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* <listing name="SCUBA Academy" alt="" directions="" address="80 Via Appia, Somerset West" phone="+27 79 083 7654" email="info@scubaacademy.co.za" fax="" url="http://www.scubaacademy.co.za" hours="Office: 9AM to 6PM" price="Shore Entries = R250 & Boat dives = R350. Full equpment rental included!">mobile: +2779 083 7654. PADI training, Gear rental</listing>
 
* <listing name="SCUBA Academy" alt="" directions="" address="80 Via Appia, Somerset West" phone="+27 79 083 7654" email="info@scubaacademy.co.za" fax="" url="http://www.scubaacademy.co.za" hours="Office: 9AM to 6PM" price="Shore Entries = R250 & Boat dives = R350. Full equpment rental included!">mobile: +2779 083 7654. PADI training, Gear rental</listing>
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* <listing name="Scuba Junction" alt="" address="1 Franz Street, Somerset West." phone="+27 (0)82 553 9769" url="http://www.scubajunction.co.za/" hours="M to F: 8.30AM to 5.30PM, Sa: 8.30AM to 1PM, Su: Closed - Call for an appointment." email="info@scubajunction.co.za" fax=""> NAUI; Equipment sales and rentals via http://shop.scubajunction.co.za ; Air fills.</listing>
  
 
* <listing name="Shark Adventures" alt="" directions="" address="11 Faure Street, Gordons Bay, 7150" phone="+27 (0)21 856 4055" email="the-unis@absamail.co.za" fax=" +27 (0)86 627 0374" url="http://www.sharkadventures.co.za/index.html" hours="" price="">mobile: +27 (0)83 225 7227. White shark cage dives. </listing>
 
* <listing name="Shark Adventures" alt="" directions="" address="11 Faure Street, Gordons Bay, 7150" phone="+27 (0)21 856 4055" email="the-unis@absamail.co.za" fax=" +27 (0)86 627 0374" url="http://www.sharkadventures.co.za/index.html" hours="" price="">mobile: +27 (0)83 225 7227. White shark cage dives. </listing>

Revision as of 12:23, 8 April 2013

    This article is a travel topic

The Atlantic Seaboard is to the left of the peninsula, and False Bay to the right in this astronaut photo of Cape Town

This regional dive guide is intended to provide the already qualified Scuba diver with information which will help to plan dives in the waters of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, whether as a local resident or a visitor. Information is provided without prejudice, and is not guaranteed accurate or complete. Use it at your own risk.

The region described is within a day trip from any part of greater Cape Town, in the Western Cape province of South Africa and includes well over 100 dive sites, which is a large number for any single destination.

Detailed information on individual dive sites is provided in the sub-articles linked from the Dive sites section. The information in the site descriptions ranges from superficial to highly detailed, depending on what is known about the site.

In some instances a dive site sub-article will include several sites which are in close proximity, as much of the information will be common to them all. In other cases, usually involving wreck sites, two closely adjacent sites will each have their own sub-article, but if two or more wrecks lie in the same position, or with substantial overlap, they will both be described in the same sub-article.

Contents

Understand

This Landsat and SRTM perspective view uses a 2-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The back edges of the data sets form a false horizon and a false sky was added.
Divers on the way to a dive site off Cape Town
Diver at the wreck of the Aster in Hout Bay

General Topography

The City of Cape Town was founded at the northern end of the Cape Peninsula, a narrow mountainous strip of land at the most 30km wide and just over 100km long. The northern border is the coast of Table Bay, a large open bay with a single island, Robben Island, in its mouth.

A ragged coastline marks the western border along the Atlantic ocean. A number of small bays are found along the coast with a single large one, Hout Bay, about half way along. Further south the peninsula narrows until it comes to an end at Cape Point. A range of mountains with Table Mountain at 1085m at the northern end forms the backbone of the peninsula. The highest point of the southern peninsula is Swartkop, at 678m, near Simon’s Town.

The eastern side is bordered by False Bay, and this stretch of coastline includes the smaller Smitswinkel Bay, Simon’s Bay and Fish Hoek Bay. At Muizenberg the coastline becomes relatively low and sandy and curves east to Gordon’s Bay to form the northern boundary of False Bay. From Gordon's Bay the coastline swings roughly south, and zig-zags its way along the foot of the Hottentot’s Holland mountain range to Cape Hangklip which is at nearly the same latitude as Cape Point. The highest peak on this side is Kogelberg at 1269m.

In plan the bay is approximately square with rather wobbly edges, being roughly the same extent from north to south as east to west (30km), with the entire southern side open to the ocean. The area of False Bay has been measured at about 1090km2, and the volume is approximately 45km3 (average depth about 40m). The land perimeter has been measured at 116km, from a 1:50 000 map.

The bottom morphology of False Bay is generally smooth and fairly shallow, sloping gently downwards from North to South, so that the depth at the centre of the mouth is about 80m. The bottom is covered with sediment which ranges from very coarse to very fine, with most of the fine sediment and mud in the centre of the bay. The main exception is a long ridge of sedimentary rock that extends in a southward direction from off the Strand, to approximately level with the mouth of the Steenbras River. The southern tip of this ridge is known as Steenbras Deep.

There is one true island in the bay, Seal Island, a barren and stony outcrop of granite about 200m long and with an area of about 2 hectare. It is about 6km south of Strandfontein and is less than 10m above sea level at its highest point. There are also a number of small rocky islets which extend above the high water mark, and other rocks and shoals which approach the surface. Most of these are granite of the Peninsula pluton, but east of Seal Island they are generally sandstone, probably of the Table Mountain series, though it is possible that some may be of the underlying Tygerberg formation.

Outside the bay, but influencing the wave patterns in it, is Rocky Bank, an extensive area of sandstone reef between 20 and 30m depth.

Strictly speaking, False Bay is part of the Atlantic ocean which extends as far as Cape Agulhas, but when in Cape Town, Atlantic generally refers to the western seaboard of the Cape Peninsula, and the east side is referred to as False Bay, or the Simon's Town side. This convention will be used throughout this guide.

Climate, weather and sea conditions

Climate of the Western Cape

The climate of the South-western Cape is markedly different from the rest of South Africa, which is a summer rainfall region, receiving most of its rainfall during the summer months of December to February. The South-western Cape has a Mediterranean type climate, with most of its rainfall during the winter months from June to September.

During the summer the dominant factor determining the weather in the region is a high pressure zone, known as the Atlantic High, located over the South Atlantic ocean to the west of the Cape coast. Winds circulating in an anticlockwise direction from such a system reach the Cape from the south-east, producing periods of up to several days of high winds and clear skies. These south easterly winds are locally known as the Cape Doctor. They keep the region relatively cool and help to blow polluted air from the industrial areas and Cape Flats out to sea. Because of its south facing aspect False Bay is exposed to these winds, particularly on the west side, while Table Bay and the west coast of the peninsula experience an offshore wind. This wind pattern is locally influenced by the topography to the extent that gale force winds may be blowing in Gordon’s Bay, while about 10km away parts of Somerset West may have a sweltering and windless day.

Winter in the South-western Cape is characterised by disturbances in the circumpolar westerly winds, resulting in a series of eastward moving depressions. These bring cool cloudy weather and rain from the north west. The south westerly winds over the South Atlantic produce the prevailing south-westerly swell typical of the winter months, which beat on the exposed Atlantic coastline and the east side of False Bay. The mountains of the Cape Peninsula provide protection within the west side of False Bay from this wind and from the south westerly waves – a fact which influenced Governor Simon van der Stel in his choice of Simon’s Bay as a winter anchorage for the Dutch East India Company’s ships for Cape Town. The north westerly winter storms have wrecked many ships anchored in Table Bay over the centuries. Even today, in spite of technical advances and improved weather forecasting this still happens, though less frequently than in the past, and these days the salvage operations are more often successful.

Weather

There can be considerable variation in weather conditions between different sites in the area covered by this guide on any day, though the general tendency may be similar. For example rain may fall on the Cape Peninsula in the morning, and by afternoon these conditions may have moved over to the east side of False Bay and the peninsula may be clearing with a significant wind directional shift from north westerly to south westerly. The general trend is for the weather to come in from the west and move eastwards with the frontal systems, but there can also be more local weather phenomena such as thunderstorms (rare) and Berg winds, which are warm winds coming down off the mountains. Local variation in wind strength may be extreme, and sometimes hard to believe, as there may be a dead calm in one place and a howling wind a few kilometres away. There are places known for exposure to both south easterly and north westerly winds, and some which are sheltered from one or the other, while the south-westerlies blow most places, but not usually to quite the same extremes. What this amounts to in practice, is that the weather conditions where you are at a particular time may differ significantly from those at a dive site a bit later in the day.

Sea conditions

Waves and swell

The waves reaching the shores of False Bay and the Cape Peninsula can be considered as a combination of local wind waves and swell from distant sources. The swell is produced by weather systems generally south of the continent, sometimes considerably distant, the most important of which are the frontal systems in the South Atlantic, which generate wind waves which then disperse away from their source and separate over time into zones of varying period. The long period waves are faster and have more energy, and move ahead of the shorter period components, so they tend to reach the coast first. This is known to surfers as a pulse, and is generally followed by gradually shortening period swell of less power.

Local winds will also produce waves which will combine their effects with the swell. Offshore winds as a general rule will flatten the sea as the fetch (distance that the wind has blown over the water) is too small to develop waves of great height or length. Onshore winds on the other hand, if strong enough will produce a short and nasty chop which can make entry and exit uncomfortable, and surface swims or boat rides unpleasant.

The combination of swell and wind waves must be considered when planning a dive. This requires knowledge of these conditions, which are forecast with variable accuracy by a number of organisations, in some cases up to 7 days ahead.

Upwellings

South-easterly winds which blow offshore and along the coast on the west side of the Cape Peninsula and the east side of False Bay cause a movement of surface water northwards along the coast and offshore to the west of the coast. This movement of water away from the coast is compensated by the upwelling of deeper water.

These upwellings are of considerable interest to the diver, as the upwelled water is generally cold and relatively clear. However, as the upwelled water has a high nutrient content, the upwellings are often forerunners of a plankton bloom known as a "red tide", which will drastically reduce visibility.

On the east side of False Bay the upwellings often cause poor visibility as they can disturb the very fine and low density sediment which is common on that side of the bay, particularly in the shallower part near Gordon's Bay. The water is also relatively cold, but not usually as cold as on the west side of the peninsula and temperatures may drop from around 19°C to 12°C over a day or two.

Tides

The local tides are relatively weak, and there are no strong tidal currents on the Atlantic coast or in False Bay. The resulting tidal flows are of little consequence to the diver, the main effect being slight changes in the depth at the dive site and variations on the obstacle presented by kelp fronds near the surface, which can affect the effort required to get through the kelp at the surface. In this regard it is generally easier at high tide.

Boat launches at some slipways can be difficult at low tide, which can occasionally affect boat dive schedules.

Maximum tidal range at Cape Town is approximately 1.86m (spring tides), and at Simon’s Town 1.91m, with minimum ranges at both places of about 0.26m (neap tides).

Water temperature

Average summer surface temperature of the Atlantic off the Cape Peninsula is in the range 10° to 13°C. The bottom temperature may be a few degrees colder. Minimum temperature is about 8°C and maximum about 17°C. Average winter surface temperature of the Atlantic off the Cape Peninsula is in the range 13° to 15°C. The bottom temperature inshore is much the same.

