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'''Dzongkha''' is the national language of [[Bhutan]]. It has about 160.000 native speakers and about 470.000 second language speakers. It's mainly spoken in the districts Thimpu, Paro, Haa, Chukha, Wangdue Phodrang, Punakha and Gasa. Dzongkha is the most common language in the west of Bhutan, Tshangla in the east.
 
+
'''Dzongkha''' is the national language of [[Bhutan]].
+
  
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 +
Dzongkha uses the Tibetan writing system. There are 5 vowels (a, e, i, o and u) and 30 consonants.
  
 
===Vowels===
 
===Vowels===
 +
Vowels are shown with vowel symbols.<br/>
 +
There are 4 vowel symbols:<br/>
 +
a - ཨ (without a symbol it is "a")<br/>
 +
e - ཨེ<br/>
 +
i - ཨི<br/>
 +
o - ཨོ<br/>
 +
u - ཨུ<br/>
 +
<br/>
 +
There is only 1 vowel per syllable. Syllables are seperated with a "Tsheg", which looks like this: ་<br/>
 +
The syllables follow an easy pattern:<br/>
 +
ཀ་ = Ka<br/>
 +
ཀི་ = Ki<br/>
 +
ཀིད་ = Kid<br/>
 +
ཀི་ད་ = Kida<br/>
 +
ཀི་དེ་ = Kide<br/>
 +
ཀི་དེབ་ = Kideb<br/>
 +
<br/>
 +
(By the way: "Kideb" means "notebook".)<br/>
  
 
===Consonants===
 
===Consonants===
 
+
There are 30 consonants.<br/>
===Common diphthongs===
+
ཀ (ka) ཁ (kha*) ག (ga) ང (nga)<br/>
 +
ཅ (cha) ཆ (chha*) ཇ (ja) ཉ (nya)<br/>
 +
ཏ (ta) ཐ (tha*) ད (da) ན (na)<br/>
 +
པ (pa) ཕ (pha*) བ (ba) མ (ma)<br/>
 +
ཙ (tsa) ཚ (tsha*) ཛ (dza)<br/>
 +
ཝ (wa) ཞ (zha*) ཟ (za)<br/>
 +
འ ('a) ཡ (ya) ར (ra) ལ (la)<br/>
 +
ཤ (sha) ས (sa)<br/>
 +
ཧ (ha) ཨ (a)<br/>
 +
<br/>
 +
<nowiki>*</nowiki> = These letters are pronounced like the one before, but with a harder breath.<br/>
 +
'a = A short break.<br/>
 +
a = Silent consonant. Used, when there is no consonant needed, like in the word ཨ་པ (apa), which is "father".<br/>
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
  
 
===Basics===
 
===Basics===
; Hello (formal) : kuzu zanpo la
+
; Hello. (formal) : Kuzu zangpo la.
; Hello (informal) :  kuzu zangpo
+
; Hello. (informal) :  Kuzu zangpo.
; How are you? : Gadaybay Zhu Ga?
+
; Nice to meet you. : Nga choe da choebay sem gai.
; I'm fine : Legshom (Layshom)
+
; How are you? : Gaday bay Zhu Ga?
 +
; I'm fine. : Legshom. (Layshom)
 
; What is your name? : Chhoe gi ming ga chi mo?  
 
; What is your name? : Chhoe gi ming ga chi mo?  
; My name is _____: Nge gi ming _____ in
+
; My name is _____. : Nge gi ming _____ in.
; I am from ____ : Nga ____ lay in
+
; I am from ____. : Nga ____ lay in.
; Thank you : Kadrin chhe
+
; Thank you. : Kadrin chhe.
; See you later (informal) : Shoo lay log jay ge
+
; See you later! (informal) : Shu lay log jay ge!
; Where : Gathey
+
; Where? : Gathey?
; How much : Gademchi
+
; How much? : Gademchi?
  
 
===Problems===
 
===Problems===
What is Your Problem?= Choe gi Ka Ngyel ga chi mo?
+
; What is the Problem? : Choe gi Ka Ngyel ga chi mo?
 
    
 
    
Where is the Bank? = Ngyul Khang Ga teey mo?
+
; Where is the Bank? : Ngyul Khang Ga teey mo?
  
