Gabon  is a country in Western Central Africa. It lies on the Equator, on the Atlantic Ocean coast, between the Republic of the Congo to the south and east, Equatorial Guinea to the northwest and Cameroon to the north.
A small population, as well as oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries. The country has generally been able to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversity.
The earliest inhabitants of the area were Pygmy peoples. They were largely replaced and absorbed by Bantu tribes as they migrated.
In the 15th century, the first Europeans arrived. The nation's present name originates from "Gabão", Portuguese for "cloak", which is roughly the shape of the estuary of the Komo River close to the capital of Libreville. French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza led his first mission to the Gabon-Congo area in 1875. He founded the town of Franceville, and was later colonial governor. Several Bantu groups lived in the area that is now Gabon when France officially occupied it in 1885.
In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959. These territories became independent on August 17, 1960.
Since independence, Gabon has been one of the more stable African countries. Autocratic President Omar Bongo was in power from 1967 until his death in 2009. Gabon introduced a multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and for reforms of governmental institutions. A small population, abundant natural resources, and considerable foreign support have helped make Gabon one of the more prosperous sub-Saharan African countries. Despite being made up of more than 40 ethnic groups, Gabon has escaped the strife afflicting other West African states.
Tropical; always hot, humid. During the months of June to September, the climate is a little cooler (20-25°C).
Narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south. Highest point is Mont Iboundji at 1,575 metres.
Independence Day: 17 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Founding of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG), 12 March (1968)
The fee for a visa to enter the country is typically 70 euros. The visa can be purchased on arrival in either euros or in the local francs in the right hand line upon exiting the plane. Reportedly, as of August 2010 this is no longer possible and personnel arriving to Gabon must have a valid visa upon arrival or they will be sent back. Recently, most of International arrived in Gabon claim that visa fee increase and the paid almost 122Euros for 03 months unique entrance visa and more for multiple entrance.
Air Gabon has recently gone out of business. Air France and Gabon Airlines fly from Paris to Libreville, and Royal Air Maroc flies from Casablanca to Gabon. Air Service also flies to Douala (Cameroon), and Ethiopian Airlines flies from Addis Ababa. There are also on occasion flights to Brazzaville, Congo. It is reported on the Internet that the Air Service Dash 8 aircraft were returned to Canada in May 2006.
"Interair" flies from Johannesburg (South Africa) to Libreville on Monday with a stopover in Brazzaville/Congo - returning via the same route every Wednesday. "SAA" flies direct from Johannesburg (South Africa) to Libreville on Wednesdays and Fridays.
Lufthansa 5x weekly from Frankfurt.
There are several border crossings, though the roads are not good and a 4x4 is recommended.
The easiest way to get around is by bus. There are many and they are very cheap. Additionally, taxis are plentiful in the Libreville area and relatively well maintained.
Air Service has scheduled flights to Oyem, Makouko and Franceville/Mvengue. Air Nationale flies to Franceville/Mvengue. There are flights to Franceville/Mvengue every day of the week except Tuesdays and Thursdays. Africa's Connection has daily scheduled flights between Libreville and Port Gentil, weekly flights from Port-Gentil / Libreville to São Tomé & Príncipe and to Loango National Park.
There are lots of paved roads in Gabon, if you are staying in one of the major citys a car should suffice. If you plan on venturing onto some of the unpaved roads outside the major cities a 4x4 is recommended. There are less than 800km of tarred roads in Gabon - some of them in a bad condition. During the rainy season it is difficult to travel outside the major city areas even in a 4x4 vehicle.
The Trans-Gabon railroad goes from Owendo to Franceville. The trip takes 12-18 hours, there is a train every day of the week. November 2006: There are only 3 trains per week to Franceville: Tuesdays leaving Owendo at 9 a.m. - arriving in Franceville at 5 p.m. according to timetable, which is not completely reliable timewise. On Thursdays and Saturdays train travels through the night.
A few wealthy Gabonese entrepreneurs have invested in new buses for bus lines to service the larger interior cities. Mostly these buses serve the cities with paved roads leading to and from them. Since Air Gabon closed down, these bus lines have greatly increased their routes.
Boat travel is available all along the coast of Gabon and dozens of miles up the Ogooue river to Lambarene. Boats leave daily to/from Libreville and Port Gentil. River trips from the mouth of the big river at Port Gentil to Lambarene (Albert Schweitzer Hospital) are available every few days. Hotel Olako arranges weekly boat transfers between Port Gentil and Omboué (close to Loango National Park), transfers take between 3 and 4,5 hours (depending on the type of boat and engine).
Very few people speak English in Gabon, so some knowledge of French is an asset.
Chez Beti - a small seaside safari camp near the village of Nyonie owned and operated by a French ex-pat. Clean, air-conditioned cottages and all-inclusive family style meals accompany the evening Landcruiser and sunrise walking safaris. Wildlife sightings can include elephants, buffalo, monkeys, parrots, hornbills and other local fauna. The camp is located just a few km south of the equator, along a pristine stretch of beach. Prices are very reasonable and include roundtrip transportation from the marina in Libreville; consisting of an hour long boat transit to a small landing in the mangroves, followed by a 45 minute 4x4 trip along jungle roads to the camp. Contact information: tel. 07 57 14 23 or 06 03 36 36, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Balbool restaurant serves delicious western food with very cheap prices. Ask for the big Balbool soup.
The cheapest local beer is Regab, it costs from 350-1000 CFA and comes in a 650ml bottle. There are fantastic fruit juices available: "D'jino" Pampelmousse (grapefruit), Ananas (pineapple), Citron (Lemon) in 300ml bottles at CFA 400 and in a 1,5l bottle at CFA 900 if bought in a shop.
There are three international name hotels - Le Meridien, Intercontinental and the Novotel. Apart from these, there are several other budget and economy hotels.
Long term lease on apartments is also an option.
A visa and letter of invitation are required for foreigners working in Gabon.
Malaria is common, so visitors should take malaria pills and a mosquito net when travelling in Gabon. HIV/AIDS is, unfortunately, a common disease in Gabon with 8% (1 in 12) of adults affected.
The people are generally very friendly, respectful and helpful to visitors.
You can contact the Gabonese Embassy in Washington D.C. by mailing them a letter with the adress 1630 #7 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington D.C. 20009.