Average winter surface temperature of False Bay is approximately 15°C, and the bottom temperature much the same. Average summer surface temperature of False Bay is approximately 19°C. The bottom temperature is 1° to 3°C lower than it is in winter.

Currents

Currents are not usually considered an issue at most dive sites in this region. A shallow surface current may be produced by strong winds, which can be an inconvenience if it sets offshore. This surface layer is shallow and a diver may return to shore at 3m depth below the current. Tidal currents are negligible, and are only experienced at a few isolated dive sites, such as Windmill, during spring tides when there is some swell running.

The only two places which may experience significant currents are at the mouth of False Bay, at Rocky Bank and Bellows Rock, where eddies from the Agulhas current frequently produce a light- to medium-strength current, which may be strong enough to inconvenience divers in the shallows around Bellows Rock.

Predicting the weather and sea conditions

Predicting diving conditions in this region is fairly complex. There are websites such as Buoyweather [1], Surf-Forecast [2] and Windguru [3] which provide reasonably reliable forecasts for wind and swell. This combined with information on recent conditions of water temperature and visibility will allow a fairly reliable prediction of conditions a few days in advance. The local Wavescape [4] website and surf report is also a valuable reference with a distinctive South African ambience, though like the others, it is primarily intended for surfers, and divers must interpolate a bit.

Visibility can clear up quite quickly (overnight) on the Atlantic coast due to currents and relatively coarse sediments. On the west side of False Bay it is a little slower, and it can take several days, even weeks, on the east side of the bay, where the sediments are fine and light.

Until you have developed a feel for this procedure, it is useful to get second opinions from people or organisations with experience. Some of the local dive charter operators have better reputations for weather prediction than others, and there are some who will almost always claim that conditions are or were good. The Blue Flash [5] weekly newsletter is as good as any other and better than many.

The marine ecology

Kelp forest on a high profile inshore reef


The bioregions

Cape Point at the tip of the Cape Peninsula is considered the boundary between two of the five inshore marine bioregions of South Africa. To the west of Cape Point is the cool to cold temperate South-western Cape inshore bioregion, and to the east is the warmer temperate Agulhas inshore bioregion. The Cape Point break is considered to be a relatively distinct change in the bioregions and this can be clearly seen from the difference in marine life between the Atlantic seaboard of the peninsula and False Bay.

The habitats

Four major habitats exist in the sea in this region, distinguished by the nature of the substrate. The substrate, or base material, is important in that it provides a base to which an organism can anchor itself, which is vitally important for those organisms which need to stay in one particular kind of place. Rocky shores and reefs provide a firm fixed substrate for the attachment of plants and animals. Some of these may have Kelp forests, which reduce the effect of waves and provide food and shelter for an extended range of organisms. Sandy beaches and bottoms are a relatively unstable substrate and cannot anchor kelp or many of the other benthic organisms. Finally there is open water, above the substrate and clear of the kelp forest, where the organisms must drift or swim. Mixed habitats are also frequently found, which are a combination of those mentioned above. The habitats are described in more detail in the following sections.

Rocky shores and reefs

Several layers of marine life may co-exist in apparent harmony

The great majority of popular dive sites in the local waters are on rocky reefs or mixed rocky and sandy bottoms, with a significant number of wrecks, which are equivalent to rocky reefs for classification of habitat, as in general, marine organisms are not particular about the material of the substrate if the texture and strength is suitable and it is not toxic. For many marine organisms the substrate is another type of marine organism, and it is common for several layers to co-exist. Examples of this are red bait pods, which are usually encrusted with sponges, ascidians, bryozoans, anemones, and gastropods, and abalone, which are usually covered by similar seaweeds to those found on the surrounding rocks, usually with a variety of other organisms living on the seaweeds.

The type of rock of the reef is of some importance, as it influences the range of possibilities for the local topography, which in turn influences the range of habitats provided, and therefore the diversity of inhabitants.

Granite reefs generally have a relatively smooth surface in the centimetre to decimetre scale, but are often high profile in the metre scale, so they provide macro-variations in habitat from relatively horizontal upper surface, near vertical sides, to overhangs, holes and tunnels, on a similar scale to the boulders and outcrops themselves. There are relatively few small crevices compared to the overall surface area.

Sandstone and other sedimentary rocks erode and weather very differently, and depending on the direction of dip and strike, and steepness of the dip, may produce reefs which are relatively flat to very high profile and full of small crevices. These features may be at varying angles to the shoreline and wave fronts. There are far fewer small caverns and swimthroughs in sandstone reefs, but often many deep but low near-horizontal crevices. In some areas the reef is predominantly wave-rounded medium to small boulders. In this case the type of rock is of little importance.

The coastline in this region was considerably lower during the most recent ice-ages, and the detail topography of the dive sites was largely formed during the period of exposure above sea level. As a result, the dive sites are mostly very similar in character to the nearest landscape above sea level.

There are notable exceptions where the rock above and below the water is of a different type. These are mostly in False Bay south of Smitswinkel Bay, where there is a sandstone shore with granite reefs.

Kelp Forests

Dense kelp forest with algal understorey

Kelp forests are a variation of rocky reefs, as the kelp requires a fairly strong and stable substrate which can withstand the loads of repeated waves dragging on the kelp plants. The Sea bamboo Ecklonia maxima grows in water which is shallow enough to allow it to reach to the surface with its gas-filled stipes, so that the fronds form a dense layer just below the surface. The shorter Split-fan kelp Laminaria pallida grows mostly on deeper reefs, where there is not so much competition from the sea bamboo. Both these kelp species provide food and shelter for a variety of other organisms, and particularly the Sea bamboo, which is a base for a wide range of epiphytes, which in turn provide food and shelter for more organisms.

The Bladder kelp Macrocysta angustifolia can also be found at a few sites, mostly near Robben Island. This is one of the few places in the world where three genera of kelps may be found at the same place.

Sandy beaches and bottoms (including shelly, pebble and gravel bottoms)

Sandy bottoms at first glance appear to be fairly barren areas, as they lack the stability to support many of the spectacular reef based species, and the variety of large organisms is relatively low. The sand is continually being moved around by wave action, to a greater or lesser degree depending on weather conditions and exposure of the area. This means that sessile organisms must be specifically adapted to areas of relatively loose substrate to thrive in them, and the variety of species found on a sandy or gravel bottom will depend on all these factors.

For these reasons sandy and gravel bottoms are not usually popular with novices and visitors, who are usually attracted to the more spectacular sites, but to the diver who is interested in the full variety of the marine environment they can provide a refreshing and fascinating variation, as there are a lot of organisms which will only be found on these bottom types. Mostly they can be found adjacent to reef areas, but there are a few sites which are predominantly sandy.

Sandy bottoms have one important compensation for their instability, animals can burrow into the sand and move up and down within its layers, which can provide feeding opportunities and protection from predation. Other species can dig themselves holes in which to shelter, or may feed by filtering water drawn through the tunnel, or by extending body parts adapted to this function into the water above the sand.

Red tides

On the west coast of the peninsula and to a lesser extent the east side of False Bay, the south easterly winds can cause upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient rich waters. This generally happens in summer when these winds are strongest, and this in combination with the intense summer sunlight provides conditions conducive to rapid growth of phytoplankton. If the upwelling is then followed by a period of light wind or onshore winds, some species of phytoplankton can bloom so densely that they colour the water, most noticeably a reddish or brownish colour, which is known as a red tide.

Depending on the species involved, these red tides may cause mass mortalities to marine animals for various reasons. In some cases the organisms may consume all the available nutrients and then die, leaving decaying remains which deplete the water of oxygen, asphyxiating the animal life, while others may simply become so dense that they clog the gills of marine animals, with similar effect. A third group are inherently toxic, and these may be particularly problematic as some filter feeding species are immune to the toxins but accumulate them in their tissues and will then be toxic to humans who may eat them.

Red tides also have the more direct effect on diving conditions of reducing visibility. The reduction in visibility can range from a mild effect in the surface layers, to seriously reduced visibility to considerable depth.

Red tides may be small and localised and usually last for a few days, but in extreme cases have been known to extend from Doringbaai to Cape Agulhas, several hundred kilometres to both sides of Cape Town, and take weeks to disperse (March 2005).

Equipment

Standard equipment

Most of the dive sites in this region are relatively shallow and can be done on air with ordinary recreational diving equipment, which would include:

  • A full wet-suit of at least 5mm thickness, hood, boots and gloves.
  • A cylinder with harness, regulator and submersible pressure gauge.
  • A buoyancy compensator device (BCD).
  • Mask and snorkel.
  • Fins.
  • A ditchable weight system correctly calibrated for the rest of the equipment.
  • Depth gauge and timer with decompression tables and dive plan, or a dive computer.

To this you can add:

  • Any further equipment you or your certifying agency may consider obligatory, such as a secondary regulator, low pressure BCD inflator, knife, etc.
  • Any equipment you carry or use as a matter of personal preference, such as camera, signalling device, wrist slate, dry suit, reel and surface marker buoy, alternative gas supply, compass, etc.

Recommendations

  • If your fins have full foot pockets (closed heel), and your wet suit boots have soft soles, it may be necessary to wear shoes to get to the entry point on shore dives. Open heel fins and hard soled boots are recommended for most shore dives in this region because the ground tends to be rough and shoes may not still be where you left them when you return from the dive.
  • A standard surface marker buoy is not recommended where there is heavy kelp growth, as it will snag frequently and provide endless annoyance. A deployable or “delayed” surface marker is better at such sites and is always a good thing to carry on a boat dive.
  • Leaving out any of the above items is at your own risk. There are divers who will not wear hoods, or gloves, or boots, or feel that a snorkel or BC is not necessary, or that they can dive in a 3mm suit. Try this on an easy dive first, where you can get out quickly. It may work for you – there are divers who manage in each of these cases, but you have been warned.

Additional equipment

Divers in dry suits deploying a DSMB using a reel

For each dive site there may be additional or alternative equipment required or recommended, which may improve the dive experience or improve safety at that site. The most commonly recommended items are:

  • Compass
  • Dry suit
  • Light
  • Nitrox
  • Reel with DSMB

Use of a compass is recommended wherever it may be desirable to swim back to shore below the surface to avoid wind or boat traffic, or to keep below the kelp fronds. It is required for the compass navigation routes.

A dry suit is recommended for most dives on the Atlantic seaboard, or in general if the dive is deeper than about 20m and the water is colder than 13°C. An appropriate undergarment is required for the dry suit, at this is what provides the insulation. With a suitable combination it is possible to enjoy an hour's dive in comfort at a water temperature of 8°C, when most of the divers in 7mm wetsuits are cold after 30 minutes. If your face and head are particularly sensitive to cold, a full-face mask will keep your face warm.

Recommendations for a light are for daytime dives, as lights are considered standard equipment on night dives. Backup lights should be carried on night dives from a boat. Underwater flashers may not be well received by the other divers as they are extremely annoying. If you feel you must use one, warn the others and stay away from those divers who do not wish to have a light continually flashing in their peripheral vision and distracting them. A strobe which may be switched on in an emergency is another matter entirely, and is accepted as a valuable safety aid.

