Greece (Ελλάς, Hellas)  is a country in eastern Southern Europe on the Balkan peninsula, with extensive coastlines and islands in the Aegean, Ionian, and Mediterranean Seas. It shares borders in the north with Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Turkey. It has an ancient culture that has had a significant influence on the arts, language, philosophy, politics, and sports of western society, including the genres of comedy and drama, western alphabets, Platonic ideals and the Socratic method, democracies and republics, and the Olympics. Furthermore it's a geographically appealing place to visit, with a mountainous mainland and idyllic island beaches.
Roughly counterclockwise from the northeast:
Major cities include:
Greece is one of the world's most popular tourist destinations, ranking in the world's top 20 countries. The nation receives over 16 million visitors annually as of 2005 (a large number for a small country of 11 million), and projections for 2006 show an increase in tourism figures. Visitors are drawn to the country's beaches and reliable sunny summer weather, its nightlife, historical sites, and natural beauty.
Over 90% of visitors come from other European countries, although in recent years there have been growing numbers of tourists from other regions.
The vast majority of visitors arrive during tourism season, which is April through October. Peak season is July through August, and most of the tourists and tourism industry are concentrated in the following regions: Crete, the Dodecanese Islands, the Cycladic Islands, the Ionian Islands, and to a lesser extent: the Peloponnese region, Attica (greater Athens), and the Halkidiki peninsula in Makedonía region.
There are still many areas in the country free of large-scale tourism; there are areas you may not see another tourist at all.
The Greek islands are always teeming with tourists, but offer beautiful white-washed houses, relaxed lifestyles and spectacular beaches. But don't lose sight of mainland Greece which has a lot to offer.
Greece boasts a very long history, with the Greek language being present in the country for nearly 4,000 years.
The country's first inhabitants are now referred to as the Pelasgians. Little is known about them, but it is believed that they were a primitive people. The first advanced civilizations to live in Greece were the Cycladic Civilization -who inhabited most of the Cycladic Islands- and the Minoan Civilization, who inhabited the islands of Crete and Santoríni. The Minoans spoke a language that was not Greek and had developed a written language which remains undecipherable to modern-day archaeologists.
Greek-speaking Indo-European peoples arrived in the country from somewhere to the north, around 1700 BC, and slowly invaded the entire country from the north all the way to Crete, as well as the west coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey), absorbing the native peoples. These invaders all spoke various early dialects of Greek and were divided into a number of tribes (the Achaeans, Ionians, Dorians, and others), each which arrived in the country at different time intervals. Their arrival may have been responsible for ending the Cycladic and Minoan civilizations and brought the country into what is now referred to as the Dark Age of ancient Greece; although it is now understood among historians that civilization in Greece remained sophisticated and advanced during this time. The first Greek-speaking civilization, the Mycenean Civilization, centered in the Peloponnese region, was prominent during this time period.
The rise of the Greek city-states occurred sometime around 800 to 1200 BC and heralded the Golden Age of Greece which lasted many centuries and spurred several scientific, architectural, political, economic, artistic, and literary achievements. Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes were the most prominent of the city-states (with Athens being the most prestigious), but there were several other advanced city-states and colonies that had developed across the Aegean basin. Greek settlements were also established in southern Italy and other coastal areas of the Mediterranean colonized by Greeks. The legacy of Greek Civilization from this time period made a major impact on the world and continues to influence us to this day.
The epicentre of Greek Civilization shifted, during the 4th century BC, from southern Greece to northern Greece. The northern Macedonian kingdom, under Alexander the Great, conquered all of Greece, and proceeded eastward, creating an empire all the way to South Asia with the stated intent of spreading Greek Civilization. The empire eventualy broke up, and Greece was eventually annexed by the growing Roman Empire. Although weakened politically, Greek Civilization continued to flourish under Roman rule and heavily influenced Roman culture.
