The nearest airport to Fukui is in Komatsu. Buses connect Komatsu Airport with Komatsu Station for ¥260, from which you can take a Hokuriku Line local train for the 50 minute run to Fukui (¥820).
If coming internationally, the best airport to arrive in is Kansai Airport in Osaka. From Kansai Airport, you can reach Fukui by train in about 3 1/2 hours by taking the Haruka limited express train to Shin-Osaka, and transferring across the platform to the Thunderbird, described below.
Fukui is a major station on the JR Hokuriku line, which links Toyama with Maibara. A connection to the Kosei Line at Tsuruga provides a direct link to Kyoto and Osaka.
Fukui is connected to Kyoto and Osaka 1-2 times per hour by the Thunderbird train. This train makes the run from Osaka to Fukui in about 1 hour, 50 minutes. From Kyoto, the run takes about 1 hour, 20 minutes. The price for the service is ¥5700 from Osaka and ¥4600 from Kyoto.
The Shirasagi limited express also stops at Fukui on runs from Nagoya and Maibara. From the latter it takes one hour and costs ¥3100.
If coming from Tokyo, take the hourly Tokaido Shinkansen Hikari service that stops at Maibara station. From Maibara, take the Shirasagi to Fukui (3 1/2 hours, ¥14000).
There is no charge for the above services with the Japan Rail Pass.
Eiheiji Temple (永平寺). Established in 1244 by Zen Master Dogen, a testament to the ability of the Japanese to fuse architecture and nature in a seemless and timeless structure. Visitors are welcome to tour the monastery and for ¥8000 per night (¥3000 per night for stays of more than a few days) can experience training according to the Soto Zen tradition. The temple is located about 15 km outside Fukui; either take a direct bus from Fukui Station (4 daily, 30 min, ¥720) or a train to Eiheiji-Guchi (25min, ¥440yen) and then a connecting bus (15min, ¥410).