The equipment recommendations are for divers who are competent to use those items, and if you are not, you should consider whether your competence is sufficient to dive the site without this equipment.

No recommendations are made regarding equipment for wreck penetration dives and deep dives. If you do not know exactly what equipment is required and have it with you, or are not competent in its use, you should not do the penetration. Depth, wrecks and caves are nature’s tools for culling reckless divers.

Recommendations for gas mixtures are generic. You must choose the appropriate mixture based on your qualifications, competence and the dive plan. Nitrox mixtures are generally recommended to increase dive time without obligatory decompression stops, and Trimix to reduce narcotic effects. Nitrox is available from many of the dive shops, and charter operators will usually provide cylinders filled with the blend of your choice if given sufficient notice. Trimix is more difficult to arrange, as not many filling stations keep Helium in stock, so it may require a bit of shopping around.

Decompression dives should generally only be planned by divers who are familiar with the site, and are competent and properly equipped for the planned dive. Recommendations in this regard are outside the scope of this article, and it will be necessary to discuss any planned decompession dives well in advance with the dive operator, as only a few of them are competent and willing to support planned decompression dives, and those will usually require strong evidence of your competence to do the dive, and advance notice of your dive plan.

Exotic equipment

Diving equipment other than open circuit back mounted Scuba with half mask and mouth-grip demand valve is considered to be exotic for this section. This would include surface supplied breathing apparatus and full face masks, used as standard equipment by commercial divers, and rebreathers, seldom used by commercial divers, but frequently used by military divers and gaining popularity with Technical recreational divers. Also considered as exotic equipment is side-mount Scuba and diver propulsion vehicles (scooters), as they are not used by many recreational divers.

Generally speaking, any use of surface supplied diving equipment will require special preparation and logistics, which are not available from the listed service providers, but are perfectly legal for use and technical support is available from the suppliers to the commercial diving industry in Cape Town.

Rebreathers are relatively uncommon, but are used by a few local afficionados, and sorb is available over the counter at a few suppliers. There is even one charter boat which regularly runs dives for mainly rebreather divers. Expect to be checked out for skills and certification before being allowed to join these dives, so it would be advisable to make prior arrangements. Technical support is available for a limited range and parts will usually only be available from overseas agencies. Most of the local dive sites do not really justify the expense and relative risk of rebreathers, and they are mostly used by divers who also use them in other places where they are more of an advantage, and by those who just enjoy the technology.

Full-face masks will not be a problem, provided you can show your ability to provide buddy support if diving with a partner (some charters will insist that you dive with a buddy). Technical support and parts are available from local agencies for most of the more popular models used for commercial and technical diving, but you may have to wait some time if parts are not in stock. The use of a full-face mask can be a particular advantage when the water is cold, and if you have one and prefer to use it, by all means bring it to Cape Town.

Side mount Scuba is virtually unknown in Cape Town, but there should be no problems if you chose to use it. Do not expect boat crews to know how to help you kit up, but they will probably respond well to explanations.

Diver propulsion vehicles (scooters) are rare but not unknown. Check with the charter boat whether will be space on board for your unit, and don't expect to find one for rental.

Dive Sites

Map showing the distribution of the wreck and reef dive sites of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay

The dive sites described in these articles include some which are well known favorites and have been dived frequently and by many divers for decades, and also newly described sites, which may only have been dived a few times, and by a few divers. There are also sites which have been known for years, but seldom dived due to their relative inaccessibility, and a few which are basically not particularly interesting, but have been included in the interests of completeness, as the information is available, and occasionally people want to know what they are like. With a few exceptions, the information provided is based on personal observation at the sites by Wikitravellers. All photos of marine life and features of interest were taken at the listed site.

Geographical information is provided in as much detail as currently available. Sites are geolinked, which allows them to be identified on various internet map systems. Positional accuracy is usually good. The maps provided should be usable, to scale, and accurate, but are not guaranteed either to be correct in all details or complete. Clicking on the thumbnail will open a link to a higher resolution image.

Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula:

Introduction and some tips on diving the Atlantic coast.

This coastline from Table Bay to Cape Point is exposed to the south westerly swells generated by the cold fronts of the Southern Ocean. The continental shelf is narrow in this part of the coast and swells are not greatly influenced by the narrow band of shallow water, so they retain most of their deep-water energy. These swells pound this coast most of the winter, and to a lesser extent in summer, so diving in this region is mostly a summer activity, and the frontal weather patterns far to the south are more important than local weather for swell prediction.

The south easterly winds are offshore in this area and tend to blow the swell down a bit. They also cause an offshore displacement of the surface water, which results in deeper water rising to take its place. This upwelling brings colder, initially cleaner water to the inshore areas, and can produce conditions of 20m+ visibility and temperatures down to 8°C, though more usually 10° to 12°C. The diving is wonderful if you are sufficiently insulated. Out of the water, however, it is commonly fine and hot, with blazing sunshine and air temperatures in the high 20°C’s and 30°C’s. This means you will be overheating until you get in the water, hence the comment that summer diving in Cape Town is one easy step from hyperthermia to hypothermia.

There is no escaping the need for a well-fitting, thick (preferably 7mm), wet suit or a dry suit with an adequate undergarment for these conditions if you intend to stay for more than a few minutes. Carrying a bottle of water with your equipment to wet the outside of your suit before or after putting it on will help keep the temperature down due to evaporative cooling, specially on a windy day. Overheating after leaving the water is seldom a problem. The alternative option of kitting up at the water’s edge requires a shore party to look after your clothes etc. while you dive, so it has become less common recently. Do not leave equipment unattended if you wish to see it again.

An upwelling is frequently followed by a plankton bloom, often called a red tide. This will reduce visibility considerably, particularly near the surface. Often the water will be much clearer below the surface layer, though the light levels may be a bit dim and the colour relatively green.

The south-easter is an offshore wind, and besides its influence on temperature and visibility, it also affects the swim back to shore after the dive. The south-easter can appear seemingly out of nowhere on a previously cloudless and windless day, and build up to near gale force in the time you are underwater on a dive, though it is usually predictable, so take note of weather forecasts, and in any case, allow sufficient reserve air to swim back a few metres below the surface. A compass is extremely useful if you do this as it allows you to swim shallower, which is good for air consumption, decompression and warmth. A depth of 3 to 5m is recommended for a long swim home. The strong south-easter in these cases produces a short, steep wind chop with white-caps which does not penetrate to any significant depth, but the constant slapping of waves and the spray in the air can make snorkelling unpleasant and difficult. There may also be a shallow offshore wind drift (surface current), but this does not usually extend below about a metre depth inshore.

When boat diving a deployable surface marker buoy is useful to both facilitate controlled ascent and accurate decompression or safety stop depth, and as a signal to the boat that you are on your way up. In strong wind conditions it will also improve your visibility on the surface, specially if your equipment is all black, so it is worth carrying even if only as a signalling device. Bright yellow has been shown to be best for all round visibility at sea, but orange and red are fairly good too.

Robben Island

These sites are all boat dives. There is no other practical way to get to them, as they are all several kilometres from the mainland across major shipping lanes.

Local Geography: Robben Island is a low, rocky shored island in the mouth of Table Bay. The island and surrounding reefs are rock of the Tygerberg series of the late Precambrian Malmesbury group. These are folded sedimentary rocks, frequently with very steep dip, which often weather to form rather jagged outcrops.

The sites include:

  • MV Treasure: S 33°40.30’ E 18°19.90’ (approximate)
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Depth: 30 to 50m
On 23rd June 2000 the damaged Panamanian registered bulk ore carrier sank off the coast of South Africa approximately 7 Nautical miles north of Robben Island.
The vessel lies upright on a fairly level bottom at about 50m depth. The superstructure was removed shortly after the sinking by sawing it off at about 30m depth with a cable towed by tugs as it was a hazard to shipping.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Mostly less than 10m
A large shoal area of rocky reef, usually with a break over the pinnacle, which is the last resting place of a few ships.
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 15m
A large Korean ore carrier which was wrecked on Whale Rock on 1st March 1986 when anchors dragged in heavy weather. The wreckage lies at a depth of about 15m
  • SS Hypatia: S33°50.10’ E018°22.90’ (Turner 1988)
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Shallow, maximum probably about 15m
British Houston Line steamer of 5 728 tons, built in 1902. Wrecked on Whale Rock in Table Bay on 29th October 1929 in fog while on a voyage from Beira to New York with a cargo of blister copper and chrome ore.

Table Bay

Entering the Victoria basin of Cape Town harbour after a dive trip.
  • Highfields: S33° 53.13’ E018° 25.83’ (Bow)
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Close to major shipping lane at harbour mouth. Maximum depth 24m.
Wreck of a steel barque which sank after a collision in 1902.
Shore access only. Confined water. Maximum depth 6m
Visitors may dive in the Predator tank, which is a large oval tank, or the Kelp Forest tank, which is roughly square. There are large windows, almost full height on one side, through which you can observe the other visitors watching you if you get bored with the fish.
  • SS Cape Matapan: S34°53.233' E018°24.533' About a kilometer north of Granger Bay harbour
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth 25m. The wreck is close to the shipping lane and there are no landmarks nearby.
Wreck of a steel fishing boat which was sunk in a collision in 1960 in heavy fog.
Wreck and reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 7m
Union Company iron steam screw barque of 739 tons, built in 1856. Wrecked between Mouille Point and Green Point on 17th May 1865 during a north-west gale while trying to steam out of Table Bay. The site can be identified by the remains of the engine-block, which is visible above the water.
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access recommended. Depth: Fairly shallow.
The 8000 ton Safmarine freighter SS South African Seafarer was wrecked in a north westerly gale on 1st July 1966, and lies in front of the Green Point lighthouse.

Sea Point

The sea point contact zone, where mixing of the intrusive granite of the Peninsula pluton with the older Tygerberg slates can be seen at the shoreline.

Local Geography: There is a narrow coastal plain at the base of Signal Hill and Lion’s Head. The contact zone between the intrusive granites of the Peninsula pluton and the sedimentary greywackes and shales of the Tygerberg formation of the Malmesbury series is in this area. The northern sites are on the Tygerberg rocks, which are steeply dipped and form parallel ridges and gullies, while Bantry Bay is on the granite, and has the characteristic corestone topography of rounded boulders and outcrops with sand bottom in deeper areas.

The sites include:

Boat access only. Deep wreck dive. Depth about 65m
The 50m 313 tonne buoy tender MV Gemsbok capsized and sank about 4km from Green Point Lighthouse on 2nd Seprember 1975 while transferring an anchor chain of a cargo vessel. The chain snagged and the weight of the chain caused the vessel to capsize and sink within minutes. The wreck lies on its starboard side.
Reef dive. Shore access. Depth: Shallow
A small sand bottomed bay with reef to both sides. Easy access.
Reef dive. Boat access. Depth: 17 to 27m
An isolated pair of corestone pinnacles on a low granite ridge.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access Depth: Less than 10m
This little bay is at the southern end of Sea Point, towards Clifton.

Clifton

Reef life on the arch at North Paw

Clifton Rocks is generally considered a shore dive, but the Paws are quite a distance offshore and are only dived from boats. Parking in Clifton is often a problem, particularly in the kind of weather in which you may wish to go diving. Weekdays will be better and early morning will help. The offshore dives avoid this problem by using boats from Oceana Power Boat Club slipway, which has its own parking problems, though not quite as serious.