Christianity arrived in Greece with the preachings of St. Paul during the 1st century AD, and eventually spread throughout Greece and the Roman Empire. In the 4th century, Roman Emperor Constantine the Great legalized Christian worship and made it into the state relgion of the empire. He moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium (present-day Istanbul), and renamed the city Constantinople. Internal divisions eventually divided the Roman Empire into an a western half (the West Roman Empire) and an eastern half (East Roman Empire.) The West was eventually invaded and sacked by invaders from northern Europe, while the East survived for another millenium as the Byzantine Empire with Constantinople as its capital.
Greece's medieval history is dominated by the Byzantine Empire which revolved around Christianity, Greek Language and Civilization, and Roman law. It was a powerful force in the Mediterranean basin for centuries, engaging in trade, politics, and the spread of Christianity. The empire collaborated with Rome during the Crusades against the Muslims. However, during the 13th century, the Crusaders turned on the Byzantine Empire itself and sacked Constantinople. With a weakened Byzantine Empire, Frankish and Latin invaders arrived and occupied various parts of Greece. Over the following centuries, the Byzantine Empire began to regain strength and reconquer lost territory, but received a final blow in the 15th century when a growing Ottoman Turkish Empire to the east conquered Constantinople.
With the sacking of Constantinople, Greece fell under Ottoman Turkish rule, but vigorously retained its Greek-speaking Christian culture. Howewever, many Greeks fled the country, establishing Greek communities elsewhere in Europe; these communities would later influence the Greek Revolution.
The Italian city-states of Genoa and Venice competed with the Ottoman Turks for control of various areas of Greece and managed to conquer various islands and coastal areas, bringing pan-European movements such as the Rennaissance (and later the Enlightenment) to places in Greece such as Crete, Corfu, and parts of the Peloponnese region. In the 18th century, the Enlightement, both in Venetian/Genoese-occupied areas of Greece and from Greek communities abroad, led to an awakening among prominent Greeks and gave birth to the goal of an indepednent, unified, and sovereign Greek state. The Greek Revolution finally broke out on the 25th of March, 1821, and led to a long war against the Ottomans for independence. The Greek Revolution gained attention across Europe, with Russia, Britain, and France sending military aid to assist Greece.
The nation finally achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. The newly-independent Greek State was briefly a republic, before becoming a monarchy at the will of major European powers. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, Greece gradually annexed neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. The country sided with the allies during WWI. Despite declaring neutrality during WWII, the country was invaded by Mussolini's military in 1941. Greek forces victoriously pushed the Italians out of Greece, but the Germans then came to their aid, occupying the country until its liberation toward the end of the war. Civil war broke out in 1947 between communist rebels and royalists. The communist rebels were defeated by the royalists in 1949. WWII and the civil war that followed had left the country war-torn, forcing several people to flee the country in search of a better life abroad.
Greece joined NATO in 1952; rapid economic growth and social change followed. A right-wing military dictatorship staged a coup in 1967, suspending political liberties and forcing many prominent Greeks into exile. King Constantine II and his family also fled the country. Democracy returned in 1974, and a national referendum abolished the monarchy, creating a parliamentary republic.
Greece joined the European Community or EC in 1981, which later became the European Union (EU) in 1992. The country's tourism industry which had begun to take off during the 1960s, bagan to flourish, bringing 5 million annual visitors to the country in 1980 (a figure that will eventually grow to over 16 million by 2005). The country suffered serious economic stagnation in the 1980s, but began to experience remarkable economic growth in the 1990s, fueled by heavy investment, entrepreneurship, trade, and EU aid. By the early 21st century, the Greeks have achieved a stable and prosperous nation, with a high standard of living. An influx of immigrants began in the late 1980s, transforming Greece, once an immigrant-sender, into an immigrant-receiving country. Foreign-born residents, most of them undocumented and coming from various parts of the world (Eastern and Central Europe, Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, and Africa) are estimated to number at least 1 million, or equivalent to 10% of the population. In 2004, the nation stepped into global spotlight as it successfully hosted the Summer Olympic Games in Athens, to the defiance of critics.
For a more detailed history of the country, see Wikipedia's article on the History of Greece.
Greece enjoys a warm Mediterranean climate.
