Elul 5760 is followed by Tishrei 5761. "Aviv," the word for "spring," is sometimes substituted for "Nisan" and is also the name of a stage that the growth of barley reaches at that time.

Tishrei 
תשרי (tishrey - tish-REY)
Heshvan 
חשון (heshvan - kḥesh-VAN, also מרחשון mar-khash-VAN)
Kislev 
כסלו (kislev - kis-LEV)
Tevet 
טבת (tevet - teh-VET)
Shevat 
שבט (shevat - SHVAT)
Adar 
אדר (adar - ah-DAR)
Second Adar (the leap month) 
אדר שני (adar sheni - ah-DAR shey-NEE) or אדר ב (adar beth - ah-DAR beth)
Nissan 
ניסן (nisan - nee-SAHN)
Iyar 
אייר (iyar - ee-YAHR)
Sivan 
סיון (sivan - see-VAHN)
Tammuz 
תמוז (tamuz - tah-MOOZ)
Av 
אב (av - ahv)
Elul 
אלול (elul - eh-LOOL)

Duration (משך meshekh)

Day 
יום (yom - yom)
Week 
שבוע (shavua[`] - shah-VOOah)
Month 
חודש (hodesh - KHO-desh)
Year 
שנה (shanah - shah-NAH)
Hour 
שעה (sha`ah - shah-AH)
Minute 
דקה (daqah - dah-KAH)
Second 
שניה (shniyah - shnee-YAH)
Time 
זמן (zman - zmahn)

Seasons (עונות `onot)

Spring 
אביב (aviv - ah-VEEV)
Summer 
קיץ (kayits - KAH-yits)
Autumn 
סתיו (stav - stahv)
Winter 
חורף (horef - KHO-ref)
What time is it? 
מה השעה? (mah hasha`ah? - mah hah-shah-AH? lit. What is the hour?)

Colors (צבעים tsva`im)

black 
שחור (shahor - sha-KHOR)
white 
לבן (lavan - la-VAN)
gray 
אפור (afor - a-FOR)
red 
אדום (adom - a-DOM)
blue 
כחול (kahol - ka-KHOL)
yellow 
צהוב (tsahov - tsa-HOV)
green 
ירוק (yaroq - ya-ROK)
orange 
כתום (katom - ka-TOM)
purple 
סגול (sagol - sa-GOL)
brown 
חום (hum - khum)

Transportation (תחבורה tahburah)

Bus and train (אוטובוס ורכבת otobus verakevet)

How much is a ticket to _____? 
כמה עולה כרטיס ל (kamah `ole kartis le___? - KA-ma `oLE karTIS le___?)
One ticket to _____, please. 
כרטיס אחד ל___, בבקשה (kartis ehad le___, bevakashah - karTIS eKHAD le___, bevakaSHA)
Where does this train/bus go? 
 ?לאן הרכבת הזאת נוסעת?/לאן האוטובוס הזה נוסע (le'an harakevet hazot nosa`at?/le'an ha'otobus haze nosea[`]? - le'anleAN haraKEvet haZOT noSA`at?/leAN haOtobus haZE noSEa?)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
 ?___איפה הרכבת ל___?/איפה האוטובוס ל (eifoh harakevet le___?/eifoh ha'otobus le___? - EIfo haraKEvet le___?/EIfo haOtobus le___?)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
הרכבת הזאת עוצרת ב___?/האוטובוס הזה עוצר ב(harakevet hazot `otseret be___?/ha'otobus haze `otser be___? - haraKEvet haZOT oTSEret be___?/haOtobus haZE oTSER be___?)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
מתי יוצאת הרכבת ל___?/מתי יוצא האוטובוס ל (matai yotset harakevet le___?/matai yotse ha'otobus le___? - maTAI yoTSET haraKEvet le___?/maTAI yoTSE haOtobus le___?)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
מתי הרכבת הזאת מגיעה ל___?/מתי האוטובוס הזה מגיע ל (matai harakevet hazot magi`ah le___? matai ha'otobus haze magia[`] le___? - maTAI haraKEvet haZOT magi`A le___?/maTAI haOtobus haZE magi`A le___?)

