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'''Hakka''' (客家话; Kèjiāhuà in [[Mandarin]]) is a language spoken in several areas of [[Southeast China]].
+
'''Hakka''' (客家话; Kèjiāhuà in [[Mandarin]]) is one of the main seven or so Chinese languages. It is spoken across several provinces in [[Southeast China]] including [[Taiwan]] and [[Hainan]] and [[Hong Kong]]. In this article, the Hong Kong dialect of the Hakka language will be used.
  
The Hakka (客家 Kèjiā) people came to various areas of Southern China — the West of [[Fujian]], parts of [[Guangdong]] and [[Hainan]] — as refugees from one of Northern China's wars some centuries back. Hakka means "guest people". The Hakka language (客家话; Kèjiāhuà) is related to Northern dialects rather than to any other Southern languages.
+
==Brief Overview==
 +
The Hakka (客家 Kèjiā, [[IPA]]: [hak₃ ka₃₃] ) people are said to have migrated south from Northern China over the centuries to settle in southern [[Jiangsu]] and [[Hunan]], western [[Fujian]], eastern [[Guangdong]], and various other areas, due to wars, famine, natural disasters, and political persecution. Hakka comes from the words '客' "guest" and '家' "families" which derives from an official term during the [[Qing Dynasty]] for the program of resettlement of the coastal areas of Guangdong after evacuation orders imposed during the reign of Emperor Kangxi. These settlers whose language seemed different to the original inhabitants were given this appellation to show they were not indigenous to the areas they became settled in. Most indigenous inhabitants occupied the more fertile basins, whilst the incoming Hakka became settled in the more inaccessible valleys and mountainous or hilly terrain. The Hakka language (客家话; Kèjiāhuà) is shares a common vocabulary with Southern languages such as Min and Yue, and there are regular sound correspondences to the historical sound system of [[Middle Chinese]].
  
The Hakka have a history of seafaring and foreign trade, and quite a few overseas Chinese have Hakka ancestry. A number of influential Chinese have been Hakka. Hong Xiuquan led the Tai Ping rebellion around 1860 and claimed to be Jesus' younger brother; he ruled a large chunk of China for a decade or so before his movement was put down. Sun Yat Sen (Sun Zhong Shan in Mandarin) led the revolution of 1911 and was President of China until his death in 1926.
+
==Pronunciation guide==
  
The Soong family began with a Hakka lad from Hainan who went to the US in the 1870s. On his return to China, originally as a Methodist missionary, he became a publishing magnate in Shanghai, a revolutionary, and a friend of Sun Yat Sen. His four children, all educated in the US, became very influential. The one son, T.V Soong, was a Harvard graduate with a Columbia PhD who served in various KMT governments. At different times he was Finance Minister, premier, and Governor of the central bank. The eldest daughter, Soong Ai Ling, married a businessman who eventually became the richest man in Taiwan. Middle sister Soong Ching Ling married Sun Yat Sen, despite an age difference and strong objections from her father. Youngest sister Soong Mei Ling married Chiang Kai Shek (Jiang Jieshi). There is a saying about the three sisters" "One loved money. One loved power. One loved China." Also a film [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120164/ The Soong Sisters] and a book, Sterling Seagrave's [http://browseinside.harpercollins.com/index.aspx?isbn13=9780060913182 The Soong Dynasty].
+
The most accessible Hakka speakers are found in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Most of them will be dual language speakers, in Hong Kong, they are able to understand and speak Cantonese, whilst on the mainland of China and on Taiwan, they will also speak Mandarin. There is no standard form of Hakka and regional variations in local dialects can be surmounted by understanding the gist of the spoken sentence and knowing some sound correspondences that the user will encounter.
  
==Pronunciation guide==
+
There are some sounds in Hakka which do not occur in English. The following pronunciation guide aims to rhyme English words with the sounds found in the Hakka syllable. Please note they are approximations, you may require a Hakka speaker to guide your pronunciation.
  
 
===Vowels===
 
===Vowels===
  
===Consonants===
+
The vowels can be long or short. Long vowels occur in open syllables, where there are no endings. Short vowels occur in syllables which end in nasals (-m, -n or -ng) or stops (-p, -t or -k).
 +
 
 +
{|border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3" style="text-align: center"
 +
|+ '''Vowel Sound Length Varies with Syllable Endings'''
 +
! Romanised Vowel
 +
! IPA
 +
! Long Vowel <BR> (syllable ends in a vowel)
 +
! IPA
 +
! Short Vowel <BR> (syllable ends with <BR> -m, -n, -ng, -p, -t, -k)
 +
|-
 +
! '''a'''
 +
| [ aː ]
 +
| '''a''' in '''car'''
 +
| [ ɐ ]
 +
| '''u''' in '''cut'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''e'''
 +
| [ ɛː ]
 +
| '''ai''' in '''hair'''
 +
| [ e ]
 +
| '''e''' in '''pet'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''i'''
 +
| [ iː ]
 +
| '''ee''' in '''been'''
 +
| [ ɪ ]
 +
| '''i''' in '''pit'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''o'''
 +
| [ ɔː ]
 +
| '''or''' in '''core'''
 +
| [ ɒ ]
 +
| '''o''' in '''pot'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''u'''
 +
| [ uː ]
 +
| '''oo''' in '''boot'''
 +
| [ ʌ ]
 +
| '''a''' in '''again'''
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
In some dialects there is a vowel which we represent as ii, which does not occur in standard English. It is a retroflex i, the closest sound is almost like ''ir'' in "shir" when saying English 'sure'. In the Hong Kong dialect, these sounds become -i or -u.
 +
 