 
===Numbers===
 
===Numbers===
 
+
Dzongkha has its own digits.
; 1 : chi
+
The system works like the English digit system, so 2012 = ༢༠༡༢
; 2 : nyi
+
; 1 (༡) : chi
; 3 : sum
+
; 2 (༢) : nyi
; 4 : zhi
+
; 3 (༣) : sum
; 5 : nga
+
; 4 (༤) : zhi
; 6 : dru
+
; 5 (༥) : nga
; 7 : duen
+
; 6 (༦) : dru
; 8 : gay
+
; 7 (༧) : duen
; 9 : gu
+
; 8 (༨) : gay
; 10 : chu tham
+
; 9 (༩) : gu
; 11 : chu chi
+
; 10 (༡༠) : chu tham
; 12 : chu nyi
+
; 11 (༡༡) : chu chi
 +
; 12 (༡༢) : chu nyi
  
 
===Time===
 
===Time===
Line 54: Line 85:
  
 
====Duration====
 
====Duration====
; _____ minute(s) : karma
+
; _____ minute(s) : karma _____
; _____ hour(s) : Ganta
+
; _____ hour(s) : ganta _____
; _____ day(s) : Zha
+
; _____ day(s) : zha _____
; _____ week(s) : Hapta
+
; _____ week(s) : duenthrak _____
; _____ month(s) : Daw
+
; _____ month(s) : daw _____
; _____ year(s) : Lho
+
; _____ year(s) : lho _____
  
 
====Days====
 
====Days====
 
; Monday : Migmar
 
; Monday : Migmar
; Tuesday : Lhagpa
+
; Tuesday : Lhakpa
 
; Wednesday : Phurbu
 
; Wednesday : Phurbu
 
; Thursday : Pasang
 
; Thursday : Pasang
Line 73: Line 104:
 
; January : indha dangpa
 
; January : indha dangpa
 
; February : indha nyipa
 
; February : indha nyipa
; March : indha sumpa, indha zhipa, indha ngapa, indha drukpa, indha duenpa, indha gyepa, indha gupa and indha chunyepa for December
+
; March : indha sumpa
 +
; April : indha zhipa
 +
; May : indha ngapa
 +
; June : indha drupa
 +
; July : indha duenpa
 +
; August : indha gaypa
 +
; September : indha gupa
 +
; October : indha chuthampa
 +
; November : indha chuchimpa
 +
; December : indha chunyepa<br/>
  
; Note : For the months of lunar claender the prefix is '''rangda''', '''indha''' is used for the months of the international calender.
+
<nowiki>(Note: For the months of lunar calender the prefix is '''rangda''', '''indha''' is used for the months of the international calender.)</nowiki>
  
 
====Writing time and date====
 
====Writing time and date====
 +
; Thursday, 2nd february, 2012 : Pasang, indha nyipa 2, 2012
  
 
===Colors===
 
===Colors===
Line 87: Line 128:
 
; Yellow : Serp
 
; Yellow : Serp
 
; Orange : Leewang
 
; Orange : Leewang
 +
 +
===Animals===
 +
; bird : Ji chu
 +
; cat : Ji ley
 +
; chicken : Jum
 +
; cow : No
 +
; dog : Ro che
 +
; fish : Na
 +
; frog : Bab
 +
; horse : Ta
 +
; pig : Phab
 +
; turtle : Ru bel
 +
  
 
===Transportation===
 
===Transportation===
Line 98: Line 152:
 
Identified by the yellow top(hood) and BT registration affixed before the number.
 
Identified by the yellow top(hood) and BT registration affixed before the number.
  
Taxi : la khor
+
; Taxi : La khor
Fare : la
+
; Fare : La
how much : ga day chi mo
+
; How much? : Ga day chi mo?
  
 
===Lodging===
 
===Lodging===
  
 
===Money===
 
===Money===
How much is this/it ? Ngultrum ga they chi mo
+
; How much is this/it? : Ngultrum ga they chi mo?
  
 
===Eating===
 
===Eating===
  
Meal : Toh /zhay go
+
; Meal : Toh /zhay go
 +
 
 +
; eating : shay go za ni
  
eating : shay go za ni
+
; delicious : zhim bay
  
delicious : zhim bay
+
; bitter : khag ta
  
bitter    ; khag ta
+
; sweet : ngam
  
sweet    : ngam
+
; sour : chup
  
sour      ; chup
+
; Water : chu
  
Water    ; chu
+
; Tea : ja
  
Tea      : ja
+
; Curry : tsoem
  
Curry    : tsoem
+
; Soup : thup
  
Soup      :thup
+
; Chilly : ema
  
Chilly    : ema
+
; Cheese : datsi
  
Cheese    :datsi
+
; cook : toh bey ni
  
cook      : toh bey ni
+
; eat : zhey
  
eat        : zhey
+
; Dry Chilli : ema kam
  
Dry Chilli : ema kam
+
; Potato : kewa
  
 
===Bars===
 
===Bars===
  
Alcoholic Beverage : Changg
+
; Alcoholic Beverage : Changg
  
Bar               : Changkhang
+
; Bar : Changkhang
  
Tip               : soera
+
; Tip : Soera
  
Whats the bill   : Ga de chi mo
+
; What's the bill? : Ga de chi mo?
  