Local Geography: The suburb of Clifton is built on the rather steep slopes of the base of Lion’s Head above Clifton Bay. There are four beaches in the bay which are famous for white sand, shelter from the south easter and cold water. North Paw is offshore of the headland to the north, and South Paw is offshore from Clifton Rocks, on the south headland. Access to the area by road is from Sea Point to the north and Camps Bay to the south.

The reefs of Clifton are granite corestones of the Peninsula pluton. In this area the granite base of the mountain extends to approximately the height of Signal Hill, and is capped by sandstones of the Graafwater and Table Mountain formations. Occasional rounded granite outcrops can be seen on the mountainside, which is mostly deeply weathered granitic saprolite, with some sandstone scree.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 15 to 23m.
A spectacular site in good conditions. A popular part of the site is the cave rock, which is slightly offshore from the exposed rocks.
North Paw sites include the North Paw Main Reef, the North Paw Cave, Monty's Pinnacles, Northern Pinnacle, Barry's Pinnacle and Eastern Pinnacle
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 20m.
An extensive reef of granite corestones marked by the large outcrop which extends above the water.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 14m.
A large area of granite corestones, bounded to the north by sand bottom. The reef extends to seaward from the shoreline at the point.
Reef dive. Boat access. Maximum depth about 20m.
A large corestone pinnacle with a long low tunnel

Camps Bay

Local Geography: Camps Bay is in the corner made by Lion’s Head and Table Mountain. Access is over Kloof Nek from the city bowl, and round the coast from Sea Point via Clifton to the north, and from Hout Bay via Oudekraal to the south

The reefs of this area are like those of Clifton.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth 17m.
This site is generally considered a shore dive. Parking is limited so it is most conveniently dived during the working week when there is less competition for space, otherwise get there early.

Oudekraal

This area includes some of the best and most popular shore dive sites on the Atlantic seaboard. Most can also be dived from a boat, and this is of particular importance to divers with restricted mobility on shore, as there is generally a rugged bit of coast to negotiate and in some cases a long climb. There is also a moderate to long swim at some of the sites, and at some states of the tide, heavy kelp inshore.

Local Geography: The coastline at the base of the Twelve Apostles range just south of Table Mountain is steep, and south of Camps Bay, virtually undeveloped. Fortunately for divers, the coastal road is not far above sea level in the north of this area, and though there are not many off-road parking areas, the road is wide enough to park along the side.

This is an area of pale grey Peninsula Granite corestone outcrops and boulders with some Table Mountain Sandstone boulders which have rolled down the mountainside to the water’s edge. The mountainside below the sandstone cliffs is deeply weathered granite saprolite with occasional corestone outcrops. The cuttings at the roadside display the granular yellow-brown saprolite with a thin soil covering. The underwater topography is almost entirely corestones exposed by erosion, surrounded by samd, and is a continuation of the granite boulders and outcrops at the water’s edge.

North Oudekraal

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access. Depth: 1.5 to 20m.
A relatively new site. First survey 30th January 2010. This granite ridge peaks about 1.5m from the surface at low tide, but the tip is small and seldom breaks. Bottom on low granite at about 20m. Colourful and diverse invertebrate cover, and notable for the relatively large colonies of Dreadlock hydroids.
Reef dive. Boat or shore access. Maximum depth about 20m.
A relatively infrequently dived site. The highest rock on the reef is a blinder beyond Geldkis rock which occasionally breaks the surface at low tide. Huge boulders and outcrops, and a few swimthroughs.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 15m.
The two smaller rocks to the north of Geldkis rock. Several small caverns and swimthroughs.
  • Geldkis: S33°58.73’ E018°21.61’
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 15m.
A large group of rocks with lots of overhangs, swimthroughs and chimneys. The Dutch East Indiaman "Het Huis te Kraaiestein" was wrecked on the rocks in the bay at Oudekraal on 27th May 1698. Three chests of treasure disappeared and the name "Geldkis" (money-chest) appears on maps of the area and is now applied to the offshore rocks.
Wreck and reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth 10m.
Remnants of the Dutch East Indiaman "Het Huis te Kraaiestein" of 1,154 tons, which was wrecked in the bay at Oudekraal on 27th May 1698 in thick mist while trying to find the way into Table Bay. Some cannon, anchors and a few baulks of timber are all that are usually visible above the sand.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth 17m.
A submerged granite tor (stacked group of large corestones) between Geldkis and Justin’s Caves. The pinnacle is surrounded by lower outcrops separated by sandy gullies.
Reef dive. Confined waters. Shore access. Maximum depth 4m
A shallow sheltered cove at Oudekraal, suitable for open water training exercises, refresher courses and testing equipment when you don’t need depth. Entry area for several other sites.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 13m.
A group of big granite corestone outcrops and boulders with several swimthroughs, overhangs, caves and deep narrow gaps between the rocks. Spectacular in good visibility, colourful reef life.
Dive sites of Central Oudekraal

Central Oudekraal

The sites include:

Wreck and reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 10m.
The tankers "Romelia" and "Antipolis" were under tow on 28th July 1977 during a north westerly gale when the tow cable to the "Antipolis" snagged on the sea bed. In the ensuing confusion the cables broke and the two ships were driven aground by the wind. The "Antipolis" ran aground at Oudekraal and was later cut down to water level.
Reef dive. Boat or shore access. Maximum depth about 15m.
A group of large fairly low and flat rocks visible offshore to the west of the "Antipolis" and north of Coral Gardens.

South Oudekraal

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat or shore access. Maximum depth about 15m
A large flattish outcrop of granite, which extends a short way above the sea level at all tides. Some overhangs, crevices and small caves.
  • Coral Gardens (Oudekraal): S33°59.270' E018°20.782' (The pinnacles)
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth 17m
A spectacular dive in good conditions. Huge granite boulders in groups with open patches between them. There are overhangs, small caverns, a few swimthroughs, and many deep gaps and crevices. Extensively covered in colourful reef life. Possibly the best shore dive on the Atlantic side of the Cape Peninsula on a good day.

Llandudno

The big swimthrough at 13th Apostle reef

These sites can be accessed from the shore or by boat. Parking is limited, but the area is reasonably secure. Some walking is required, but no serious climbing as the parking is near the sea level.

Local Geography: The small residential suburb of Llandudno is built on the moderately steep slopes of the Cape Peninsula below the peak of Klein-Leeukop, where the coast road (M6 – Victoria Drive) from Camps Bay crosses over the neck to Hout Bay. There is only one way into Llandudno by road, which is from the M6 near the top of the pass. This is an area of granite corestone reefs with sand bottom.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access. Depth: 10 to 24m.
A large granite pinnacle on an area of low granite reef with occasional sand patches.
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth probably about 10m.
A small rocky cove to the north of Llandudno beach.
  • MV Romelia: S34°00.700’ E018°19.860’ approximately
Wreck and reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 24m.
The tankers "Romelia" and "Antipolis" were under tow on July 28th 1977 during a north westerly gale when the tow cable to the Antipolis snagged on the sea bed. In the ensuing confusion the cables broke and the two ships were driven aground by the wind. The "Romelia" ran aground at Sunset Rocks, Llandudno, where its back was broken by the heavy surf and the ship split in two. Later the bow section sank, leaving the stern mostly above sea level on the rocks. Over the years the stern section has also broken up and is no longer visible above the water.

Leeugat (Maori Bay)

The Maori carried large steel pipes
Wreckage of the SAS Gelderland

Although several of the sites are quite close inshore, this area is in practice only accessible by boat, as the distance to the nearest parking is too far to carry dive gear (about 3km as the crow flies, more on foot).

Local Geography: Leeugat, also known to divers as Maori Bay, lies at the foot of the Karbonkelberg, between the northern headland of Oude Schip, and Duikerpunt to the south. It is a small bay, but fairly deep close inshore, which in combination with the partial barrier afforded by the reefs at the headlands, has provided the wrecks in Leeugat bay with better protection from wave action than those on more exposed parts of the coastline. This means that not only have they lasted well for their ages, but conditions are suitable for diving more often than for many other wrecks on the Atlantic seaboard of the Cape Peninsula.

This is an area of granite bedrock of the Peninsula pluton, The reefs are exposed corestone outcrops and boulders, with sand patches in the deeper areas

The sites include:

  • Steps: S34°01.330’ E018°18.600’
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 20m.
An area of high granite reef with deep gullies. Not actually in Leeugat, but just north of Oude Schip headland.
  • Hakka Reef (Middelmas): S34°01.747’ E018°18.328’
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Not available.
Die Middelmas is a rock that projects several metres above the water at all tides, to the west of the Oude Schip peninsula. Hakka Reef is off this rock.
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 30 to 35m
The Ford class Seaward Defense Boat SAS Gelderland was scuttled on 21st December 1988, north west of Duiker Point, as demolition trials.
The vessel was about 40m long but the main part of the wreckage is now only about 20m long as the bow and stern sections were blown right off.
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Not available, probably between 25 and 30m.
These two wrecks lie next to each other approximately between the Maori and the Gelderland. The Jo May sank first and not much of her wooden structure remains. The Ker Yar Vor was a steel lobster fishing vessel and several chunks of hull structure and twisted sections of plating remain.
  • SS Maori: S34°02.062’ E018°18.793’ (Machinery)
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 6 to 21m
The "SS Maori" was a typical British steam cargo vessel of the early 1890s. The ship was wrecked in the bay between Oude Schip and Duikerpunt on Thursday 5 August 1909 in thick fog and drizzle while on a voyage from London to New Zealand.
Wreck and reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Maximum 22m
The "Oakburn", a British cargo steamer of 3865 tons, was wrecked on the north side of Duikerpunt in fog on 21st May 1906, on a voyage from New York to Sydney. The Oakburn has pretty much fallen apart, and on 27 June, 1994, the French pipe-laying crane barge Bos 400, broke its towline and stranded virtually on top of the older wreck. The Bos has started to break up, and two large sections have collapsed into the sea, though the main crane section is still firmly stuck on top of the rocks.

Outer Hout Bay

Map of the dive sites near Duiker Point
Seals will often visit divers at the safety stop
Occasionally a Dusky dolphin may pass nearby

This area includes the dive sites between Duiker Point and Duiker Island and the extensive reefs to the south as far as Vulcan Rock and Tafelberg Reef. All of these are only accessible by boat. There are a number of sites being explored in this area: the reefs between Kanobi’s wall and Stonehenge, and a wreck of a lifeboat which was used to salvage materials from the Boss 400 and which lies between Stonehenge and Duiker Island are amongst these. There are several unexplored pinnacles in the region identified on the SAN charts as bakleiplaas, where the sea is often very lumpy due to the influence of the underwater topography on the swell.

Local Geography: The suburb of Hout Bay lies in the valley between the Constantiaberg to the east and the peninsula formed by Karbonkelberg and its lesser peaks to the west. One of these peaks, the Sentinel, gives its name to a dive site at its foot. At the mouth of the valley is the business area of Hout Bay, with its small commercial fishing harbour and marina, and a public slipway used by dive charters and private dive boats for access to most of the southern peninsula dive sites on the Atlantic coast. The slipway is in good condition, wide and accessible, and has a large parking area, which on occasions can be crowded due to heavy use by commercial fishing skiboats.

