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Difference between revisions of "Estonia"

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'''Estonia''' is a [[Baltic countries|Baltic country]] in eastern [[Europe]]. It has land borders with [[Latvia]] and [[Russia]]. With a coastline on the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, Estonia also has seaborders with [[Finland]] and [[Sweden]].
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'''Estonia''' is a [[Baltic countries|Baltic country]] in Northern [[Europe]]. It has land borders with [[Latvia]] and [[Russia]]. With a coastline on the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, Estonia also has seaborders with [[Finland]] and [[Sweden]].
  
 
==Regions==  
 
==Regions==  

Revision as of 13:35, 21 May 2004

Flag
En-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalTallinn
Governmentparliamentary republic
CurrencyEstonian kroon (EEK)
Areatotal: 45,226 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
water: 2,015 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
Population1,415,681 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageEstonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
ReligionEvangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish


Estonia is a Baltic country in Northern Europe. It has land borders with Latvia and Russia. With a coastline on the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, Estonia also has seaborders with Finland and Sweden.

Contents

Regions

Estonia is divided into 15 counties (or maakonnad, singular - maakond)

En-map.png
Map of Estonia

Cities

Other destinations

Understand

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.

Get in

By plane

Either fly into Tallinn airport, or fly to Helsinki and get one of the many ferries across from there.

By train

By car

By bus

By boat

Get around

Talk

Buy

Eat

Drink

Sleep

Learn

Work

Stay safe

Stay healthy

Respect

Contact

External links

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Geography

Climate 
maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain 
marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resources 
oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land use 
arable land: 26.5%
permanent crops: 0.35%
other: 73.15% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
40 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issues 
air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 4.6 times smaller than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies fell 20 times in 2000 compared to 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note 
the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

People

Population 
1,415,681 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 118,603; female 114,102)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 466,882; female 502,343)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male 70,085; female 143,666) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
-0.52% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
8.96 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
13.44 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
12.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 70.02 years
female: 76.31 years (2002 est.)
male: 64.03 years
Total fertility rate 
1.24 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.04% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
less than 500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian
Ethnic groups 
Estonian 65.3%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Belarusian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)
Religions 
Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Languages 
Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1998 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
Government type 
parliamentary republic
Capital 
Tallinn
Administrative divisions 
15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)
note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Independence 
regained on 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union); previously independent between the two World Wars
National holiday 
Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 20 August 1991 was the date of reindependence from the Soviet Union
Constitution 
adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system 
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Juhan PARTS
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 188 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 24 ballots were either left blank or invalid
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
Legislative branch 
unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)
Judicial branch 
National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Political parties and leaders 
Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahsaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Siim KALLAS]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP; Social Democrats (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond) [Ivari PADAR]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit League) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan Parts]; Russian Baltic Party [Sergei IVANOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON
chancery: 1730 M Street NW, Suite 503, Washington, DC 20036
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. DeTHOMAS
embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [372] 668-8100
FAX: [372] 668-8134
Flag description 
pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

Economy

Economy - overview 
Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. A major goal is accession to the EU, possibly by 2004. The state of the economy is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The trade deficit is a negative factor, whereas the internal government surplus is a plus.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $15.2 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
4.4% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $10,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 6%
industry: 29%
services: 66% (2001)
Population below poverty line 
NA% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 30% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
37 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
3.7% (2002)
Labor force 
608,600 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate 
12.4% (2001)
Budget 
revenues: $1.89 billion
expenditures: $1.89 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Industries 
engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; services; transit, information technology, telecommunications
Industrial production growth rate 
5% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production 
7.056 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
5.362 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Exports 
$3.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities 
machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners 
Finland 33.8%, Sweden 14%, Latvia 6.9%, Germany 6.9%, UK 4.2 (2001)
Imports 
$4.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners 
Finland 18%, Germany 11%, Sweden 9%, China 9%, Russia 8% (2001)
Debt - external 
$3.3 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
$108 million (2000)
Currency 
Estonian kroon (EEK)
Currency code 
EEK
Exchange rates 
krooni per US dollar - 17.518 (January 2002), 17.538 (2001), 16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997); note - the kroon is tied to the euro at a fixed rate of 15.65 krooni per euro
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
501,691 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
711,000 (yearend 2001)
Telephone system 
general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by September 2000
domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and internet services is available throughout the country
international: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Radios 
1.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
3 (2001)
Televisions 
605,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.ee
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
38 (2001)
Internet users 
429,700 (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 968 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines
broad gauge: 968 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (2001)
Highways 
total: 30,300 km
paved: 29,200 km (including 75 km of expressways); note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather
unpaved: 1,100 km (2000)
Waterways 
320 km (perennially navigable) (2002)
Pipelines 
natural gas 2,000 km (2002)
Ports and harbors 
Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Merchant marine 
total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 245,958 GRT/193,042 DWT
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Liberia 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13, container 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 6
Airports 
32 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 6 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Estonia Defense Forces (including Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force), Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard
note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces in wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense in peacetime and the Estonian Navy in wartime
Military manpower - military age 
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 359,902 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 282,716 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 11,164 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$155 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
2% (2002 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
Russia continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint December 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia
Illicit drugs 
transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking

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