I am drunk       : changg dang so ye
+
; I am drunk. : Changg dang so ye.
  
Water             : chu
+
; Water : Chu
  
Local Drink       : Ara
+
; Local Drink : Ara
  
It is strong(spirit) : ah ni gag tra du
+
; It is strong. (spirit) : Ah ni gag tra du.
  
It is mild           : lha si si du
+
; It is mild. : Lha si si du.
  
 
===Shopping===
 
===Shopping===
  
shop : tsongkhang
+
; Shop : Tsongkhang
  
how much : ga de chi mo?
+
; How much? : Ga de chi mo?
  
discount please : gong phab nang
+
; Discount please! : Gong phab nang!
  
 
===Driving===
 
===Driving===
  
Car : Numkhor
+
; Car : Numkhor
  
Drive : Numkhor tang ni
+
; Drive : Numkhor tang ni
  
Licence : Lak Kher
+
; Licence : Lak Kher
  
Police : thrim sung
+
; Police : thrim sung
  
Road   : Lam
+
; Road : Lam
  
High speed : joba joba shuk bay tang
+
; High speed : joba joba shuk bay tang
  
Low speed : drogay bay tang
+
; Low speed : drogay bay tang
  
please take caution(driving) : reb drim di tang
+
; Please take caution! (driving) : Reb drim di tang!
  
Lets go : jogay
+
; Let's go! : Jogay!
  
stop    ; numkor kag nang  
+
; stop : numkor kag nang  
  
Risky  : ngyen khag
+
; risky : ngyen khag
  
 
===Love===
 
===Love===
  
i love you:nga gi che lu ga
+
; I love you : Nga gi che lu ga.
  
i cant stay without you:nga che me pa me cha bay
+
; I can't stay without you : Nga che me pa me cha bay.
  
i will make you a phone call:nga gi che lu juthen tang gay
+
; I will make you a phone call. : Nga gi che lu juthen tang gay.
  
do you remember me:che nga dem mey ga
+
; Do you remember me? : Che nga dem mey ga?
  
you're so beautiful:che namay samay jarim dhu
+
; You're so beautiful! : Che namay samay jarim dhu!

Revision as of 20:58, 27 January 2013

Dzongkha is the national language of Bhutan. It has about 160.000 native speakers and about 470.000 second language speakers. It's mainly spoken in the districts Thimpu, Paro, Haa, Chukha, Wangdue Phodrang, Punakha and Gasa. Dzongkha is the most common language in the west of Bhutan, Tshangla in the east.

Contents

Pronunciation guide

Dzongkha uses the Tibetan writing system. There are 5 vowels (a, e, i, o and u) and 30 consonants.

Vowels

Vowels are shown with vowel symbols.
There are 4 vowel symbols:
a - ཨ (without a symbol it is "a")
e - ཨེ
i - ཨི
o - ཨོ
u - ཨུ

There is only 1 vowel per syllable. Syllables are seperated with a "Tsheg", which looks like this: ་
The syllables follow an easy pattern:
ཀ་ = Ka
ཀི་ = Ki
ཀིད་ = Kid
ཀི་ད་ = Kida
ཀི་དེ་ = Kide
ཀི་དེབ་ = Kideb

(By the way: "Kideb" means "notebook".)

Consonants

There are 30 consonants.
ཀ (ka) ཁ (kha*) ག (ga) ང (nga)
ཅ (cha) ཆ (chha*) ཇ (ja) ཉ (nya)
ཏ (ta) ཐ (tha*) ད (da) ན (na)
པ (pa) ཕ (pha*) བ (ba) མ (ma)
ཙ (tsa) ཚ (tsha*) ཛ (dza)
ཝ (wa) ཞ (zha*) ཟ (za)
འ ('a) ཡ (ya) ར (ra) ལ (la)
ཤ (sha) ས (sa)
ཧ (ha) ཨ (a)

* = These letters are pronounced like the one before, but with a harder breath.
'a = A short break.
a = Silent consonant. Used, when there is no consonant needed, like in the word ཨ་པ (apa), which is "father".