It is hot and dry in the summer, with mostly sunny days with temperatures from 30-40 degrees celsius. There is no need for an umbrella. Be careful, because it gets scorching hot quite often, especially in Athens. Spring is pleasant with minimal rain and comfortable temperature. In winter it gets cooler and wetter, with temperatures dipping to average of 8 celsius and only a rare chance of snow. Fall is also pleasant.
The islands are always slightly cooler than the mainland, due to breezes and the moderating effect of the surrounding sea. Take a light jacket or pull-over for going out at night.
The latest weather and climatic information for Greece can be accessed via the Hellenic National Meteorological Service website.
August is high season in Greece. This is when all locals get their holiday and take time off work due to the religious holiday on August 15th, Panagias. In Greece they refer to it as their diakopes. The islands get filled with Greeks, with most ferries at over-capacity. Expect headaches. It is also scorching hot and there are higher prices. Athenians leave Athens for their hometown villages and the city "empties-out" so to speak. Traffic is noticeably lighter in the city. Best to travel in Greece in the other spring/summer months. Note also that the highways leaving Athens are congested on Fridays and highways coming into Athens are congested on Sundays. This phenomena continues throughout the summer.
Holidays and Festivals
The following are national public holidays:
The nation's three most important holidays are Christmas, Easter, and the Assumption. Christmas tends to be a private, family holiday, but lights and decorations adorn city squares across the country. Assumption Day (August 15) is a major summer festival for many towns and islands. Easter weekend is perhaps the most flamboyant of all holidays; religious processions on Good Friday and the following Saturday evening culminate in exuberant fireworks at midnight, Easter morning. Contrary to most national holidays in other countries, Independence Day in Greece (March 25) is a very sober holiday.
Note that the method used by Greek Orthodox Church to determine the dates for Holy Week and Easter are different than that used by the Protestant and Roman Catholic Churches. Therefore, Greek Orthdoox Holy Week and Easter usually fall on a slightly later date than their Protestant and Roman Catholic counterparts, but they do frequently coincide.
As Greece is a member of the European Union, most European and North American nationals do not need a visa. EU citizens may enter with a valid identity card. You normally won't need to show any ID entering via ferryboat from Italy or by air from countries that are members of the Schengen Agreement.
Prior to Cyprus's entry into the European Union, persons carrying a passport with a stamp from the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (which is not internationally recognized) were denied entry to Greece, but EU officials say this should not be expected any more.
Athens' Elefthérios Venizélos International Airport (located near the Athens suburb of Spáta), is the country's largest, busiest airport and main hub, handling over 14 million passengers annually as of 2005. Other major international airports in terms of passenger traffic are, in order of passengers served per year, Heraklion (Nikos Kazantzákis Int'l), Thessaloniki (Makedonia Int'l), Rhodes (Diagorás), and Corfu (Ioánnes Kapodistrias).
During tourism season, several charter flights arrive daily from many European cities to many islands and some cities on the mainland. Several airlines operate year-round scheduled international service to Athens, Thessaloniki and Heraklion, with Athens handling the bulk of international flights. Olympic Airlines, the nation's flag carrier, offers service to Greece from several cities in Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and North America. Aegean Airlines, which owns half the the domestic market, also operates a number of international routes to Greece from various European cities.
Thessaloníki is Greece's hub for international rail service. Trains connect Thessaloníki to Sofia, Bucharest, Budapest, Istanbul, and other international cities.
Greece can be entered by automobile from any of its land neighbors. From Italy, ferries will transport cars to Greece. From western Europe, the most popular route to Greece was through Yugoslavia. Following the troubles in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s, most motorists from western Europe came overland by Italy, and then took a trans-Adriatic ferry from there. Although the countries of the former Yugoslavia have since stabilized, and Hungary-Romania-Bulgaria form another, albeit a mugh longer, alternative, the overland route through Italy now remains the most popular option.
