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East Timor

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Revision as of 03:55, 8 August 2003 by CIAWorldFactbook2002 (Talk | contribs)

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Tt-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalDili
Governmentrepublic
CurrencyUS dollar (USD)
Areatotal: 15,007 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Population952,618 (July 2002 est.)
note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (2002 est.)
LanguageTetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English
note: there are a total of about 16 indigenous languages, of which Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people
ReligionRoman Catholic 90%, Muslim 4%, Protestant 3%, Hindu 0.5%, Buddhist, Animist (1992 est.)

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

The Portuguese colony of Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was subsequently incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of Timor Timur. A so-called campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which time an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives. On 30 August 1999, in a UN-supervised popular referendum, the people of Timor Timur voted for independence from Indonesia. On 20 May 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state and the world's newest democracy.


Geography

Tt-map.png
Map of East Timor
Location 
Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
Geographic coordinates 
8 50 S, 125 55 E
Map references 
Southeast Asia
Area 
total: 15,007 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries 
total: 228 km
border countries: Indonesia 228 km
Coastline 
706 km
Maritime claims 
contiguous zone: NA NM
extended fishing zone: NA NM
territorial sea: NA NM
exclusive fishing zone: NA NM
continental shelf: NA NM
exclusive economic zone: NA NM
Climate 
tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
Terrain 
mountainous
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m
highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m
Natural resources 
gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
Land use 
arable land: NA%
other: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
Irrigated land 
1,065 sq km (est.)
Natural hazards 
floods and landslides are common; earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones
Environment - current issues 
widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
Environment - international agreements 
NA
Geography - note 
Timor is the Malay word for "Orient"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands

People

Population 
952,618 (July 2002 est.)
note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (2002 est.)
Age structure 
NA
Population growth rate 
7.26% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
28.07 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
6.52 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
51.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
NA
Infant mortality rate 
51.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 64.85 years
male: 62.64 years
female: 67.17 years (2002 est.)
Total fertility rate 
3.88 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
NA
Nationality 
noun: Timorese
adjective: Timorese
Ethnic groups 
Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese minority
Religions 
Roman Catholic 90%, Muslim 4%, Protestant 3%, Hindu 0.5%, Buddhist, Animist (1992 est.)
Languages 
Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English
note: there are a total of about 16 indigenous languages, of which Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 48% (2001)
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
conventional short form: East Timor
local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
former: Portuguese Timor
local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
Government type 
republic
Capital 
Dili
Administrative divisions 
13 administrative districts; Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Cova-Lima (Suai), Dili, Ermera, Lautem (Los Palos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oecussi (Ambeno), Viqueque
Independence 
28 November 1975 (date of proclamation of independence from Portugal); note - 20 May 2002 is the official date of international recognition of East Timor's independence from Indonesia
National holiday 
Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
Constitution 
22 March 2002 (based on the Portuguese model)
Legal system 
NA
Suffrage 
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Jose Alexander GUSMAO (since 20 May 2002); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto some legislation
head of government: Prime Minister Mari Bin Amude ALKATIRI (since 20 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of State
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2007); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Jose Alexander GUSMAO elected president; percent of vote - Jose Alexander GUSMAO 82.7%, Francisco Xavier do Amaral 17.3%
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Parliament (number of seats can vary, minimum requirement of 52 and a maximum of 65 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - for its first term of office, the National Parliament is comprised of 88 members on an exceptional basis
elections: last held 30 August 2001 (next to be held NA August 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRETILIN 57.37%, PD 8.72%, PSD 8.18%, ASDT 7.84%, UDT 2.36%, PNT 2.21%, KOTA 2.13%, PPT 2.01%, PDC 1.98%, PST 1.78%, independents/other 5.42%; seats by party - FRETILIN 55, PD 7, PSD 6, ASDT 6, PDC 2, UDT 2, KOTA 2, PNT 2, PPT 2, UDC/PDC 1, PST 1, PL 1, independent 1
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court of Justice, one judge appointed by the National Parliament and the rest appointed by the Superior Council for the Judiciary
Political parties and leaders 
Associacao Social-Democrata Timorense or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Christian Democratic Party of Timor or PDC [Antonio XIMENES]; Christian Democratic Union of Timor or UDC [Vicente da Silva GUTERRES]; Democratic Pary or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; Maubere Democratic Party or PDM [leader NA]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor or FRETILIN [Lu OLO]; Social Democrat Party of East Timor or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Socialist Party of Timor or PST [leader NA]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes) or KOTA [Clementino dos Reis AMARAL]; Timor Democratic Union or UDT [Joao CARRASCALAO]; Timor Labor Party or TRABALHISTA [Paulo Freitas DA SILVA]; Timorese Nationalist Party or PNT [Abilio ARAUJO]; Timorese Popular Democratic Association or APODETI [Frederico Almeida Santos COSTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
IBRD, IMF
note: UN membership is expected in September
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Jose Luis GUTERRES
chancery: NA
consulate(s) general: NA
FAX: NA
telephone: NA
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Grover Joseph REES
embassy: Avenido do Portugal, Farol, Dili
mailing address: NA
telephone: (670) 390 324 684
FAX: (670) 390 313 206
Flag description 
red, with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; there is a white star in the center of the black triangle