The bedrock of this area is granite of the Peninsula pluton, and most of the sites are on corestone reefs of this rock.

The sites include:

  • Die Perd: S34°02.282’ E18°18.324’
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Not available, maximum probably about 20m
This rock off Duiker Point extends above the water and is surrounded by rugged reefs of high outcrops and deep gullies.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 25m.
This blinder off Duiker Point is a good site with rugged topography, good biodiversity and large depth variation. Huge boulders are stacked, with tunnels, overhangs and caves of various sizes, and lots of vertical walls, some probably 10m or more in height.
  • Star Walls: S34°02.466' E18°18.087' (pinnacle)
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 8 to 32m.
This site has the tallest and longest wall known in the Cape Town area and is a dive site well worth visiting. A massive and continuous granite wall of about 25m almost vertical height, extending for a length of 100m on the south face and 50m on the south-east face. Very diverse and colourful invertebrate cover on the wall face.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 7 to 26m.
A fairly large pinnacle on a rocky bottom on the way to Duiker Point from Hout Bay harbour, which has been picked up quite frequently on the echo sounders of dive boats passing over it. It has now been dived, and to some extent mapped. The site is quite pretty and should make a pleasant alternative site. Topography is rugged, with high vertical walls on two sides of the pinnacle.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 22m.
The area is named for a more or less circular ring of rocks which break the surface near the larger rock shown on the charts. Big boulders and rock outcrops cover an extensive area. High profile in the deeper areas, with swimthroughs, holes and overhangs.
  • Seal Island (Duiker island): S34°03.458’ E018°19.562’
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Shallow, mostly less than 6m.
The small rocky islet marked on maps and charts as Duikereiland has become known as Seal Island due to the resident colony of seals which has become a tourist attraction. It should not be confused with Seal Island in False Bay.
Diver at Di's Cracks. (photo Di Froude)
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 10 to 30m.
A spectacular dive if the visibility is good. Lots of walls and overhangs, swimthoughs and deep, wide cracks. Rich invertebrate cover. Good site for dramatic wide angle scenic photograhy.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth is over 25m near the rock.
Vulcan rock is the highest point of a large granite reef and breaks the surface at some states of the tide. It is low and flat on top. A spectacular dive if the visibility is good.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 8 to 30m.
Extensive area of rugged granite outcrops with high relief and sand bottom at about 29m to the west. Deep crevices and gullies. Not much overhang, but a lot of vertical faces. Very rugged and spectacular topography in good visibility.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 14 to 35m.
Huge granite outcrop with big boulders. Sand bottom in deeper areas. Rugged and spectacular topography. The wreckage of a GRP yacht lies in an indentation on the side of the pinnacle.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 40m.
Low to medium profile granite outcrops, sloping up towards the pinnacle at Klein Tafelberg to the north.

Hout Bay

Wreck of the MV Aster on a good day

This area includes the sites between the Sentinel and Chapmans Peak. Most of these are boat dives. The one exception, Sentinel, can be accessed by land without great difficulty, but has a security problem.

The Sentinel is a typical area of granite coastline, with large numbers of boulders along the shore and corestone reefs with the usual rounded profiles.The wrecks of the Aster and Katsu Maru are on a flat sand bottom, and the site at Die Josie is on relatively unweathered granite at the base of the cliffs of Lower Chapman’s Peak

The sites include:

Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Depth: Mostly less than 10m.
This is the place on the Atlantic coast where the 30m depth contour is closest to the shore.
The Sentinel is considered by some to be the area below the vertical cliffs, and is an area of flat reef with lots of kelp and box jellyfish, and some big boulders.
The Pinnacles are a group of rocks near the shore just out of Hout Bay harbour, near the sewage works.
  • MV Aster: S34°03.891’ E018°20.955’
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth 28m.
The 340 ton, 27m long Motor Fishing Vessel "Aster" was a South African registered lobster fishing vessel which was prepared as a diver-friendly artificial reef by cleaning and cutting openings into the structure and was scuttled in Hout Bay near the wreck of the "MV Katzu Maru" on 9th August 1997. It it has been used as a training site for wreck penetration. The vessel is upright on the bottom and is beginning to break up.
  • MV Katsu Maru: S34°03.910’ E018°20.942’ (middle of the wreck)
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 30m.
The Japanese trawler "Katsu Maru #25" struck an unidentified object at sea and was holed on the port side. While under tow to Hout Bay the vessel flooded and it sank in the bay on 7th August 1978. The wreck lies on its starboard side on the sand bottom.
  • Die Josie: S34° 04.497’ E018° 21.256’
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 7 to 17m.
A shallow reef below Chapman's Peak, which is close to Hout Bay harbour and is suitable for night dives. One of the few areas where the granite is not rounded by weathering, as can be seen from the cliffs above the site.

South Peninsula

Location of the dive sites from Kommetjie to Olifantsbospunt

This area includes all of the peninsula coast south of Noordhoek. It is not often dived for recreational purposes as it is a long way from good launch sites and not many good dive sites are known. There are several wrecks in this area, particularly at Albatross Rocks/Olifantsbospunt. Only a few of the wrecks have been positively identified.

The sites include

Wreck and Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 4 to 8m.
Wrecked a little north of the Slangkop lighthouse at Kommetjie. Very seldom dived. Shallow flat sandstone reef, with wreckage encrusted with coralline algae.
Wreck and Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Shallow
This ship was wrecked high on the rocks, and parts of the wreckage are visible on shore. Most of the wreckage is in fairly shallow water.
Wreck and Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Uncertain, Thought to be about 20m maximum.
The "Star of Africa" has been identified and the position fixed. It is being salvaged under permit.
  • SS Bia: Bow section: S34°16.140' E018°22.812' Main section: S34°16.217' E018°22.638'
Wreck and Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 3 to 8m.
Wreck and Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 5 to 8m.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Probably less than 15m near the rock.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Uncertain.
A massive area of shallow reef and kelp beds to the west of the tip of the peninsula. It is the haunt of spearfisherman and crayfish catchers and is unexplored on scuba.

False Bay coast of the Cape Peninsula:

Introduction and some tips on diving the False Bay coast of the Cape Peninsula (Simon’s Town side)

Unlike the rest of the region, the west side of False Bay is sheltered from the winter westerlies, but in return it takes the South-easter head on. As a result of this the region is usually dived in winter, when the South-easter seldom blows for long or with great force.

The winter frontal storms over the Southern Ocean produce swells which are slowed by the continental shelf and refracted and diffused round the Cape Peninsula, so that they propagate mostly parallel to the coastline, and have lost much of their energy by the time they curve in towards the shore. The irregular form of the coast here also protects some areas more than others. Generally speaking, those parts of the coast which run in a more north west to south east direction are better protected from the south west swell than the north to south parts, so the choice of dive site is dependent on the recent weather patterns.

During the summer months when the South-easter blows more frequently, for longer, and generally harder, this area is not often diveable, and the visibility is generally poorer than in winter even when conditions are otherwise suitable.

The water temperature during the winter months in this area is generally warmer than the Atlantic coast in summer, which is some compensation for the shorter daylight hours and often cold and rainy weather.

Between the cold and rainy fronts there are frequently days of little or no wind, and mild to warm sunshine, when the water is flat and clear and the diving is wonderful, and the large number of sites easily accessible from the shore make it difficult to decide where to go as there is so much choice. It’s a tough life here at the end of Africa, but somebody has to do it.

Water temperature during winter is usually between 13°C and 17°C, though it has been known to drop as low as 11°C, so a good suit is also needed here. In summer the temperature may rise above 20°C, but is more likely to be around 17°C to 19°C.

Most of the shore dives are relatively shallow, in the order of 8m to 15m maximum depth, though it is possible to do a 30m shore dive if you don’t mind a 700m swim to get there. The shallow waters make a dry suit less advantageous, but getting out of a wet suit in the wind and rain at night push the dry suit up again as a desirable option. It is nice to have the choice, and many local divers interchange wet and dry suits depending on the dive planned.

Kalk Bay

Commercial diver training at Kalk Bay harbour wall

These sites are the northernmost sites of the west side of False Bay. They are shallow and exposed to the south easterly winds and waves, so are generally considered winter dives.

Local Geography: There is a narrow strip of land between the mountainside and the sea which is occupied by the suburbs of St James and Kalk Bay, and at the southern end of this there is a small hill called Trappieskop. At this point the coastline curves out into False Bay before turning back to form Fish Hoek Bay. The small commercial fishing harbour at Kalk Bay is built in this cove.

This is an area where the shoreline is sandstone of the Table Mountain series, and the dip is nearly horizontal at about 7° to the south. The resulting shoreline is generally rocky, with some sandy areas, and is surprisingly shallow considering the steepness of the mountainside. Sand bottom starts at about 5m depth at Dale Brook and nearer 9m at the harbour.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 6m.
This site is well known in the scientific literature for a large diversity of marine life, and it has been a sanctuary zone for a long time, but is seldom dived by sport divers. It is ideal as a snorkel site due to the shallow depth and large variety of reef life, and is a very pleasant scuba dive in calm conditions. It is the nearest site for road access from most of the city on the east side of the peninsula.
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 10m.
Concrete harbour wall with sand and low rock reef at base. Bottom relief not very high. Low reef of sandstone, patches of pebble and sand at about 8 to 9m.

Fish Hoek and Glencairn

These relatively shallow sites are exposed to south easterly wind and swell and are generally considered winter dives. All can be done as shore dives, though Fish Hoek Reef and Quarry Barge are usually done as boat dives as there is a long swim from shore. Great White sharks have been seen cruising in this area.

Local Geography: The low lying and relatively flat valley of Fish Hoek is bounded on the south side by the steep slopes of Brakkloofrant and Else Peak, which also slopes steeply to the sea on the east.

Fish Hoek Reef is some distance off the beach, and the other dive sites of this area are along this short stretch of rocky coastline. The main road to Simon’s Town, the M4, and the railway line share the narrow coastal strip. There is space for a few houses at Sunny Cove, and just past Quarry the Else river has cut a smaller valley with Glencairn beach. The quarry referred to is a disused sandstone quarry on the mountainside above the road just to the north of the dive site of that name.

This is an area where faulting has caused the Table Mountain Sandstones to extend below sea level, The strike is generally east-west and the dip is shallow, from about 7° (south) at Sunny cove to about 10° (south) at Quarry. Jointing however is approximately north west/south east.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat or shore access. Maximum depth about 15m.
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 11m.
Named after the railway station at the site. Moderate relief sandstone rocks, ridges and gullies shelving down to sand at about 10m.
  • Quarry: S34° 09.390’ E018° 26.157’ (Entry/exit ledge)
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 10m.
Named after the old sandstone quarry in the hillside above the road slightly to the north. Sloping ramp-like ridges of Table Mountain sandstone, approximately perpendicular to the shoreline, with occasional sandy pockets. Profile not very high.
  • Quarry Barge: S34°09.395’ E018°26.474’ (approximate)
Wreck and Reef dive. Boat or shore access. Depth: 12 to 14m.
Small wreck of a steel barge. The hull is fairly intact and lies upright on a sandy patch between the reefs. Two holds are open to access from above and the overhead around the sides is trivial.
Wreck dive, boat access. Depth: About 15m.
Wreckage of a small wooden naval patrol boat. Its position is indicated on SAN1017 as ¼ nm south-south-west of the Quarry Barge in 15m.