 +
===Initial or Consonant===
 +
 
 +
{|border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3" style="text-align: center"
 +
|+ '''Consonant Sounds in Hakka'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''b'''
 +
! '''p'''
 +
! '''m'''
 +
! '''f'''
 +
! '''v'''
 +
|-
 +
| [ p ]
 +
| [ pʰ ]
 +
| [ m ]
 +
| [ f ]
 +
| [ ʋ ]
 +
|-
 +
| almost like '''b''' in '''boy'''
 +
| almost like '''p''' in '''pot'''
 +
| like '''m''' in '''man
 +
| like '''f''' in '''far'''
 +
| almost like '''v''' in '''van'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''d'''
 +
! '''t'''
 +
! '''n'''
 +
! '''l'''
 +
|-
 +
| [ t ]
 +
| [ tʰ ]
 +
| [ n ]
 +
| [ l ]
 +
|-
 +
| almost like '''d''' in '''dart'''
 +
| almost like '''t''' in '''star'''
 +
| like '''n''' in '''no''' (in most Hakka dialects)
 +
| like '''l''' in '''low'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''g'''
 +
! '''k'''
 +
! '''ng'''
 +
! '''h'''
 +
|-
 +
| [ k ]
 +
| [ kʰ ]
 +
| [ ŋ ]
 +
| [ h ]
 +
|-
 +
| like '''g''' in '''gone'''
 +
| like '''k''' in '''kin'''
 +
| like '''ng''' in '''singer'''
 +
| like '''h''' in '''how'''
 +
|-
 +
! '''z'''
 +
! '''c'''
 +
! '''s'''
 +
| '''y'''
 +
| ''' '''
 +
|-
 +
| [ ts ]
 +
| [ tsʰ ]
 +
| [ s ]
 +
| [ j ]
 +
| [ ˀ ]
 +
|-
 +
| like '''ts''' in '''tests'''
 +
| like '''t''' in '''too''' <BR> or '''c''' in Italian '''ciao'''
 +
| like '''s''' in '''sow'''
 +
| like '''y''' in '''yew'''
 +
| A slight closing of the throat before syllables that begin with a vowel
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Rimes===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{|border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3" style="text-align: center"
 +
|+ '''Syllable Rimes in Hakka'''
 +
|-
 +
| '''a''' || '''ai''' || '''au''' || '''am''' || '''an''' || '''ang''' || '''ap''' || '''at'''  || '''ak'''
 +
|-
 +
| [ a ] || [ ɐj ] || [ ɐu ] || [ ɐm ] || [ ɐn ] || [ ɐng ] || [ ɐp ] || [ ɐt ]  || [ ɐk ]
 +
|-
 +
| far || eye || how || ham || an || fang || lap || sad  || hag ]
 +
|-
 +
| '''ia''' || &nbsp; || '''iɐu''' || '''iɐm''' || &nbsp; || '''iɐng''' || '''iɐp'''  || &nbsp; || '''iɐk'''
 +
|-
 +
| [ ja ] || &nbsp; || [ jɐu ] || [ jɐm ] || &nbsp; || [ jɐng ] || [ jɐp ]  || &nbsp; || [ jɐk ]     
 +
|-
 +
| yarn || &nbsp; || yow || yam || &nbsp; || yang || yap  || &nbsp; || yak
 +
|-
 +
| '''e''' || &nbsp; || '''eu''' || '''em''' || '''en''' || &nbsp; || '''ep''' || '''et''' || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| [ ɛ ] || &nbsp; || [ eu ] || [ em ] || [ en ] || &nbsp; || [ ep ] || [ et ] || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| hair || &nbsp; || eow || em || en || &nbsp; || epic || bet || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| '''ie''' || &nbsp; ||  '''ieu''' || '''iem''' || '''ien''' || &nbsp; || '''iep''' || '''iet''' || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| [ jɛ ] || &nbsp; ||  [ jeu ] || [ jem ] || [ jen ] || &nbsp; || [ jep ] || [ jet ] || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| yeah || &nbsp; ||  yeow || yem || yen || &nbsp; || yep || yet || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| '''i''' || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || '''im''' || '''in''' || &nbsp; || '''ip''' || '''it''' || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| [ i ] || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || [ ɪm ] || [ ɪn ] || &nbsp; || [ ɪp ] || [ ɪt ] || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| bee || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || dim || tin  || &nbsp; || dip ] || lit || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| '''ii''' || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || '''iim''' || '''iin''' || &nbsp; || '''iip''' || '''iit''' || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| [ ʐ ] || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || [ ʐm ] || [ ʐn ] || &nbsp; || [ ʐp ] || [ ʐt ] || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| fur || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || firm || fern || &nbsp; || burp || bird || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| '''o''' || '''oi''' || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || '''on''' || '''ong''' || &nbsp; || '''ot''' || '''ok
 +
|-
 +
| [ ɔ ] || [ ɒj ] || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || [ ɒn ] || [ ɒŋ ] || &nbsp; || [ ɒt ] || [ ɒk ]
 +
|-
 +
| core || coy || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || con || kong || &nbsp; || cot || cock
 +
|-
 +
| '''io''' || '''ioi''' || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || '''ion''' || '''iong''' || &nbsp; || '''iot''' || '''iok
 +
|-
 +
| [ jɔ ] || [ jɒj ] || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || [ jɒn ] || [ jɒŋ ] || &nbsp; || [ jɒt ] || [ jɒk ]
 +
|-
 +
| yore || yoy || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || yon || yong || &nbsp; || yot || yok
 +
|-
 +
| '''u''' || '''ui''' || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || '''un''' || '''ung''' || &nbsp; || '''ut''' || '''uk
 +
|-
 +
| [ u ] || [ uj ] || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || [ un ] || [ uŋ ] || &nbsp; || [ ut ] || [ uk ]
 +
|-
 +
| woo || wee || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || bun || bung || &nbsp; || but || book
 +
|-
 +
| '''iu''' || &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; || '''iun''' || '''iung''' ||  &nbsp; ||  '''iut''' ||  '''iuk
 +
|-
 +
| [ ju ] || [ jʌj ] || &nbsp; || &nbsp; || [ jʌn ] || [ jʌŋ ] || &nbsp; || [ ʌt ] || [ ʌk ]
 +
|-
 +
| you || youeille  ||  &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; || 'yun || young ||  &nbsp; ||  yut ||  yuck
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; || &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; ||  '''m''' || '''n''' || '''ng''' ||  &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; || &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; ||  [ m ] || [ n ] || [ ng] ||  &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; || &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; ||  mmm || nnn || ung ||  &nbsp; ||  &nbsp; || &nbsp;
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Tones===
 +
 
