Eastern Anatolia (Turkish: Doğu Anadolu) is a region in Turkey. It occupies the mountainous east of the country and has the harshest winters.
Covering an area in which you can fit in four Switzerlands with still some more room, but with a population of just over 6 million, Eastern Anatolia is all about lonely and vast landscapes of mountainous terrain, with occasional flat-ish plateau inflitrated inbetween.
While the daytime temperatures of around 20–25°C—it can easily hit 30°C or more in relatively lower western parts of the region around Malatya, though—in summer make travelling in Eastern Anatolia a breeze (especially if you have arrived from the much hotter regions of Southern and Southeastern Turkey), the nights are fairly chilly and it's common for temperatures to go down as low as +12°C in late evenings, even in the hottest month of August, so pack along at least a cardigan or sweater.
Eastern Anatolia is constantly under snowcover during winter, which even shuts some non-major roads for days on end, and temperature can drop as low as a whopping -40°C — warm clothing is more essential than ever.
In the eastern and southeastern areas (near Iranian border and around Lake Van) of the region, the mother tongue of most locals is Kurdish. However most locals, especially younger ones, are also bilingual in Turkish, although heavily accented in most cases.
Local Turkish dialect spoken in northeastern section of the region (around Erzurum, and Kars) is far from the standard Turkish based on Istanbul dialect and is very close to Azerbaijani spoken in the neigbouring country (to the point of being virtually identical in the easternmost parts of the region, around Iğdır close to the border with Nakhchivan), although the written word always uses standard Turkish orthography as is usual.
As in Southeastern Anatolia, it is important to be cautious with whom you are smattering Kurdish or Zaza. Trying to strike up a conversation in those languages with a Turkish official, especially one from military, can have dire consequences.
Erzurum is the main gateway to the region with fairly frequent air, bus, and rail connections with the rest of the country. Other secondary-major cities with airports include Malatya, and Van, both of which also has rail links with the rest of the country, and with Iran in the case of Van. Occasionally potholed (but getting better and wider day by day) highways connect the region to other Turkish regions in north, south, and west; and to Iran to east.
Meat is more or less what the whole local cuisine is dependent on in the region, as a very little number of vegetables can be grown in this highland with cool and short summers.
Most towns and cities in the region are 1,500 mt above the sea elevation (a fair number of which are close to 2,000 mt), and it's not uncommon for mountains—some of which are popular sights in themselves—to rise more than 3,000 mt, so make sure to take usual precautions against altitude sickness.