Directions (כיוונים kivunim)

How do I get to _____ ? 
איך אני מגיע/ה ל (eikh ani magia[`]/magi`ah le___? - eikh aNI maGI`a/magi`A(f) le___?)
...the train station? 
תחנת הרכבת (...tahanat harakevet? - takhaNAT haraKEvet)
...the bus station? 
תחנת האוטובוס (...tahanat ha'otobus? - takhaNAT haOtobus)
...the airport? 
שדה התעופה (...sde hate`ufah? - sde hateuFA)
...downtown? 
מרכז העיר (...merkaz ha`ir? - merKAZ ha`IR)
...the youth hostel? 
אכסניית נוער (...akhsaniyat no`ar? - akhsaniYAT NO`ar)
...the _____ hotel? 
מלון (...malon ___? - maLON ___?)
...the American/British/French/Chinese/Indian/Russian/Polish consulate? 
הקונסוליה ה אמריקאית/בריטית/צרפתית/סינית/הודית/רוסית/פולנית (konsuliyah ha'amerikait/habritit/hatsarfatit/hasinit/hahodit/harusit/hapolanit? - HaKonSULia ha ahmehriKAHit/BRItit/tsorfaTIT/SInit/HOdit/ruSIT/polaNIT?)
Where are there a lot of... 
איפה יש הרבה (eifoh yesh harbeh... - EIfo yesh harBE...)
...hotels? 
מלונות (...melonot? - meloNOT)
...restaurants? 
מסעדות (...mis`adot? - mis`aDOT)
...bars? 
ברים (...barim? - BArim)
...things to see? 
דברים לראות (...dvarim lir'ot? - dvaRIM lirOT)
Can you show me on the map? 
אפשר להראות לי במפה (efshar lehar'ot li bamapah? - efSHAR leharOT li bamaPA)
street 
רחוב (rehov - reKHOV)
Go left. 
לך שמאלה (lekh smolah - lekh SMOla)
GO right. 
לך ימינה (lekh yeminah - lekh yaMIna)
left 
שמאל (smol - smol)
right 
ימין (yamin - yaMIN)
straight ahead 
ישר (yashar - yaSHAR)
towards the _____ 
לכיוון (lekivun ___ - lekiVUN)
past the _____ 
אחרי ה (ahrey ha___ - akhaREY)
before the _____ 
לפני ה (lifney ha___ - lifNEY)
Watch for the _____. 
חפש את ה (hapes et ha___ - khaPES et ha___)
intersection 
צומת (tsomet - TSOmet)
north 
צפון (tsafon - tsaFON)
south 
דרום (darom - daROM)
east 
מזרח (mizrah - mizRAKH)
west 
מערב (ma`arav - ma`aRAV)
uphill 
במעלה ההר (b-ma`aleh ha-har - b`ma`aLEH ha`HAR)
downhill 
במורד ההר (b`morad ha`har - b`moRAD ha`HAR)

Taxi (מונית monit)

Taxi! 
מונית (monit! - moNIT!)
Take me to _____, please. 
קח אותי ל____, בבקשה (qah oti le___, bevakashah - kakh oTI le___, bevakaSHA)
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
כמה זה עולה עד ל (kamah ze `oleh li `ad le___? - KAma ze `oLE `ad le___)
Take me there, please. 
קח אותי לשם בבקשה (qah oti lesham, bevakashah - kakh oTI leSHAM, bevakaSHA)
Could you use a counter/taximeter, please? 
תוכל להשתמש במונה בבקשה? (tukhal lehishtamesh bemoneh bevakasha? - tuKHAL le-hish-ta-MESH be-moNEH be-va-ka-SHA?). A counter/taximeter (מונה - moneh) gives the price based on certain factors such as travel time and distance (plus initial price), rather than a fixed overprice. Luggage costs extra in either case.