 +
{|border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3" style="text-align: center"
 +
|+ '''Tones in Hakka'''
 +
! # || IPA || Tone Letter || Character || Romanisation || Syllable in IPA || Meaning
 +
|-
 +
| 1  || 33 || ˧ || 被 || pi1 || [ pʰi˧ ] || quilt cover
 +
|-
 +
| 2 || 11 || ˩ || 皮 || pi2 || [ pʰi˩ ] || skin
 +
|-
 +
| 3 || 31 || ˧˩ || 彼 || pi3 || [ pʰi˧˩ ] || that, there, those
 +
|-
 +
| 4 || 53 || ˥˧ || 鼻 || pi4 || [ pʰi˥˧ ] || nose
 +
|-
 +
| 5 || 3 || ˧ || 匹 || pit5 || [ pʰi˧ ] || bolt of cloth; counter for horses
 +
|-
 +
| 6 || 5 || ˥ || 蝠 || pit6 || [ pʰi˥ ] || flying mammal called a bat
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
The tone changes known as sandhi does occur, but the change in the pitch is not as great as found in other Chinese languages.
 +
 
 +
===Some Sound Correspondences between dialect of the Hakka Language===
 +
 
 +
Apart from tonal differences, there are small variations in pronunciations from place to place. The following details some of the more commonly found differences, which may be helpful to the user when hearing other speakers from different areas.
 +
 
 +
'''h''' is sometimes pronounced as '''s''', especially when there is a vowel -i- in the syllable. E.g. '''兄''' '''hiung1''' may be pronounced '''siung1'''.
 +
 
 +
'''au''' is sometimes pronounced as '''o'''. E.g. 好 '''hau3''' / '''ho3'''
 +
 
 +
'''ai''' is sometimes pronounced as '''e''' E.g. 雞 '''gai1''' / '''ge1'''
  
===Common diphthongs===
+
Some Hakka dialects has the -u- medial, so you may hear words like 光 '''gong1''' pronounced as '''guong1''' (gwong1).
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
Line 19: Line 238:
 
===Basics===
 
===Basics===
 
{{infobox|Common signs|
 
{{infobox|Common signs|
; OPEN :  
+
; OPEN : 營業中 / 開
; CLOSED :  
+
; CLOSED : 休息 / 關
; ENTRANCE :  
+
; ENTRANCE : 入口
; EXIT :  
+
; EXIT : 出口
; PUSH :  
+
; PUSH :
; PULL :  
+
; PULL :
; TOILET :  
+
; TOILET : 洗手間
; MEN :  
+
; MEN :
; WOMEN :  
+
; WOMEN :
; FORBIDDEN : }}
+
; FORBIDDEN : 禁止 }}
  
 
; Hello. :  . ('' '')
 
; Hello. :  . ('' '')
 
; Hello. (''informal'') :  . ('' '')
 
; Hello. (''informal'') :  . ('' '')
 
; How are you? :  ? ('' ?'')
 
; How are you? :  ? ('' ?'')
; Fine, thank you. :  . ('' '')
+
; Fine, thank you. :  . (''Simungi '')
 
; What is your name? :  ? ('' ?'')
 
; What is your name? :  ? ('' ?'')
 
; My name is ______ . :  ______ . (''  _____ .'')
 
; My name is ______ . :  ______ . (''  _____ .'')
Line 78: Line 297:
 
===Numbers===
 
===Numbers===
  
; 1 : ('' '')
+
; 1 : 一 yit5
; 2 : ('' '')
+
; 2 : 二 ngi4
; 3 : ('' '')
+
; 3 : 三 sam1
; 4 : ('' '')
+
; 4 : 四 si4
; 5 : ('' '')
+
; 5 : 五 ng3
; 6 : ('' '')
+
; 6 : 六 luk5
; 7 : ('' '')
+
; 7 : 七 cit5
; 8 : ('' '')
+
; 8 : 八 bat5
; 9 : ('' '')
+
; 9 : 九 giu3
; 10 : ('' '')
+
; 10: 十 sip6
; 11 : ('' '')
+
; 11 : 十一 sip6 yit5
; 12 : ('' '')
+
; 12 : 十二 sip6 yit5
; 13 : ('' '')
+
; 13 : 十三 sip6 sam1
; 14 : ('' '')
+
; 14 : 十四 sip6 si4
; 15 : ('' '')
+
; 15 : 十五 sip6 ng3
; 16 : ('' '')
+
; 16 : 十六 sip6 luk5
; 17 : ('' '')
+
; 17 : 十七 sip6 cit5
; 18 : ('' '')
+
; 18 : 十八 sip6 bat5
; 19 : ('' '')
+
; 19 : 十九 sip6 giu3
; 20 : ('' '')
+
; 20 : 二十 ngi4 sip6
; 21 : ('' '')
+
; 21 : 二十一 ngi4 sip6 yit5
; 22 : ('' '')
+
; 22 : 二十二 ngi3 sip6 ngi4
; 23 : ('' '')
+
; 23 : 二十三 ngi3 sip6 sam1
; 30 : ('' '')
+
; 30 : 三十 sam1 sip6
; 40 : ('' '')
+
; 40 : 四十 si4 sip6
; 50 : ('' '')
+
; 50 : 五十 ng3 sip6
; 60 : ('' '')
+
; 60 : 六十 luk5 sip6
; 70 : ('' '')
+
; 70 : 七十 cit5 sip6
; 80 : ('' '')
+
; 80 : 八十 bat5 sip6
; 90 : ('' '')
+
; 90 : 九十 giu3 sip6
; 100 : ('' '')
+
; 100 : 一百 yit5 bak5
; 200 : ('' '')
+
; 200 : 二百 ngi4 bak5
; 300 : ('' '')
+
; 300 : 三百 sam1 bak 5
; 1,000 : ('' '')
+
; 1000 : 一千 yit5 cien1
; 2,000 : ('' '')
+
; 2000 : 二千 ngi4 cien1
; 1,000,000 : ('' '')
+
; 10,000 : 一萬 yit5 van4
; 1,000,000,000 : ('' '')
+
; 100,000 : 十萬 sip6 van4
; 1,000,000,000,000 : ('' '')
+
; 1,000,000 : 一百萬 yit5 bak5 van4
; number _____ (train, bus, etc.) : ('' '')
+
; 10,000,000 : 一千萬 yit5 cien1 van
; half : ('' '')
+
; 100,000,000 : 一億 yit4 yit6
; less : ('' '')
+
; 1,000,000,000 : 十億 sip6 yit6
; more : ('' '')
+
; 10,000,000,000 : 一百億 yit5 bak5 yit6
 +
; 100,000,000,000 : 一千億 yit5 cien1 yit6
 +
; 1,000,000,000,000 : 一兆 yit5 cau4
 +
; number _____ (train, bus, etc.) : _____號 hau4
 +
; half : 半 ban4
 +
; less : 少 sau3
 +
; more : 多 do1
  