Economy

Economy - overview 
In late 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure of East Timor was laid waste by Indonesian troops and anti-independence militias, and 260,000 people fled westward. Over the next three years, however, a massive international program, manned by 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1,300 police officers, led to substantial reconstruction in both urban and rural areas. By mid-2002, all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned. The country faces great challenges in continuing the rebuilding of infrastructure and the strengthening of the infant civil administration. One promising long-term project would be development of oil resources in nearby waters.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $415 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
18% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $500 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 25%
industry: 17%
services: 57% (2001)
Population below poverty line 
42% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
38
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
NA%
Labor force 
NA
Labor force - by occupation 
NA
Unemployment rate 
50% (including underemployment)
Budget 
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
Industries 
printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
Industrial production growth rate 
8.5%
Electricity - production 
NA kWh
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0%
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
NA kWh
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh
Agriculture - products 
coffee, rice, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
Exports 
$8 million (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities 
coffee, sandalwood, marble; note - the potential for oil and vanilla exports
Exports - partners 
NA
Imports 
$237 million (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities 
NA
Imports - partners 
NA
Debt - external 
$NA
Economic aid - recipient 
$2.2 billion
Currency 
US dollar (USD)
Currency code 
USD
Fiscal year 
1 July - 30 June

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
NA
Telephones - mobile cellular 
NA
Telephone system 
NA
Radio broadcast stations 
AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
Radios 
NA
Television broadcast stations 
NA
Televisions 
NA
Internet country code 
.tp
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
NA
Internet users 
NA

Transportation

Railways 
0 km
Highways 
total: 3,800 km
paved: 428 km
unpaved: 3,372 km (1995)
Waterways 
NA
Pipelines 
NA
Ports and harbors 
NA
Merchant marine 
total: NA
ships by type: NA
Airports 
8 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 3 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,427 m: 1 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 5 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Heliports 
1 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
the East Timor Defense Force or FALINTIL-FDTL comprises a light-infantry Army and a small Naval component; note - plans are to develop a force of 1,500 active personnel and 1,500 reserve personnel over the next five years
Military manpower - military age 
18-21 years of age
Military manpower - availability 
NA
Military manpower - fit for military service 
NA
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
NA
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$4.4 million (FY03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meets to survey and delimit land boundary; Indonesia seeks resolution of East Timor refugees in Indonesia; Australia-East Timor-Indonesia are working to resolve maritime boundary and sharing of seabed resources in "Timor Gap"
Illicit drugs 
NA

Variants

Actions

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