There is some, albeit limited, international bus service to neighboring Albania, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
From Italy, several ferries depart for Greece daily. Ferries to Patras (Pátra), Igoumenítsa, and Corfu (Kérkyra) leave throughout the year from the Italian port cities of Venice, Trieste, Ancona, Bari and Brindisi. For more information on Italy-Greece ferries, see www.greekferries.gr.
By bus and train
Intercity buses are a very popular option for domestic travel. KTEL is the national government-subsidized network of independent businesses which cooperate together to form a dense route system serving almost the entire country. The system is efficient, reliable, and relatively inexpensive. It serves both long and short distances, including routes from major cities to islands near the mainland, such as Corfu and Cephalonia (in such cases, the ferry crossing is included in the price of the bus ticket).
Trains are another inexpensive way to get around, but the national rail system is extremely limited. This is due to neglect after the arrival of large scale automobile use and air travel, and also due to past technological difficulties in surmounting the country's difficult terrain. The importance of rail travel is now being rediscovered, and the national rail network is currently under major renovation. The project's completion is still a long way off, but visitors can already benefit from the first sections of the modernized rail system that have been inaugurated. An entirely new suburban/regional rail system, the Proastiakos, has been opened in 2004 for Attica and adjacent regions and is under further expansion. There has also been extensive (and continuing) modernization of the Athens-Thessaloníki corridor, with travel times being slashed.
Exploring the country by automobile can be an extremely rewarding experience, allowing you to explore the incredibly scenic and varied terrain of the country's coastlines, interior, and islands, at your convenience. However, Greece does have a relatively high road fatality rate, among the highest in the European Union. Many Greek drivers tend to drive agressively, and the nation's topographic reality poses challenges by forcing many narrow roads in mountainous regions to take several twists and turns. On the plus side, the road fatality rate has been steadily declining as a result of government campaigns, tougher policing, and lawmaking.
Roads are usually well-marked and well-maintained, and billions of euros are being poured into expanding the nation's network of multilane freeways. Because of the rapid expansion and improvement of the nation's road system, it is advised to have the most updated road map(s) possible. Many of the newer motorways are toll roads, and fees can be expensive.
Automobile rental agencies are present throughout the country, especially in major cities and in highly touristed areas. The automobiles offered are overwhelmingly manual transimission; automatics do exist, but it is advised to reserve one in advance. Gasoline/petrol prices are steep, but relatively inexpensive in comparison with many other EU countries. Some automobile rental agencies and insurance policies do not allow taking the car out of the country.
Drivers who do not hold an EU driver's certificate must carry a international driver's permit obtained in their home country. This may not be required when renting a car, but will certainly be required if involved in an accident or pulled over by the police for a traffic citation. Insurance policies may be void if the driver is a non-EU driver without an international permit.
To get to the islands you will mostly have to take a ferry. There are extensive connections from Athens and in-between islands for "hopping." Ferries are about the one thing in Greece that leave on time so BE PROMPT. In August, ferries fill up due to the National Holiday (Aug 15) so plan ahead. New "fast ferries" are cutting distance times in half but prices are slightly more expensive. Sometimes, it is more practical to fly, especially to Crete or Rhodes. However, flights are usually more expensive. Santorini is 8 hour slow boat from Athens but the entrance view from the boat is spectacular.
There are two ports in Athens: the main port Piraeus and outlying Rafina. These serve all islands, but northern islands such as Lesvos, it is better to leave from Rafina.
Typical travel times, slow boat from Piraeus: Athens-Paros = 4 hours, Athens-Mykonos = 5.5 hours, Athens-Santorini = 8 hours, Athens-Hraklion = 12 hours,
See also Continental Greece in ten days
The nation's domestic air travel industry is dominated by state-owned Olympic Airlines and its growing competitor, Aegean Airlines. Both airlines offer an extensive route network within the country, including service connecting several islands to the mainland.
Aegean Airlines offers E-tickets, which only exist as an e-mail or a web page with booking confirmation. It should be provided printed at the check-in desk at the airport (no need to visit airline office).
Hitchhiking can be incredibly difficult. Most Greeks are reluctant to pick up strangers out of fear of picking up someone with malicious intent, or an undocumented immigrant (which can get the driver in serious legal trouble).