 
===Time===
 
===Time===
  
; now : ('' '')
+
; now : 今下 gin1 ha4
; later : ('' '')
+
; late : 遲 ci2
; before : ('' '')
+
; early : 早 zau3
; morning :  ('' '')
+
; morning :  朝頭早 zau1 teu2 zau3
; afternoon : ('' '')
+
; afternoon : 下晝 ha1 zu4
; evening : ('' '')
+
; evening : 暗晡晨 am4 bu1 sin2
; night : ('' '')
+
; night : 夜晚晨 ya4 man1 sin2
 +
; dawn : 日頭一起 ngit5 teu2 yit5 hi3
 +
; dusk : 日頭落光 ngit5 teu2 lok6 gong1
  
 
====Clock time====
 
====Clock time====
  
; one o'clock AM ('' '')
+
; 1 o'clock :  一點鐘 yit5 diam3 zung1
; two o'clock AM :  ('' '')
+
; 2 o'clock 兩點鐘 liong3 diam3 zung1 (Note 兩 liong3 is used)
; noon :  ('' '')
+
; 3 o'clock : 三點鐘 sam1 diam3 zung1
; one o'clock PM ('' '')
+
 
; two o'clock PM :  ('' '')
+
The twelve divisions of the hour by five minute increments makes it fairly convenient to tell the time.
; midnight : ('' '')
+
 
 +
; at the hour 搭正 dap5 zin4
 +
; 5 past : 搭一 dap5 yit5 (literally "connected to number 1 on the clock face")
 +
; 10 past : 搭二 dap5 ngi4
 +
; quarter past : 搭三 dap5 sam1
 +
; 20 past : 搭四 dap5 si4
 +
; 25 past :  搭五 dap5 ng3
 +
; half past : 搭半 dap5 luk5
 +
; 25 to : 搭七 dap5 cit5
 +
; 20 to : 搭八 dap5 bat5
 +
; quarter to : 搭九 dap5 giu3
 +
; 10 to : 搭十 dap5 sip6
 +
; 5 to : 搭十一 dap5 sip6 yit5
 +
 
 +
Combine the two and you can express time as hour and minute combinations
 +
 
 +
; twenty five past seven : 七點搭五 ciu4 cit5 diam3 dap5 ng3
 +
 
 +
When you want to express a time between the five minute divisions, you can do so by '''nearly''' or '''just after''' in the following manner.
 +
 
 +
; nearly twenty five past seven : 就七點搭五 ciu4 cit5 diam3 dap5 ng3
 +
; just after twenty five past seven : 整過七點搭五 zang4 go4 cit5 diam3 dap5 ng3
 +
; nearly (approaching) : 就到 ciu4 dau4
 +
: just past (gone) : 過滴 go4 dit6
 +
 
 +
; noon :  正午 zin4 ng3
 +
; midnight : 半夜 ban4 ya4
  
 
====Duration====
 
====Duration====
  
; _____ minute(s) :  ('' '')
+
; _____ minute(s) :  _____分鐘 _____fun1 zung1
; _____ hour(s) :  ('' '')
+
; _____ hour(s) :  _____隻鐘頭 _____zak5 zung1 teu2
; _____ day(s) :  ('' '')
+
; _____ day(s) :  _____日 _____ngit5
; _____ week(s) :  ('' '')
+
; _____ week(s) :  _____隻星期 _____zak5 sin1 ki2 / _____隻禮拜 _____zak5 li1 bai4
; _____ month(s) : ('' '')
+
; _____ month(s) : _____ 隻月頭 _____zak5 ngiet6 teu2
; _____ year(s) :  ('' '')
+
; _____ year(s) :  _____年 _____ngien2
  
 
====Days====
 
====Days====
; today :  ('' '')
+
; today :  今日 gin1 ngit5
; yesterday :  ('' '')
+
; yesterday :  喒晡日 cam4 bu1 ngit5
; tomorrow :  ('' '')
+
; tomorrow :  明早日 min2 zau1 ngit5
; this week :  ('' '')
+
; this week :  這隻星期 ngia3 zak5 sin1 ki2 / 這隻禮拜 ngia4 zak5 li1 bai4
; last week :  ('' '')
+
; last week :  上隻星期 song4 zak5 sin1 ki2 / 上隻禮拜 song4 zak5 li1 bai4
; next week :  ('' '')
+
; next week :  下隻星期 ha4 zak5 sin1 ki2 / 下隻禮拜 ha4 zak5 li1 bai4
  