Simon's Town

The dive site at Long Beach
Long beach has easy shore access and is very sheltered, and is popular for training and night dives

The small bay on the eastern side of the Cape Peninsula known as Simon’s Bay is the most sheltered part of the False Bay coastline from the south westerly swells, and is also better protected from south easterly swells than any other place on this part of the coast. As the main anchorage of the Cape at Table Bay is badly exposed to the north westerly storms of winter, and Hout Bay is open to the south westerly swells, Simon’s Bay was the only reasonably safe alternative anchorage within a reasonable distance from Cape Town, and for these reasons was chosen by the first Dutch Governor at the Cape, Simon van der Stel, as the winter anchorage for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape.

The town that developed at this anchorage became known as Simon’s Town, and the anchorage developed into the headquarters and dockyard for the Southern hemisphere of the Royal Navy and later for the South African Navy, which it remains to this day.

The overland access to the town is relatively poor, comprising the winding and narrow main road along the False Bay coast, with the parallel Boyes Drive and railway line, the even more winding Chapman’s Peak drive on the Atlantic coast, and the Old Cape Road (Ou Kaapseweg), a fairly steep and winding pass over the mountains in the middle of the peninsula. All are scenic routes, but none are really suited to high volume traffic, and can be annoyingly congested during rush hour. All converge on the False Bay coastal road just before reaching Simon’s Town.

The dive sites are fairly sheltered from south east wind and swell, more so further south at Long Beach, and are diveable most of the winter and some of the time in summer.

Local Geography: The town is at the base of the coastal mountains, which are quite steep and have very little reasonably flat ground at the foot of the slopes, however the bay is shallow and mostly sandy bottomed, with a long sandy beach on the western side. To the east of the Naval dockyard the coastline becomes rocky again, with exposed granite corestones at Seaforth.

This area has a sandstone coastline, probably Graafwater series, but not much reef is exposed at the dive sites which are mostly on sand bottom.

The sites include:

Wreck dive. Shore access. Maximum depth 9m.
The “Clan Stuart”, a 3500 ton British turret steamer, ran aground after dragging its anchor in a south east gale on 21 November 1914. The ship’s engine block still breaks the surface.
Wreck dive. Shore or boat access. Depth: 4 to 6m.
English East Indiaman of 1 200 tons, captured by the French Admiral Linois in the Indian Ocean and brought to Simon's Town. Ran aground at Simon's Town on 19 September 1805 after losing three anchors during a south east gale. Not much is left of the wreckage.
Wreck dive. Shore access. Depth: 3 to 4m
Dutch warship of 800 tons and 74 guns. The ship had been used as a floating battery in Simon’s Bay for several years. Set on fire and sunk off Long Beach, Simon's Town, on 8 January 1806, the same day that the Battle of Blaauwberg began. Not much of the wreck remains.
Wreck dive. Underwater navigation route. Shore access. Maximum depth about 9m.
Named for the long stretch of sandy beach. At first glance bland, but careful investigation will reveal interesting and varied life. This is the place to go when conditions are bad elsewhere. Very popular training site, and great for getting new equipment configurations sorted out.
There are a few small wrecks which may be visited on a compass navigation route.

Roman Rock reefs

Roman Rambler and Castor rocks map.png

The offshore dives in the vicinity of Roman Rock are relatively exposed to the south east swells, but are deeper, so the effect is less severe once you are at depth. Strong south east wind and chop can make the boat trip uncomfortable, so these sites are not often dived in summer, when the visibility is frequently poor.

Local Geography: The sea bed is mostly very gradually sloping sand in this area, with massive granite outcrops, which are the dive sites. The sand tends to be fairly fine away from the reefs, with coarser shelly sand near the base of the rocks.

The offshore sites at Roman Rock, Rambler Rock and Castor Rock are huge granite corestones of the Peninsula pluton.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 6 to 22m
Small granite and rubble reef with disused concrete naval gunnery target base.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 14 to 23m
Granite corestone reef of moderate size with good relief and diverse invertebrates.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 4 to 20m
Extensive reef of granite. Basically a very large outcrop with occasional high areas, small gullies, boulders, small crevices and overhangs. The reef top is of moderate relief, with relatively shallow sandy gullies, small overhangs and boulders, and has some steep areas at the edges.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth 18m.
An easy dive site to find as it is marked by the lighthouse of the same name off Simon’s Town Harbour. This site comprises a cluster of huge granite outcrops separated by sand bottom, on one of which the lighthouse stands.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 10 to 22m.
A short distance to the east of Roman Rock.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 12 to 22m
A short distance to the east of the Castor Rock reefs.
  • Rambler Rock: S34°10.924’ E018°27.899’ (North Rambler Rock)
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 10 to 22m.
A high granite reef east of the Roman Rock lighthouse off Simon’s Town Harbour. There are two major groups of rocks at this site.

Seaforth to Froggy Pond

These sites are to the east and south of the Naval dockyard at Simon's Town. They are moderately shallow and exposed to the south east wind and swells, so are generally considered winter dives.

Local Geography: These sites are all areas of granite corestone reef, though there may be occasional sandstone boulders.

The sites include:

Wreck dive. Boat or shore access. Depth: 8 to 10m.
Two small steel barges to the west of Phoenix shoal. They are heavily overgrown and quite broken up.
Reef and wreck dive. Boat or shore access. Maximum depth 10m.
The "Phoenix" was a British ship of 500 tons, built in 1810. It was wrecked a little to seaward of Phoenix Shoal in Simon's Bay on 19 July 1829. Some of the iron ballast can be seen on the reef, and the stem lies buried in sand.
Wreck and reef dive. Boat or shore access. Maximum depth 14m.
Named for the large rock of the same name on the SAN charts. There is a wreck of a barge just south of the rock, the wreck of a small steam-powered vessel to the west and a larger iron or steel vessel, probably the "Parana", wrecked in 1862, to the north west. Wreckage in the form of isolated boilers of an unknown steamboat or steamboats can be found south and east of the barge wreck. There are also arrays of concrete pillars remaining from a disused naval degaussing range to the south, and another small steel wreck to the east of the rock.
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth 8m.
Named for the penguin sanctuary. This is the point and inshore reef at the south east end of Boulders Beach at Seaforth.
Reef dive. Boat access Depth: 8 to 27m.
Named for the reef shown on the SA Navy charts. The sites are Maidstone Rock, Anchor Reef and Ammo Reef
Reef dive. Boat or shore access. Depth 3 to 14m.
This reef is marked as Photographer’s reef on the SAN charts. It is also known to divers who dived it in the 1980s as JJM Reef. The lower reef to the south is JJM junior. There are several other isolated reefs in the area, mostly small, fairly low and not named.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 20 to 30m.
This is a small reef east of Photographer’s reef. On one of the first recorded dives at this site a diver lost his torch, and the name stuck.
Reef dive. Boat access only Depth range 20 to 30m.
An large isolated granite outcrop east of Photographer's Reef about 140m south west from Torch reef. Flat topped and sheer walled.
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 8m.
Shore dive with very sheltered beach entry and exit areas. Sand bottom with large granite outcrops and boulders, some with very high relief, extending from flat sand to near or above the surface. Slowly shelving beaches. Popular training site.
Reef dive. Shore access Depth: Shallower than 10m.
This little bay is actually called Froggy Pond on the official maps and charts of the area. In spite of its name this is a sea dive, and there will be no frogs. Sandy beach with boulders in the shallows. Quite steeply shelving at the shoreline. Rocky reefs to both sides.
Reef dive. Shore access. Depth: Shallower than 10m.
The next cove south of Froggy Pond. It has a much longer beach.

Oatlands Point

Oatlands Point is the first point south of the Froggy Pond area. There is a small group of houses on the seaward side of the main road, and more houses up the mountainside. It is easily recognised by the large flattish topped granite boulder just offshore.

Local Geography: Oatlands Point is at the foot of Swartkop peak, at 678m, the highest point of the southern peninsula. The mountainside is fairly steep, and the houses are in a fairly narrow band along the coast. This is the part of False Bay where the 30m isobath is at its closest point to the shore and where access is good for a shore dive.

These sites are all areas of granite corestone reef, though there may be occasional sandstone boulders. The smaller boulders along the shore are often sandstone which have moved down the mountainside over the years and have been rounded in the surf.

The sites include:

  • A-Frame (Oatlands Point): S34°12.484’ E018°27.662’
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 10m
Named for a tripod beacon which has now been replaced by a simple post. The beacon is one of the boundary markers for a marine sanctuary. The site is also marked by a huge granite outcrop which extends several metres above the water. To the north is sand bottom with low reef and big boulders, some breaking the surface, and a couple of swimthroughs. Ridges of medium height extend beyond the big rock with a pinnacle at the seaward end. To the south there are more outcrops, and an extensive area of scattered small boulders and outcrops with sand bottom between, getting rockier towards the shore.
  • D-Frame (Oatlands Reef, Wave Rock): S34°12.378’ E018°27.996’
Reef dive. Shore access. Depth: 15 to 30m.
This is the point on the west side of False Bay where the 30m contour is closest to the shore. Divers wishing to do a 30m shore dive can do it here.
The reef comprises several large outcrops of granite with sand bottom between. There is one point that rises to about 4m from the surface with an almost vertical drop to 14m on both sides. Most parts are not nearly this high. The south reef has an overhanging rock outcrop known as the “Wave Rock”.

Rocklands Point

South of Oatlands Point, the shore gets steeper, and there are not many houses. The road winds along the shoreline, gaining altitude slightly towards Miller’s Point. Rocklands Point is recognisable from the road by Spaniard Rock. a moderately large sized granite rock about 100m offshore, and the largest visible rock in the area.

The shore is rather steep at Rocklands Point, and there are no houses in the immediate vicinity. There is an extensive area of shallow rocky reef inshore of Rocklands blinder and Spaniard Rock. South of Spaniard Rock, and extending to a blinder to the south known as Stern Reef, is an area of scattered granite reef, mostly low, but with a few fairly high outcrops. This area is complex and has not yet been mapped.

Like the sites to the north and south, this is an area of granite corestones on a sand bottom, though sandstone boulders are frequently found at the water’s edge.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access. Depth: 2 to 14m.
Large granite corestone outcrops and boulders on a fairly level sand bottom. The reef is fairly small and broken up, but compact, and all the rocks are close together. There is a huge boulder at the north end which is supported on outcrops to form a small sand bottomed swimthrough with about 4 entrances.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Depth: 3 to 13m.
The main reef is large outcrops of granite rising from about 13m on the sand to the north east, to about 3 to 4m depth on top. The inshore side slopes down more gradually to lots of small boulders and low outcrops. The smaller second reef is high and on a sand bottom.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth 13m.
Spaniard rock is a high pinnacle on a sand bottom which extends a couple of metres above the water. Contiguous low reef lies to the north. To the west is another pinnacle comprising a group of big corestone outcrops and boulders, one of which breaks surface occasionally.
  • Alpha Reef (Outer Spaniard): S34°12.987’ E018°28.184’
Reef dive. Boat access. Depth 2 to 15m.
The site was previously known as Outer Spaniard, but Alpha reef now seems to be more common usage. The reef is an outcrop of granite corestones in two main sections divided by an east-west gulley.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 14m.
An extensive area of high to low relief granite corestone outcrops on a sand bottom, marked by a rock which breaks the surface at some states of the tide.