Greek is the national official language and is the native tongue of the vast majority of the population. Foreign languages are widely studied, and most Greeks have some command of one or more foreign languages. English is the most widely studied and understood of foreign languages, followed by French, Italian, and German. Basic knowledge of English can be expected from almost all personnel in the tourism industry and public transport services, as well as most Greeks under the age of 40. However, learning a few Greek terms, such as "hello" and "thank you" will be warmly received.
Although the term "Greek" is sometimes used in English as slang for "unintelligible", the Latin alphabet was based on the Greek alphabet, and about half of Greek letters look like their Latin counterparts. With a bit of study it's not too hard to decipher written place names and such. Nonetheless, place names on road signs throughout the country are often transliterated into Latin letters.
Greece's official currency is the euro (€), which replaced the drachma in January 2002.
Currency exchanges are common particularly in larger cities and especially in touristed areas. In addition to hard currency, they also accept traveler's checks. There are also automated currency exchange machines in some areas of the country, particularly at Athens aiport. The National Bank of Greece NBG (Ethnikí Trápeza Elládos), the country's largest commercial bank, will also exchange euros for some curencies -such as the US Dollar- often times at better rates than currency exchanges. Other commercial banks, such as Alpha Bank may also exchange currency, but only for account-holding customers.
You may get better exchange rates by using credit and ATM cards. Mastercard, Visa, and Eurocard are widely accepted across the country in retail stores, hotels, and travel/transportation agencies (including ferry, airline, and car rental agencies), but may not be accepted at some restaurants. ATM machines are present almost everywhere, with Mastercard/Cirrus being the most widely accepted cards. Many ATM machines may not accept 5-digit pin numbers; ATM card-users with 5-digit pins are advised to change their pin to 4 digits before leaving home.
Bargaining is only practiced (and expected) in touristy souvenir shops and sometimes in family-owned craft stores. In all other instances, it is ineffective and offensive.
Greek cuisine is a blend of several external influences as well as home-grown traditions. Neighboring Italy and Turkey have left a major impact on Greek cuisine, and there are shared dishes with both of these nations. The traditional Greek diet is very Mediterranean, espousing vegetables, herbs, and grains native to the Mediterranean biome. Being a highly maritime nation, the Greeks incorporate plenty of seafood into their diet. The country is also a major producer and consumer of lamb; beef, pork, and especially chicken are also popular. Olive oil is a staple in Greek cooking, and lemon and tomato paste are common ingredients. Bread and wine are always served at the dinner table.
The cuisine in Greece can be radically different from what is offered in Greek restaurants around the world. Greek restaurants abroad tend to cater more to customer expectations rather than offer a truly authentic Greek dining experience. One example is the famous gyros (yee-ros), a common item on Greek menus outside Greece. While it is a popular fast-food item in Greece today, it is actually a recent foreign import (based on the Turkish doner kebap) and is considered by Greeks as junk food. It is never served in the home and is generally not found on the menus of non-fast-food restaurants.
Eating out is Greece's national passtime and a rewarding experience for visitors; however, not knowing where to go or what to do can dampen the experience. In the past, restaurants that catered mostly to tourists were generally disappointing. Thankfully, the nation's restaurant industry has grown in sophistication over the past decade, and it is now possible to find excellent restaurants in highly-touristed areas, particularly areas that are popular with Greek tourists as well. Thus, it remains a good idea to dine where Greeks dine. The best restaurants will offer not only authentic traditional Greek cuisine (along with regional specialities) but Greece's latest culinary trends as well.
Restaurants serving international cuisine have also made a presence in the country, offering various options such as Chinese, French, Italian, and international contemporary.
In Greece, vegetarianism never took off as a trend, and restaurants catering strictly to vegetarians are practically non-existent. However, Greeks traditionally eat less meat per capita than northern Europeans and North Americans, and there are countless vegetarian dishes in Greek cuisine.