; Sunday :  ('' '')
+
; Sunday :  禮拜 li1 bai4 / 星期天 sin1 ki2 tien1
; Monday : ('' '')
+
; Monday : 禮拜一 li1 bai4 yit5 / 星期一 sin1 ki2 yit5
; Tuesday : ('' '')
+
; Tuesday : 禮拜二 li1 bai4 ngi4 / 星期二 sin1 ki2 ngi4
; Wednesday : ('' '')
+
; Wednesday : 禮拜三 li1 bai4 sam1 / 星期三 sin1 ki2 sam1
; Thursday : ('' '')
+
; Thursday : 禮拜四 li1 bai4 si4 / 星期四 sin1 ki2 si4
; Friday : ('' '')
+
; Friday : 禮拜五 li1 bai4 ng3 / 星期五 sin1 ki2 ng3
; Saturday : ('' '')
+
; Saturday : 禮拜六 li1 bai4 luk5 /星期六 sin1 ki2 luk5
  
 
====Months====
 
====Months====
Line 169: Line 422:
 
<!--If speakers of the language commonly use a calendar other than the Gregorian, explain it here and list its months. See [[Hebrew phrasebook]] for an example.-->
 
<!--If speakers of the language commonly use a calendar other than the Gregorian, explain it here and list its months. See [[Hebrew phrasebook]] for an example.-->
  
; January :  ('' '')
+
; January :  一月 yit5 ngiet6
; February :  ('' '')
+
; February :  二月 ngi4 ngiet6
; March :  ('' '')
+
; March :  三月 sam1 ngiet6
; April :  ('' '')
+
; April :  四月 si4 ngiet6
; May :  ('' '')
+
; May :  五月 ng3 ngiet6
; June :  ('' '')
+
; June :  六月 luk5 ngiet6
; July :  ('' '')
+
; July :  七月 cit5 ngiet6
; August :  ('' '')
+
; August :  八月 bat5 ngiet6
; September :  ('' '')
+
; September :  九月 giu3 ngiet6
; October :  ('' '')
+
; October :  十月 sip6 ngiet6
; November :  ('' '')
+
; November :  十一月 sip6 yit5 ngiet6
; December :  ('' '')
+
; December :  十二月 sip6 ngi4 ngiet6
 +
 
 +
; First lunar month : 正月 zang1 ngiet6
 +
; Second lunar month :  二月 ngi4 ngiet6
 +
; Third lunar month :  三月 sam1 ngiet6
 +
; Fourth lunar month :  四月 si4 ngiet6
 +
; Fifth lunar month :  五月 ng3 ngiet6
 +
; Sixth lunar month :  六月 luk5 ngiet6
 +
; Seventh lunar month :  七月 cit5 ngiet6
 +
; Eighth lunar month :  八月 bat5 ngiet6
 +
; Ninth lunar month :  九月 giu3 ngiet6
 +
; Tenth lunar month :  十月 sip6 ngiet6
 +
; Eleventh lunar month :  十一月 sip6 yit5 ngiet6
 +
; Twelth lunar month :  十二月 sip6 ngi4 ngiet6
 +
; Leap intercalculary month : 閏月 yun4 ngiet6
 +
 
 +
; First day of lunar month : 初一 co1 yit5
 +
; Second day of lunar month : 初二 co1 ngi4
 +
; Ninth day of lunar month : 初九 co1 giu3
 +
; Tenth day of lunar month : 初十 co1 sip6
 +
; Eleventh day of lunar month : 十一(日) sip5 yit5 (ngit5)
  
 
====Writing time and date====
 
====Writing time and date====
Line 424: Line 697:
  
 
{{outlinephrasebook}}
 
{{outlinephrasebook}}
 +
{{phrasebookguide}}

Revision as of 17:57, 19 September 2012

Hakka (客家话; Kèjiāhuà in Mandarin) is one of the main seven or so Chinese languages. It is spoken across several provinces in Southeast China including Taiwan and Hainan and Hong Kong. In this article, the Hong Kong dialect of the Hakka language will be used.

Contents

Brief Overview

The Hakka (客家 Kèjiā, IPA: [hak₃ ka₃₃] ) people are said to have migrated south from Northern China over the centuries to settle in southern Jiangsu and Hunan, western Fujian, eastern Guangdong, and various other areas, due to wars, famine, natural disasters, and political persecution. Hakka comes from the words '客' "guest" and '家' "families" which derives from an official term during the Qing Dynasty for the program of resettlement of the coastal areas of Guangdong after evacuation orders imposed during the reign of Emperor Kangxi. These settlers whose language seemed different to the original inhabitants were given this appellation to show they were not indigenous to the areas they became settled in. Most indigenous inhabitants occupied the more fertile basins, whilst the incoming Hakka became settled in the more inaccessible valleys and mountainous or hilly terrain. The Hakka language (客家话; Kèjiāhuà) is shares a common vocabulary with Southern languages such as Min and Yue, and there are regular sound correspondences to the historical sound system of Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation guide

The most accessible Hakka speakers are found in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Most of them will be dual language speakers, in Hong Kong, they are able to understand and speak Cantonese, whilst on the mainland of China and on Taiwan, they will also speak Mandarin. There is no standard form of Hakka and regional variations in local dialects can be surmounted by understanding the gist of the spoken sentence and knowing some sound correspondences that the user will encounter.

There are some sounds in Hakka which do not occur in English. The following pronunciation guide aims to rhyme English words with the sounds found in the Hakka syllable. Please note they are approximations, you may require a Hakka speaker to guide your pronunciation.

Vowels

The vowels can be long or short. Long vowels occur in open syllables, where there are no endings. Short vowels occur in syllables which end in nasals (-m, -n or -ng) or stops (-p, -t or -k).

Vowel Sound Length Varies with Syllable Endings
Romanised Vowel IPA Long Vowel
(syllable ends in a vowel)
IPA Short Vowel
(syllable ends with
-m, -n, -ng, -p, -t, -k)
a [ aː ] a in car [ ɐ ] u in cut
e [ ɛː ] ai in hair [ e ] e in pet
i [ iː ] ee in been [ ɪ ] i in pit
o [ ɔː ] or in core [ ɒ ] o in pot
u [ uː ] oo in boot [ ʌ ] a in again

In some dialects there is a vowel which we represent as ii, which does not occur in standard English. It is a retroflex i, the closest sound is almost like ir in "shir" when saying English 'sure'. In the Hong Kong dialect, these sounds become -i or -u.