Miller's Point

Map showing the dive sites at Caravan Reef

Local Geography: This part of the peninsula coastline is a steep mountainside below the Swartkopberge. The mountainside is quite steep close to the shore, but on reaching the sea, the slope flattens out dramatically. The small rocky peninsula of Miller’s Point juts out rather abruptly into the bay and provides a sheltered site for the slipway from which most of the boat launches in this area are made. There is sufficient reasonably level ground for extensive parking areas off the main road, including boat trailer parking.

This area is characterised by large areas of granite corestone reef interspersed with with sandy patches, and relatively flat sand bottom further out. There are also sandstone boulders along the shoreline. Many of the reefs are fairly large areas of massive outcrops with ridges, gullies and boulders on top, some of which are very large.

The sites include:

Wreck dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth 22m.
This 1330 tonne minesweeper was launched in 1943 as HMS Pelorus, and was sold in 1947 to the South African Navy and renamed HMSAS Pietermaritzburg. It was scuttled by explosive charges on 12 November 1994 to form an artificial reef. The wreck lies upright on the sand and is slowly collapsing.


Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 3 to 22m
This site is offshore of the caravan park at Miller’s Point, which may be the origin of its name. Extensive granite reefs on sand bottom. The reef may extend continuously to Miller's Point.
Reef dive. Shore access. Depth: Shallow inshore.
Fairly shallow rocky reef of granite outcrops and boulders, some smallish swimthroughs and quite a few overhangs and holes under boulders.
  • Boat Rock (Bakoven Rock): S34°14.05’ E18°29.05’
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth 22m.
Coarse shelly sand bottom at about 14m with big granite boulders and reef. The rock that gives the site its name extends a few metres above sea level. High relief and a lot of small holes under rocks, mostly too small to swim through.

Castle Rocks

Map showing the dive sites around Castle Rocks

This has been a marine sanctuary area for many years and as a result is one of the best sites for fish. There are several excellent dive sites accessible from a very limited amount of roadside parking, or by a short boat ride from Miller's Point.

Local Geography: This part of the peninsula coastline is a steep mountainside below the Swartkopberge. There is very little ground along this strip which is not steep, but on reaching the sea, the slope flattens out and the small rocky peninsula of Castle Rocks juts out into the bay. There is sufficient reasonably sloped ground for a few houses above and below the main road.

This area is characterised by granite corestone reefs with sandy patches between them, and almost flat sand bottom further out. There will occasionally be the odd sandstone boulder which has made its way a short distance offshore with the assistance of wave action and gravity, and a lot of the smaller shoreline boulders are sandstone. Many of the reefs are fairly large areas of massive ridges, gullies with occasional loose boulders on top, and some of these boulders are huge.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 25 to 30m.
A low granite outcrop at about 30m maximum depth, with a large number of sea fans.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 12m.
Named for the Cowsharks often seen at the site. Big granite boulders and outcrops with sand patches. Shark Alley is between the kelp forests on near-shore reef and the reef surrounding Pyramid rock.
  • Pyramid: S34°14.220’ E018°28.688’
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 12m.
Named for the pointed rock that marks the site. It projects above the water at all tides and is easily identified. Large granite boulders and outcrops with sand around them in deep areas and at the bottom of some gullies. Several small tunnels, caves and overhangs. Lots of fish.
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 18m.
Castle Rocks applies to the point as a whole and the offshore rocks to the south east. The point is a small rocky peninsula that can be an island at high tide.
The small headland just to the south of Castle Rocks is known as Parson’s Nose.
There are several sub-sites at Castle Rocks, including North Castle, Pinnacles, Point reefs (Outside Castle) and South Castle (Inner Castle).
Reef dive. Boat access. Depth: about 3 to 33m.
A blinder off Castle Rocks, which breaks if there is much swell. It is marked on the SAN charts as “blindevals”. The main feature of the site is a huge granite boulder on a rock base standing on four points with a swimthrough gap underneath and a small air trap overhang.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 5 to 25m.
Large granite corestone outcrops and boulders. There is a pinnacle to the east of the site, where it is generally deepest. Spectacular site in good visibility, and there are usually lots of fish.

Partridge Point area

Map showing the location of the dive sites at Partridge Point
View of the dive sites at Partridge Point seen from the road near Smitswinkel Bay

The stretch of coastline south of Castle Rocks to Smitswinkel Bay is not really accessible from the road, partly due to the higher altitude of the road in this area and partly due to the rather steep mountainside, so these dive sites, though mostly close to the shore, are almost always dived from a boat.

Local Geography: There are two small points along this relatively straight coastline at Finlay’s Point and Partridge Point, where some very large granite corestones form reefs which extend some distance into the bay. A few of these project quite high above the water and are easy landmarks for the dive sites.

The shoreline is consistently rocky in this section, and is made up of granite corestones with sandstone boulders which have found their way down the mountainside over the years. Above the waterline, the lower mountainside is granitic saprolith with dense vegetation cover.


The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access. Shore access is possible but rather athletic. Maximum depth about 15m.
The last big boulders north of Partridge Point. Bottom is mostly low to moderate rocky reef of outcrops and boulders of assorted sizes, some pretty big, in chaotic arrangement. Directly off the big corestones of the point is an area of big boulders and rugged reef, with small patches of sand.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: 20 to 30m.
This is a small granite outcrop reef on a sand bottom directly offshore from Finlay's Point on the 30m depth contour. Rich in Gorgonian sea fans.
Reef dive. Boat access only Depth 4 to 27m.
A pair of huge granite pinnacles (The Pillars of Hercules), on an extensive area of high and low profile reef. Excellent diversity of reef cover, shoals of fish and some exceptionally dense groups of gorgonian sea fans.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth 26m.
The site known as Partridge Point includes the Big Rock group of rocks to the south, while Seal Rock (or Deep Partridge) is the reef offshore of the low rock to the east of the point. Peter's Pinnacle is the reef inshore and slightly south of the Big Rock. Very large granite boulders and outcrops, some extending above the surface by several metres.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 30m.
Reported on Underwater Cape Town as newly discovered site on 3 May 2012. Lots of sea fans.

Smitswinkel Bay

The wrecks of Smitswinkel bay are among the best known and most popular boat dives of the Cape Town area. The water is deep enough to reduce surge significantly and shallow enough for recreational divers. The wrecks are easy to find, large and sufficiently intact to be recognisable, and have also developed a thriving ecology which includes a few relatively rare organisms.

Local Geography: Smitswinkel Bay is a moderately large bay on the east side of the Cape Peninsula. The coast road gains altitude as it winds along the mountainside south of Simon’s Town and turns inland at Smitswinkel Bay.

To the north of the bay, the exposed rock at sea level is Peninsula granite, but on the south side the Graafwater sandstone extends below sea level. The bottom of the bay is flat sand.

The sites include:

Wreck dive. Boat access only. Depth 27 to 34m.
Loch class frigate "HMSAS Transvaal" F602 was launched at Belfast on 2nd August 1944.
The ship was sold for scrap and scuttled by explosive charges in Smitswinkel Bay to form an artificial reef on 3rd August 1978.
The wreck lies upright on a sand bottom and has partly collapsed.
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Depth 23 to 34m.
The "MFV Orotava" was built in 1958. The trawler was donated to the False Bay Conservation Society along with the "Princess Elizabeth" by Irvin and Johnson. In August 1983 the vessels were towed out to Smitswinkel Bay and scuttled. The "Orotava" is the larger of the two trawlers and lies on the sand heeled to port about 20°.
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Depth 22 to 36m.
The "Princess Elizabeth" was built in 1961. The trawler was badly damaged by a fire and was donated to the False Bay Conservation Society along with the "Orotava" by Irvin and Johnson. In August 1983 the vessels were towed out to Smitswinkel Bay and scuttled. The "Princess Elizabeth" is the smaller of the two trawlers and lies on the sand with a slight list to starboard.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 30 to 35m.
A small granite reef with lots of gorgonian sea fans.
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Depth 27 to 36m.
The Loch class frigate "HMSAS Good Hope" was launched in 1944. The vessel saw service as a convoy escort during the closing stages of World War II and was for many years the flagship of the SA Navy.
The ship was sold for scrap and scuttled by explosive charges in Smitswinkel Bay to form an artificial reef on 18th June 1978.
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth 34m
The 65m "MV Rockeater" was built in New Orleans in 1945 as a coastal freighter for the United States Navy. The ship was bought by Ocean Science and Engineering (South Africa) in 1964 to be used for marine prospecting.
The "Rockeater" was towed to Smitswinkel Bay on 15th December 1972 and scuttled.
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Depth 22m to maximum of 36m
It is possible to visit all five wrecks on a single no-decompression dive. This is occasionally organised for people who want to have been there and done that.

Batsata area

Map showing the reef areas near Batsata Rock

A small group of dive sites just to the south of Smitswinkel Bay. They are inaccessible by land due to the steep cliffs along the shore and lack of nearby roads.

Local Geography: These sites are at the foot of Judas Peak, the mountain peak on the south headland of Smitswinkel Bay. Their position at the base of the steep cliffs gives them protection from south westerly winds and swell, but they will catch some of the north westerly wind which comes through the gap above Smitswinkel Bay. They are exposed to south easterly winds and waves.

The shoreline and shallow reef at Smits Cliff is Table Mountain Sandstone, probably Graafwater series, while the offshore reefs at Smits Reef and Batsata Rock are Peninsula Granite. The unconformity is near sea level in this area.

The sites include:

  • Smits Reef (Birthday Reef, Horseshoe Reef, Batsata Maze, Seekatbank): S34°16.483’ E018°28.949’ (South pinnacle)
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 6 to 27m.
This is a very large area of granite reef extending north from near the Batsata rock into the mouth of Smitswinkel Bay. Northern pinnacle is a huge outcrop rising from coarse shelly sand bottom at about 25m to 9.4m on top. The reef has gradually sloping low areas and vertical walls, narrow deep gullies and ledges along jointing lines.
  • Smits Cliff (Hell’s Gate): S34°16.48’ E018°28.41’
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth about 16m.
The cliffs at the south side of Smitswinkel Bay are marked on the charts as Hell’s Gate. The site is not dived very often as there are more popular sites which are more accessible. As a result it is mostly unexplored and has not been mapped. The reef appears to be mostly sandstone.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth: Fairly shallow around the exposed rocks, maximum depth not known.
Sandstone reef with granite substrate at greater depth. Fairly shallow around the exposed rocks.

Buffels Bay

This site is inside the Cape Point National Park area. Access is controlled by the Parks Board and various fees are charged. A slipway at Buffels Bay is also controlled by Parks Board, and the facilities are usually in good condition, It would probably be more popular if access was allowed after 6pm.

Local Geography: Buffels Bay is the closest place to Cape Point where there is road access to a place sufficiently sheltered for a slipway to be viable.

The shoreline is sandstone in this area.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Shore access. Depth: Fairly shallow.
Shallow sandstone reef in the Cape Point National Park area.
Reef dive. Shore access. Depth: Fairly shallow, less than 10m.
Shallow sandstone reef in the Cape Point National Park area.

False Bay Offshore

Introduction and some tips on diving the Central False Bay sites.