Popular local dishes
The traditional fast foods are gyros (γύρος, "HEER-ohs" as in "hero sandwich", not "JIE-rohs" as in "gyroscope"), roast mutton and fixings wrapped in a pita; souvlaki (σουβλάκι, "soov-LAH-kee"), broiled meat on a skewer; Greek dips such as tzatziki (τζατζίκι), made of strained yoghurt, olive oil, garlic and finely chopped vegetables (like cucumbers and dill); and skordhalia (σκορδαλιά), a garlic mashed potato dip which is usually served with deep fried salted cod.
With its extensive coastline and islands, Greece has excellent seafood. Try the grilled octopus.
Greek salad (called "country salad" locally, "HorIAtiki"), a mix of tomatoes, cucumber, feta cheese and onion – all sliced – plus some olives.
Also consider: moussaka; pastitsio, a variety of lasagna; bekri meze, small pieces of pork in white wine sauce; spetzofai, grilled sausage with onion and pepper; and saganaki, fried semi-hard cheese. Rack of lamb is also popular, known as Paidakia.
For dessert, ask for baklava, tissue-thin layers of pastry with honey and chopped nuts; or galaktobouriko, a custard pie similar to mille feuille. Other pastries are also worth tasting. Another must-try is yoghurt with honey: yoghurts in Greece are really different from what you used to see at Danone stores.
For breakfast, head to local bakeries (fourno) and try fresh tiropita, cheese pie; spanakopita, spinach pie; or bougatsa, custard filled pie. All are delicious and famous among Greeks for quick breakfast eats. Each bakery does own rendition and you are never disappointed. Have this with a greek coffee to be local.
It's common to charge cover fee in cafes, such as €0.4 to €1.5 per person.
For things such as bread and fresh orange juice, the just-in-time principle is often used: bread or oranges are purchased by the cafe right after the first order is taken. So don't be surprised if your waiter returns to the cafe with a bag of oranges after accepting your order. And this is how fresh bread is guaranteed in most places.
McDonald's and Pizza Hut have made a significant presence in Greece over the past decade. However, they face strong competition from the popular local chains.
Goody's is perhaps the most popular fast-food chain in the country, offering a large variety of fast food meals, with several outlets throughout the country. A more recent chain is Everest which specializes in hand-held snacks. Flocafé is gaining popularity through its coffee and dessert items. There are also many independently-owned fast food businesses that offer typical fast food items, such as gyros. Many of these small businesses tend to be open late at night, and are popular with younger crowds on their way home from a night out.
Greece produces a rich variety of local wines, including table and fortified varieties. Greek wines are not known well on the international market, as production costs are higher in Greece due to the terrain. Nonetheless, that terrain is well-suited to grape-growing, a millennia-old tradition here.
Wine is most Greeks' drink of choice, "Krasi" (inos: οίνος) and traditional spirits like ouzo, tsipouro, raki and tsikoudia (produced in Crete, similar to the Italian grappa). Retsina is a "resinated wine" with a strong, distinctive taste that can take some getting used to; the flavor comes from pine resin, which was once employed as a sealant for wine flasks and bottles. The most well-known and cheap-n-dirty is "Kourtaki Retsina".
Local producers include:
Beer (bira: μπύρα) is consumed all around the country. Excellent local varieties like Mythos and Alpha, as well as Western European beers produced in Greece like Heineken and Amstel, are readily available mostly everywhere. (North American beers generally are not.) Heineken is affectionally known as "green"; order it by saying "Mia Prasini."
Imported scotches, bourbons, gins, etc. are usually available in bars and kapheneia, especially in urban areas or places frequented by tourists. A speciality is ouzo (ούζο) an anise-flavoured spirit; another is Metaxa (Μεταξά), a variety of brandy. The quality of Metaxa is rated with stars, and as with hotels and restaurants, "you get what you pay for". Metaxa Ephta (seven stars) is considered superb. Other spirits include the Cretian tsikoudia (or Raki). The Greek name for your favorite spirit is often close to its native name: ουίσκι is whiskey.
Coffee (kafes: καφές) is an important part of Greek culture.