Initial or Consonant

Consonant Sounds in Hakka
b p m f v
[ p ] [ pʰ ] [ m ] [ f ] [ ʋ ]
almost like b in boy almost like p in pot like m in man like f in far almost like v in van
d t n l
[ t ] [ tʰ ] [ n ] [ l ]
almost like d in dart almost like t in star like n in no (in most Hakka dialects) like l in low
g k ng h
[ k ] [ kʰ ] [ ŋ ] [ h ]
like g in gone like k in kin like ng in singer like h in how
z c s y
[ ts ] [ tsʰ ] [ s ] [ j ] [ ˀ ]
like ts in tests like t in too
or c in Italian ciao
like s in sow like y in yew A slight closing of the throat before syllables that begin with a vowel

Rimes

Syllable Rimes in Hakka
a ai au am an ang ap at ak
[ a ] [ ɐj ] [ ɐu ] [ ɐm ] [ ɐn ] [ ɐng ] [ ɐp ] [ ɐt ] [ ɐk ]
far eye how ham an fang lap sad hag ]
ia   iɐu iɐm   iɐng iɐp   iɐk
[ ja ]   [ jɐu ] [ jɐm ]   [ jɐng ] [ jɐp ]   [ jɐk ]
yarn   yow yam   yang yap   yak
e   eu em en   ep et  
[ ɛ ]   [ eu ] [ em ] [ en ]   [ ep ] [ et ]  
hair   eow em en   epic bet  
ie   ieu iem ien   iep iet  
[ jɛ ]   [ jeu ] [ jem ] [ jen ]   [ jep ] [ jet ]  
yeah   yeow yem yen   yep yet  
i     im in   ip it  
[ i ]     [ ɪm ] [ ɪn ]   [ ɪp ] [ ɪt ]  
bee     dim tin   dip ] lit  
ii     iim iin   iip iit  
[ ʐ ]     [ ʐm ] [ ʐn ]   [ ʐp ] [ ʐt ]  
fur     firm fern   burp bird  
o oi     on ong   ot ok
[ ɔ ] [ ɒj ]     [ ɒn ] [ ɒŋ ]   [ ɒt ] [ ɒk ]
core coy     con kong   cot cock
io ioi     ion iong   iot iok
[ jɔ ] [ jɒj ]     [ jɒn ] [ jɒŋ ]   [ jɒt ] [ jɒk ]
yore yoy     yon yong   yot yok
u ui     un ung   ut uk
[ u ] [ uj ]     [ un ] [ uŋ ]   [ ut ] [ uk ]
woo wee     bun bung   but book
iu       iun iung   iut iuk
[ ju ] [ jʌj ]     [ jʌn ] [ jʌŋ ]   [ ʌt ] [ ʌk ]
you youeille     'yun young   yut yuck
      m n ng      
      [ m ] [ n ] [ ng]      
      mmm nnn ung      

Tones

Tones in Hakka
# IPA Tone Letter Character Romanisation Syllable in IPA Meaning
1 33 ˧ pi1 [ pʰi˧ ] quilt cover
2 11 ˩ pi2 [ pʰi˩ ] skin
3 31 ˧˩ pi3 [ pʰi˧˩ ] that, there, those
4 53 ˥˧ pi4 [ pʰi˥˧ ] nose
5 3 ˧ pit5 [ pʰi˧ ] bolt of cloth; counter for horses
6 5 ˥ pit6 [ pʰi˥ ] flying mammal called a bat

The tone changes known as sandhi does occur, but the change in the pitch is not as great as found in other Chinese languages.

Some Sound Correspondences between dialect of the Hakka Language

Apart from tonal differences, there are small variations in pronunciations from place to place. The following details some of the more commonly found differences, which may be helpful to the user when hearing other speakers from different areas.

h is sometimes pronounced as s, especially when there is a vowel -i- in the syllable. E.g. hiung1 may be pronounced siung1.

au is sometimes pronounced as o. E.g. 好 hau3 / ho3

ai is sometimes pronounced as e E.g. 雞 gai1 / ge1

Some Hakka dialects has the -u- medial, so you may hear words like 光 gong1 pronounced as guong1 (gwong1).

Phrase list

Basics

Common signs

OPEN 
營業中 / 開
CLOSED 
休息 / 關
ENTRANCE 
入口
EXIT 
出口
PUSH 
PULL 
TOILET 
洗手間
MEN 
WOMEN 
FORBIDDEN 
禁止


Hello. 
. ( )
Hello. (informal
. ( )
How are you? 
 ? ( ?)
Fine, thank you. 
. (Simungi )
What is your name? 
 ? ( ?)
My name is ______ . 
______ . ( _____ .)
Nice to meet you. 
. ( )
Please. 
. ( )
Thank you. 
. ( )
You're welcome. 
. ( )
Yes. 
. ( )
No. 
. ( )
Excuse me. (getting attention
. ( )
Excuse me. (begging pardon
. ( )
I'm sorry. 
. ( )
Goodbye 
. ( )
Goodbye (informal
. ( )
I can't speak name of language [well]. 
[ ]. ( [ ])
Do you speak English? 
 ? ( ?)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
 ? ( ?)
Help! 
 ! ( !)
Look out! 
 ! ( !)
Good morning. 
. ( )
Good evening. 
. ( )
Good night. 
. ( )
Good night (to sleep
. ( )
I don't understand. 
. ( )
Where is the toilet? 
 ? ( ?)

Problems

Leave me alone. 
. ( .)
Don't touch me! 
 ! ( !)
I'll call the police. 
. ( .)
Police! 
 ! ( !)
Stop! Thief! 
 ! ! ( ! !)
I need your help. 
. ( .)
It's an emergency. 
. ( .)
I'm lost. 
. ( .)
I lost my bag. 
. ( .)
I lost my wallet. 
. ( .)
I'm sick. 
. ( .)
I've been injured. 
. ( .)
I need a doctor. 
. ( .)
Can I use your phone? 
 ? ( ?)