Eating

In Israel, many restaurants and eating places are kosher meaning that they observe the Jewish dietary laws of kashrut. For a restaurant to be officially kosher and have a Kosher Certificate, in addition to serving only correctly prepared kosher food, it must also not open on the Shabbat - from sundown on Friday through sundown on Saturday.

In many places in Israel such as Tel Aviv, there are non-kosher restaurants that will open on Shabbat and will serve non-kosher food (e.g. the restaurant serves both meat and milk dishes). Comparatively few places serve non-kosher food items like pork.

In some religious villages and small towns there are very few if any places that open on Shabbat.

A table for one person/two people, please. 
בבקשה, שולחן לאחד /לשניים (b-vakasha shulhan l'ehad/ lishnayim b'vakaSHA, shulKHAN l'ekhAD/ lishnAIYM)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
אפשר תפריט בבקשה (Efshar tafrit, b'vakasha?)
I'm a vegetarian. 
אני צמחוני /אני צמחונית (Ani tsimhoni (masc)/ Ani tsimhonit (fem))
I don't eat beef. 
אני לא אוכל/ אני לא אוכלת בקר (Ani lo okhel bakar (masc)/ Ani lo okhelet bakar(fem))
I only eat kosher food. 
אני אוכל /אוכלת רק אוכל כשר (Ani okhel (masc)/okhelet (fem) raq okhel kasher)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
אפשר עם פחות שמן בבקשה (Efshar `im pahot shemen bevakashah)
breakfast 
ארוחת בוקר (Aruhat boqer)
lunch 
ארוחת צהריים (Aruhat tsohorayim)
supper 
ארוחת ערב (Aruhat `erev)
I want _____. 
אני רוצה _____. (Ani rotseh (masc); Ani rotsah (fem))
I would like to eat _____. 
אני רוצה לאכול _____. (Ani rotseh/ rotsah le'ekhol)
chicken 
עוף (`Off)
beef 
בקר (Baqar)
fish 
דג (Dag)
cheese 
גבינה (Gvinah)
eggs 
ביצה (Beitsah)
salad 
סלט (Salat)
(fresh) vegetables 
ירקות (Y-raqot)
(fresh) fruit 
פירות (Peirot)
bread 
לחם (Lehem)
toast 
טוסט (Tost)
noodles 
נודלז (Nudelz)
pasta 
פסטה (Pastah)
rice 
אורז (Orez)
chickpeas
חומוס (humus)
hummus: חומוס (humus)
May I have a glass of _____? 
אפשר כוס (Efshar qos)
May I have a cup of _____? 
אפשר כוס (Efshar qos)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
אפשר בקבוק (Efshar baqbuq)
...coffee 
...קפה (Kafeh)
...tea (drink
תה (Teh)
...juice 
...מיץ (Mits)
...(bubbly) water 
...סודה (Sodah)
...water 
...מים (Mayim)
...beer 
...בירה (Birah)
...red/white wine 
...יין אדום. יין לבן (Yain adom / Yain lavan)
May I have some _____? 
אפשר (Efshar)
salt 
מלח (Melah)
black pepper 
פלפל שחור (Pilpel shahor)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
סליחה (Slihah)
I'm finished. 
סיימתי (Siamti)
It was delicious. 
היה מצוין (Hayah metsuyan)
Please clear the plates. 
אפשר לפנות (Efshar l-fanot)
The check, please. 
אפשר חשבון, בבקשה (Efshar heshbon, b-vakasha)
Where is the bathroom ? 
איפה השירותים ? (Eifo Hasherutim?)
This is a usable phrasebook. It explains pronunciation and the bare essentials of travel communication. An adventurous person could use it to get by, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

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