The country is littered with kafetéries (kafetéria singular) which are cafes that serve as popular hangouts for Greeks, especially among the under-35s. They tend to be pretty trendy -yet relaxed- and serve a variety of beverages from coffee, to wine, beer, spirits, as well as snacks, deserts, and ice cream. In the pleasant months of spring, summer, and fall, all kafetéries provide outdoor tables/seating and they are busiest with customers in the late afternoon and evening hours. Several kafetéries also double as bars.
Kafeneia (coffee houses) are ubiquitous, found even in the smallest village, where they traditionally served a function similar to that of the village pub in Ireland. Their clientele tends to be overwhelmingly men over 50, however everyone is welcome, male or female, young or old, Greek or foreigner; and you will be treated extremely courteously. However, if you're not interested in cultural immersion to this extent, you may find the kafeneia pretty boring.
Traditionally, coffee is prepared with the grounds left in. This is what Anglos refer to as Turkish coffee, but in Greece it's only known as Greek coffee - "ellinikós kafés" or simply "ellinikós." It is a thick, strong black coffee, served in a small cup, and served either sweetened or unsweetened.
During the summer months, the most popular coffee at the kafetéries is frappé (Φραπέ): iced Greek coffee. It is really refreshing, and can be ordered with or without milk, sweetened or unsweetened.
Coffee can also be made espresso-style, French press (mainly at hotels), and with modern filter technology. The latter is sometimes known as Γαλλικός: Gallikos ("French") which can lead to some confusion with the press method. It is best to ask for φίλτρου: filtrou, which refers unambiguously to filter coffee.
Espresso or cappuccino freddo are also gaining popularity. Espresso Fredo is simply espresso + ice (no milk or foam); Cappuccino Fredo may be served from mousse containers, not prepared just-in-time; be careful to check.
In mass-sector taverns and cafe, iced tea typically means instant; ask twice if you prefer real brewed ice tea.
A glass of water is normally served with any drink you order; one glass for each drink. Some cafes which cater to tourists charge extra for water, especially if it's served in a bottle, even if you didn't ask for it. This is not included in the cover charge, which is normally a separate line item.
If you enjoy the local traditions and charm, unhurried rhythm of living, small, family-run pensions are the best way to enrich your experience. Owners and personnel there are friendly and open-minded, compared to stand-offs you normally meet in large hotels.
If you have a larger budget renting a villa is a luxurious and splendid idea. They are normally near or on the beach and provide more space and a great view.
Students from EU countries may enter many sites for free. Students from other countries have their entrance fees reduced. So take your International Student Identity Card with you.
Hospitals can be quite a distance away if in a remote area and care might be slightly off, so be careful. Main cities have excellent health care.
Greeks rate politeness with a person's behavior and not their words. Furthermore, there is an air of informality; everybody is treated like a cousin. They use their hands to gesture a lot. Have fun with this. Sometimes over-emphasizing politeness in spoken language will only make the person dealing with you think you are pretentious. It's nice to learn basic words like "thank you" (Ευχαριστω: ef-khah-rees-TOH) or "please" (Παρακαλω: pah-rah-kah-LOH).
Greeks take leisure very seriously; it is a work-to-live culture, not live-to-work. Don't take perceived laziness or rudeness harshly. They do it to everyone, locals and tourists alike. Rather than fight it, just go along with it and laugh at the situation. It can be very frustrating at times but also appreciate their "enjoy life" attitude. They do take politics and soccer very seriously.
To "swear" at someone using their hands, Greeks put out their entire hand, palm open, like signalling someone to stop. This is called "mountza". Sometimes they will do this by saying "Na" as well. It is basically telling someone to screw off or that they did something totally ridiculous. "Mountza" is known to come from a gesture used in the Vyzantine era, where the guilty person were applied with ash on his/her face by the judge's hand, in order to be ridiculed.
Greeks smoke tremendously, and they see cigarettes as a birthright. However new laws are putting restrictions on smoking, and awareness is growing about the risks of second-hand smoke. Don't be afraid to tell a cab driver or someone to put out the butt if it is bothering you... but they might bite back!