Numbers

一 yit5
二 ngi4
三 sam1
四 si4
五 ng3
六 luk5
七 cit5
八 bat5
九 giu3
10
十 sip6
11 
十一 sip6 yit5
12 
十二 sip6 yit5
13 
十三 sip6 sam1
14 
十四 sip6 si4
15 
十五 sip6 ng3
16 
十六 sip6 luk5
17 
十七 sip6 cit5
18 
十八 sip6 bat5
19 
十九 sip6 giu3
20 
二十 ngi4 sip6
21 
二十一 ngi4 sip6 yit5
22 
二十二 ngi3 sip6 ngi4
23 
二十三 ngi3 sip6 sam1
30 
三十 sam1 sip6
40 
四十 si4 sip6
50 
五十 ng3 sip6
60 
六十 luk5 sip6
70 
七十 cit5 sip6
80 
八十 bat5 sip6
90 
九十 giu3 sip6
100 
一百 yit5 bak5
200 
二百 ngi4 bak5
300 
三百 sam1 bak 5
1000 
一千 yit5 cien1
2000 
二千 ngi4 cien1
10,000 
一萬 yit5 van4
100,000 
十萬 sip6 van4
1,000,000 
一百萬 yit5 bak5 van4
10,000,000 
一千萬 yit5 cien1 van
100,000,000 
一億 yit4 yit6
1,000,000,000 
十億 sip6 yit6
10,000,000,000 
一百億 yit5 bak5 yit6
100,000,000,000 
一千億 yit5 cien1 yit6
1,000,000,000,000 
一兆 yit5 cau4
number _____ (train, bus, etc.) 
_____號 hau4
half 
半 ban4
less 
少 sau3
more 
多 do1

Time

now 
今下 gin1 ha4
late 
遲 ci2
early 
早 zau3
morning 
朝頭早 zau1 teu2 zau3
afternoon 
下晝 ha1 zu4
evening 
暗晡晨 am4 bu1 sin2
night 
夜晚晨 ya4 man1 sin2
dawn 
日頭一起 ngit5 teu2 yit5 hi3
dusk 
日頭落光 ngit5 teu2 lok6 gong1

Clock time

1 o'clock 
一點鐘 yit5 diam3 zung1
2 o'clock  
兩點鐘 liong3 diam3 zung1 (Note 兩 liong3 is used)
3 o'clock 
三點鐘 sam1 diam3 zung1

The twelve divisions of the hour by five minute increments makes it fairly convenient to tell the time.

at the hour 
搭正 dap5 zin4
5 past 
搭一 dap5 yit5 (literally "connected to number 1 on the clock face")
10 past 
搭二 dap5 ngi4
quarter past 
搭三 dap5 sam1
20 past 
搭四 dap5 si4
25 past  
搭五 dap5 ng3
half past 
搭半 dap5 luk5
25 to 
搭七 dap5 cit5
20 to 
搭八 dap5 bat5
quarter to 
搭九 dap5 giu3
10 to 
搭十 dap5 sip6
5 to 
搭十一 dap5 sip6 yit5

Combine the two and you can express time as hour and minute combinations

twenty five past seven 
七點搭五 ciu4 cit5 diam3 dap5 ng3

When you want to express a time between the five minute divisions, you can do so by nearly or just after in the following manner.

nearly twenty five past seven 
就七點搭五 ciu4 cit5 diam3 dap5 ng3
just after twenty five past seven 
整過七點搭五 zang4 go4 cit5 diam3 dap5 ng3
nearly (approaching) 
就到 ciu4 dau4
just past (gone) : 過滴 go4 dit6
noon 
正午 zin4 ng3
midnight 
半夜 ban4 ya4

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
_____分鐘 _____fun1 zung1
_____ hour(s) 
_____隻鐘頭 _____zak5 zung1 teu2
_____ day(s) 
_____日 _____ngit5
_____ week(s) 
_____隻星期 _____zak5 sin1 ki2 / _____隻禮拜 _____zak5 li1 bai4
_____ month(s) 
_____ 隻月頭 _____zak5 ngiet6 teu2
_____ year(s) 
_____年 _____ngien2

Days

today 
今日 gin1 ngit5
yesterday 
喒晡日 cam4 bu1 ngit5
tomorrow 
明早日 min2 zau1 ngit5
this week 
這隻星期 ngia3 zak5 sin1 ki2 / 這隻禮拜 ngia4 zak5 li1 bai4
last week 
上隻星期 song4 zak5 sin1 ki2 / 上隻禮拜 song4 zak5 li1 bai4
next week 
下隻星期 ha4 zak5 sin1 ki2 / 下隻禮拜 ha4 zak5 li1 bai4
Sunday 
禮拜 li1 bai4 / 星期天 sin1 ki2 tien1
Monday 
禮拜一 li1 bai4 yit5 / 星期一 sin1 ki2 yit5
Tuesday 
禮拜二 li1 bai4 ngi4 / 星期二 sin1 ki2 ngi4
Wednesday 
禮拜三 li1 bai4 sam1 / 星期三 sin1 ki2 sam1
Thursday 
禮拜四 li1 bai4 si4 / 星期四 sin1 ki2 si4
Friday 
禮拜五 li1 bai4 ng3 / 星期五 sin1 ki2 ng3
Saturday 
禮拜六 li1 bai4 luk5 /星期六 sin1 ki2 luk5