Phrase list

Basics

Hello. (formal) 
Kuzu zangpo la.
Hello. (informal) 
Kuzu zangpo.
Nice to meet you. 
Nga choe da choebay sem gai.
How are you? 
Gaday bay Zhu Ga?
I'm fine. 
Legshom. (Layshom)
What is your name? 
Chhoe gi ming ga chi mo?
My name is _____. 
Nge gi ming _____ in.
I am from ____. 
Nga ____ lay in.
Thank you. 
Kadrin chhe.
See you later! (informal) 
Shu lay log jay ge!
Where? 
Gathey?
How much? 
Gademchi?

Problems

What is the Problem? 
Choe gi Ka Ngyel ga chi mo?
Where is the Bank? 
Ngyul Khang Ga teey mo?

Numbers

Dzongkha has its own digits. The system works like the English digit system, so 2012 = ༢༠༡༢

1 (༡) 
chi
2 (༢) 
nyi
3 (༣) 
sum
4 (༤) 
zhi
5 (༥) 
nga
6 (༦) 
dru
7 (༧) 
duen
8 (༨) 
gay
9 (༩) 
gu
10 (༡༠) 
chu tham
11 (༡༡) 
chu chi
12 (༡༢) 
chu nyi

Time

Clock time

time 
(...)
o'clock 
bazaar
8 o'clock 
bazaar gyed

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
karma _____
_____ hour(s) 
ganta _____
_____ day(s) 
zha _____
_____ week(s) 
duenthrak _____
_____ month(s) 
daw _____
_____ year(s) 
lho _____

Days

Monday 
Migmar
Tuesday 
Lhakpa
Wednesday 
Phurbu
Thursday 
Pasang
Friday 
Pemba
Saturday 
Nima
Sunday 
Dawa

Months

January 
indha dangpa
February 
indha nyipa
March 
indha sumpa
April 
indha zhipa
May 
indha ngapa
June 
indha drupa
July 
indha duenpa
August 
indha gaypa
September 
indha gupa
October 
indha chuthampa
November 
indha chuchimpa
December 
indha chunyepa

(Note: For the months of lunar calender the prefix is '''rangda''', '''indha''' is used for the months of the international calender.)

Writing time and date

Thursday, 2nd february, 2012 
Pasang, indha nyipa 2, 2012

Colors

Green 
Changkha
Red 
Marp
White 
Karp
Blue 
Hoem
Black 
Naap
Yellow 
Serp
Orange 
Leewang

Animals

bird 
Ji chu
cat 
Ji ley
chicken 
Jum
cow 
No
dog 
Ro che
fish 
Na
frog 
Bab
horse 
Ta
pig 
Phab
turtle 
Ru bel


Transportation

Bus and train

Directions

Taxi

Identified by the yellow top(hood) and BT registration affixed before the number.

Taxi 
La khor
Fare 
La
How much? 
Ga day chi mo?

Lodging

Money

How much is this/it? 
Ngultrum ga they chi mo?

Eating

Meal 
Toh /zhay go
eating 
shay go za ni
delicious 
zhim bay
bitter 
khag ta
sweet 
ngam
sour 
chup
Water 
chu
Tea 
ja
Curry 
tsoem
Soup 
thup
Chilly 
ema
Cheese 
datsi
cook 
toh bey ni
eat 
zhey
Dry Chilli 
ema kam
Potato 
kewa

Bars

Alcoholic Beverage 
Changg
Bar 
Changkhang
Tip 
Soera
What's the bill? 
Ga de chi mo?
I am drunk. 
Changg dang so ye.
Water 
Chu
Local Drink 
Ara
It is strong. (spirit) 
Ah ni gag tra du.
It is mild. 
Lha si si du.

Shopping

Shop 
Tsongkhang
How much? 
Ga de chi mo?
Discount please! 
Gong phab nang!

Driving

Car 
Numkhor
Drive 
Numkhor tang ni
Licence 
Lak Kher
Police 
thrim sung
Road 
Lam
High speed 
joba joba shuk bay tang
Low speed 
drogay bay tang
Please take caution! (driving) 
Reb drim di tang!
Let's go! 
Jogay!
stop 
numkor kag nang
risky 
ngyen khag

Love

I love you 
Nga gi che lu ga.
I can't stay without you 
Nga che me pa me cha bay.
I will make you a phone call. 
Nga gi che lu juthen tang gay.
Do you remember me? 
Che nga dem mey ga?
You're so beautiful! 
Che namay samay jarim dhu!

Variants

Actions

Destination Docents

In other languages