Months

January 
一月 yit5 ngiet6
February 
二月 ngi4 ngiet6
March 
三月 sam1 ngiet6
April 
四月 si4 ngiet6
May 
五月 ng3 ngiet6
June 
六月 luk5 ngiet6
July 
七月 cit5 ngiet6
August 
八月 bat5 ngiet6
September 
九月 giu3 ngiet6
October 
十月 sip6 ngiet6
November 
十一月 sip6 yit5 ngiet6
December 
十二月 sip6 ngi4 ngiet6
First lunar month 
正月 zang1 ngiet6
Second lunar month 
二月 ngi4 ngiet6
Third lunar month 
三月 sam1 ngiet6
Fourth lunar month 
四月 si4 ngiet6
Fifth lunar month 
五月 ng3 ngiet6
Sixth lunar month 
六月 luk5 ngiet6
Seventh lunar month 
七月 cit5 ngiet6
Eighth lunar month 
八月 bat5 ngiet6
Ninth lunar month 
九月 giu3 ngiet6
Tenth lunar month 
十月 sip6 ngiet6
Eleventh lunar month 
十一月 sip6 yit5 ngiet6
Twelth lunar month 
十二月 sip6 ngi4 ngiet6
Leap intercalculary month 
閏月 yun4 ngiet6
First day of lunar month 
初一 co1 yit5
Second day of lunar month 
初二 co1 ngi4
Ninth day of lunar month 
初九 co1 giu3
Tenth day of lunar month 
初十 co1 sip6
Eleventh day of lunar month 
十一(日) sip5 yit5 (ngit5)

Writing time and date

Colors

black 
( )
white 
( )
gray 
( )
red 
( )
blue 
( )
yellow 
( )
green 
( )
orange 
( )
purple 
( )
brown 
( )

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
( )
One ticket to _____, please. 
( )
Where does this train/bus go? 
( )
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
( )
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
( )
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
( )
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
( )

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
( )
...the train station? 
( )
...the bus station? 
( )
...the airport? 
( )
...downtown? 
( )
...the youth hostel? 
( )
...the _____ hotel? 
( )
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
( )
Where are there a lot of... 
( )
...hotels? 
( )
...restaurants? 
( )
...bars? 
( )
...sites to see? 
( )
Can you show me on the map? 
( )
street 
( )
Turn left. 
( )
Turn right. 
( )
left 
( )
right 
( )
straight ahead 
( )
towards the _____ 
( )
past the _____ 
( )
before the _____ 
( )
Watch for the _____. 
( )
intersection 
( )
north 
( )
south 
( )
east 
( )
west 
( )
uphill 
( )
downhill 
( )

Taxi

Taxi! 
( )
Take me to _____, please. 
( )
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
( )
Take me there, please. 
( )

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
( )
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
( )
Does the room come with... 
( )
...bedsheets? 
( )
...a bathroom? 
( )
...a telephone? 
( )
...a TV? 
( )
May I see the room first? 
( )
Do you have anything quieter? 
( )
...bigger? 
( )
...cleaner? 
( )
...cheaper? 
( )
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
( )
Can you suggest another hotel? 
( )
Do you have a safe? 
( )
...lockers? 
( )
Is breakfast/supper included? 
( )
What time is breakfast/supper? 
( )
Please clean my room. 
( )
Can you wake me at _____? 
( )
I want to check out. 
( )

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
( )
Do you accept British pounds? 
( )
Do you accept Euros? 
( )
Do you accept credit cards? 
( )
Can you change money for me? 
( )
Where can I get money changed? 
( )
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
( )
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
( )
What is the exchange rate? 
( )
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
( )

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
( )
Can I look at the menu, please? 
( )
Can I look in the kitchen? 
( )
Is there a house specialty? 
( )
Is there a local specialty? 
( )
I'm a vegetarian. 
( )
I don't eat pork. 
( )
I don't eat beef. 
( )
I only eat kosher food. 
( )
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
( )
fixed-price meal 
( )
a la carte 
( )
breakfast 
( )
lunch 
( )
tea (meal
( )
supper 
( )
I want _____. 
( )
I want a dish containing _____. 
( )
chicken 
( )
beef 
( )
fish 
( )
ham 
( )
sausage 
( )
cheese 
( )
eggs 
( )
salad 
( )
(fresh) vegetables 
( )
(fresh) fruit 
( )
bread 
( )
toast 
( )
noodles 
( )
rice 
( )
beans 
( )
May I have a glass of _____? 
( )
May I have a cup of _____? 
( )
May I have a bottle of _____? 
( )
coffee 
( )
tea (drink
( )
juice 
( )
(bubbly) water 
( )
(still) water 
( )
beer 
( )
red/white wine 
( )
May I have some _____? 
( )
salt 
( )
black pepper 
( )
butter 
( )
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
( )
I'm finished. 
( )
It was delicious. 
( )
Please clear the plates. 
( )
The check, please. 
( )

Bars

Do you serve alcohol? 
( )
Is there table service? 
( )
A beer/two beers, please. 
( )
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
( )
A pint, please. 
( )
A bottle, please. 
( )
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
( )
whiskey 
( )
vodka 
( )
rum 
( )
water 
( )
club soda 
( )
tonic water 
( )
orange juice 
( )
Coke (soda
( )
Do you have any bar snacks? 
( )
One more, please. 
( )
Another round, please. 
( )
When is closing time? 
( )
Cheers! 
( )

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
( )
How much is this? 
( )
That's too expensive. 
( )
Would you take _____? 
( )
expensive 
( )
cheap 
( )
I can't afford it. 
( )
I don't want it. 
( )
You're cheating me. 
( )
I'm not interested. 
(..)
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
Can I have a bag? 
( )
Do you ship (overseas)? 
( )
I need... 
( )
...toothpaste. 
( )
...a toothbrush. 
( )
...tampons. 
. ( )
...soap. 
( )
...shampoo. 
( )
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
( )
...cold medicine. 
( )
...stomach medicine. 
... ( )
...a razor. 
( )
...an umbrella. 
( )
...sunblock lotion. 
( )
...a postcard. 
( )
...postage stamps. 
( )
...batteries. 
( )
...writing paper. 
( )
...a pen. 
( )
...English-language books. 
( )
...English-language magazines. 
( )
...an English-language newspaper. 
( )
...an English-English dictionary. 
( )

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
( )
Can I get insurance? 
( )
stop (on a street sign
( )
one way 
( )
yield 
( )
no parking 
( )
speed limit 
( )
gas (petrol) station 
( )
petrol 
( )
diesel 
( )

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
( )
It was a misunderstanding. 
( )
Where are you taking me? 
( )
Am I under arrest? 
( )
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
( )
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
( )
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
( )
Can I just pay a fine now? 
( )

Learning more

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