All the sites in this area are fairly far offshore, and can only be done as boat dives. They are also relatively deep and because of the long boat trip and exposed positions, generally only dived when conditions are expected to be good.

This area is exposed to the same south westerly swells as the Atlantic coast, but they must travel over a much wider continental shelf, much of which is less than 100m deep, so there is a significant dissipation of wave energy before it reaches the shoreline.

During summer the strong south easterly winds have sufficient fetch to produce sea states which are unpleasant and though the wave action may not produce a great deal of surge at the bottom, the surface conditions may be unsuitable for diving, and in winter the north wester can have a similar effect.

As the area is affected by the winds and wave systems of both winter and summer, there is less seasonal correlation to suitable conditions, and it is simply dived when conditions are good, which is not very often.

It is quite common for the surface visibility offshore to be poor, with better visibility at depth, but the reverse effect can also occur. These effects are often associated with a thermocline. Water temperature can differ with depth from 20°C on the surface to 9°C at the bottom at 28m, sometimes with a distinct thermocline, though usually there is less of a change. A dry suit is recommended for any of these dives, but they are also often done in wetsuits.

Jan Bruin at Whittle Rock
Fish over the reef at Rocky Bank
Typical reef invertebrate cover at Rocky Bank

Reefs

These sites are not dived as frequently as the inshore reefs, as they are further from the launch sites and therefore take considerably longer to get to. They are also more exposed to the weather from all directions, so the trip is often bumpy. However, as they are relatively deep, and far offshore, the visibility can be very good, and may well be better than inshore areas at any given time, particularly with an onshore wind and swell. Unfortunately this is not reliably predictable.

Local Geography: The topography of the reefs differs according to the geology of the area. As a result the character varies enormously.

Seal Island and Whittle Rock are granite outcrops, probably all part of the Cape Peninsula pluton. Steenbras Reef is sedimentary rock, thought to be Tygerberg formation of the Malmesbury series, but looks more like sandstone than shale, and Rocky Bank is sandstone, probably of the Table Mountain group.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 17 to 30m.
This site is at the southern end of a long ridge towards the east side of False Bay. The pinnacle is irregular in shape, with a large number of cracks, grooves and indentations, mostly not very deep. Sand is coarse and shelly with lots of bryozoan detritus at the edge of the reef.
Cage dive. Boat access only. Depth shallow — the cages are only about 2m deep.
These dives are for one purpose only: to see sharks. Other fish may be attracted to the bait, but that is not what you do this dive to see. Cage dives must be done through a licenced Shark Cage Diving charter.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 4m to more than 30m.
This is a large area of granite corestone reefs surrounded by sand. The topography varies considerably as it is such a large area. The top of the pinnacle is at about 4m depth, and the sand is around 30m.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth not known.
The reef is thought to be granite. It is near Seal Island where Great White sharks are a tourist attraction.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth 22m to more than 30m.
The reef is said to be Table Mountain sandstone. It is a beautiful site with bright colourful reef invertebrates, but is seldom dived due to the distance from the nearest launch site.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Depth probably about 2 to 25m.
The reef is said to be Table Mountain sandstone. A seldom dived site due to distance from launch sites, with an astonishing density of echinoderms.

Wrecks

SATS General Botha in 1926

There are a number of wrecks in central False Bay. Only the ones that are identified and dived are listed here. Exploration of previously undived wrecks occurs sporadically and the list is sure to increase over time. These wrecks are relatively deep, and are all too far offshore to dive from the shore. Some of them are considered among the best dive sites of the Cape Town area, at least partly because of the difficult access and rarity value.

Local Geography: The "Lusitania" is on a site where the granite reef is ruggedly spectacular and the boat trip provides a magnificent view of Cape Point. The "General Botha", "Bloemfontein" and "Fleur" are on the flat sand bottom of the bay and in these cases, only the wreck is of much interest.

The sites include:

Wreck dive. Deep dive. Boat access only. Depth: 47 to 54m.
The River-Class cruiser "HMS Thames"was built in 1886 and later purchased from the Royal Navy and donated to the South African Government as a training ship for seafarers. The vessel was renamed the "South African Training Ship (SATS) General Botha".
The "General Botha" was scuttled by gunfire from the Scala Battery in Simon’s Town on 13th May 1947. The hull is substantially intact from the ram bow to some metres abaft amidships, approximately level with the aft gun sponsons.
Wreck dive. Deep dive. Boat access only. Depth: 47 to 55m.
The "SAS Bloemfontein" M439 was a sister ship to the "SAS Pietermaritzburg" and has similar dimensions and layout. This Algerine class Minesweeper was built as "HMS Rosamund", and was scuttled on 5th June 1967.
The ship lies upright on a flat sand bottom and is substantially intact.
Wreck dive. Deep dive. Boat access only. Depth: 35 to 41m.
The "SAS Fleur" was a ‘Bar’ class boom defence vessel, formerly "HMS Barbrake". The wreck lies almost level embedded in the bottom as if floating in sand with the weather deck at about 35m. Hull structure is collapsing.
Wreck dive. Deep dive. Boat access only. Depth: 35 to 40m.
Portuguese twin-screw liner of 5557 tons, built in 1906. Wrecked on Bellows Rock off Cape Point on 18th April 1911 in fog while on a voyage from Lourenco Marques (Maputo). The granite reef slopes down from Bellows Rock to the east, and drops off almost vertically from about 15m to about 33m, where the broken wreckage lies between the wall and some boulders further east. The wreck is very easy to find, and spread over a fairly large area down to 40m.
Wreck dive. Boat access only. Maximim depth about 17m.
Two steel trawlers on a sand bottom at about 17m depth.

Eastern False Bay coast

Introduction and some tips on diving the Eastern False Bay coast from Gordon’s Bay to Hangklip.

This coast is exposed to the same south westerly swells as the Atlantic coast, but they must travel over a much wider continental shelf, much of which is less than 100m deep, so there is a significant dissipation of wave energy before it reaches the shoreline. There are other influences, as some of the swells must pass over the shoal area known as Rocky Bank in the mouth of False Bay, and this tends to refract and focus the wave fronts on certain parts of the shore, depending on the exact direction of the wave fronts. As a result there is a tendency for some parts of the coast to be subjected to a type of “freak wave” which appears to be a combination of focused wave front, superposition sets and the effects of the local coastal topography. There are a number of memorial crosses along the coast to attest to the danger of these waves, though the victims are generally anglers, as divers would not attempt to dive in the conditions that produce these waves.

This area, like the Atlantic coast, is a summer diving area, though there will occasionally be conditions suitable for a winter dive. Even in milder conditions there tend to be more noticeable sets than on the Atlantic coast, and it is prudent to study the conditions for several minutes when deciding on an entry or exit point, as the cycle can change significantly over that time. Timing is important at most of these sites, and often when returning to the shore it may seem that the conditions have deteriorated dangerously during the dive. If this happens, do not be in a rush to exit, hang back for at least one cycle of sets, and time your exit to coincide with the low energy part of the cycle, when the waves are lowest and the surge least. When you exit in these conditions, do not linger in the surge zone, get out fast, even if it requires crawling up the rocks on hands and knees, and generally avoid narrow tapering gullies, as they concentrate the wave energy.

The local geology has produced a coastline with much fewer sheltered exit points on this side of the bay, adding to the difficulty, but there are a few deep gullies sufficiently angled to the wave fronts to provide good entry and exit points in moderate conditions. The most notable of these is at Percy’s Hole, where an unusual combination of very sudden decrease in depth from about 14m to about 4m, a long, narrow gully with a rocky beach at the end, and a side gully near to the mouth which is shallow, wide, parallel to the shoreline, and full of kelp, results in one of the best protected exits on the local coastline. As a contrast, Coral Garden at Rooi-els, which is about 1.7 km away, has a gully that shelves moderately, with a wide mouth and very small side gullies, which are very tricky unless the swell is quite low.

There is no significant current in False Bay, and this results in relatively warmer water than the Atlantic coast, but also there is less removal of dirty water, so the visibility tends to be poorer. The south easter is an offshore wind here too, and will cause upwelling in the same way as on the Atlantic coast, but the bottom water is usually not as clean or as cold, and the upwelled water may carry the fine light silt which tends to deposit in this area when conditions are quiet, so the effects are usually less noticeable. These upwellings are more prevalent in the Rooi-els area, which is deeper than Gordon’s Bay.

As in the Atlantic, a plankton bloom frequently follows an upwelling. This will reduce the visibility, particularly near the surface. It is quite common for the surface visibility offshore to be poor, with better visibility at depth, but the reverse effect can also occur, particularly inshore. These effects are often associated with a thermocline.

Surface water temperature on this side of the bay can range from as high as 22°C to as low as 10°C, and the temperature can differ with depth, sometimes with a distinct thermocline.

Gordon's Bay

This area includes some of the best and most popular shore dive sites in the east side of False Bay. All can also be dived from a boat, and this is of particular importance to divers with restricted mobility on shore, as there is generally a rugged bit of coast to negotiate and in some cases a long climb. There are also sites which are only dived from boats as the shore access is too difficult or dangerous. The dive sites are all close inshore, as sand bottom is quite close to the shore in most cases, There is little or no kelp at these sites.

Local Geography: The coastline from Gordon’s Bay to just north of Steenbras River mouth lies approximately north east to south west along the foot of the Hottentot’s Holland mountain range. This is a steeply sloping area with low cliffs along the shoreline and no level ground. The southern part of the Gordon’s Bay urban area is perched along the northern end of this strip above the Faure Marine Drive (R44), which is the access road for all shore dives in this area except Bikini Beach.

The dive sites from Bikini Beach to Lorry Bay are along this part of the coast, and are more sheltered from south westerly swell than sites further to the south as a result of the orientation of the coastline approximately parallel to the swell direction.

Further south the coastline curves to the south east, so the sites are more exposed to the swell. By Rocky Bay the swell approaches the coastline almost perpendicularly, which makes it relatively rough in any south westerly swell.

The shoreline topography of this area is generally low rocky cliffs with occasional wave-cut caves, gullies and overhangs. The underwater profile is usually quite steep with the flat sand bottom quite close to the shoreline. Maximum depth increases from north to south, reaching just over 20m at Rocky Bay, where the rocky bottom extends much further out than at the more northerly sites.

The coastal formation in this area is mostly light grey to yellow brown quartzitic sandstones of the Graafwater formation. This directly overlays the greywackes of the Malmesbury group which form the coastline further north from Gordon’s Bay to the Strand. Higher up the mountainside are the rocks of the Peninsula formation, which are light grey quartzitic sandstone, with thin siltstone, shale and conglomerate beds. The strike is roughly parallel to the coastline, approximately ENE, and the dip is steep SSW, nearly vertical in places.

The sites include:

Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 3m.
A popular swimming beach at Gordon’s Bay, not generally considered a dive site, but suitable for training exercises if the waves are not too big. The beach slopes fairly steeply in the surf zone, then flat sand bottom with reef of small scattered rounded boulders.
  • Ledges: S34°10.193’ E018°50.726’
Reef dive. Boat access. Maximum depth about 9m.
Named for the ledge on the shore just above high water, which is the landmark from the seaward side. There is also a high rock outcrop at the north east end of the ledge where enthusiasts jump into the water from several meters up. Fairly flat bottom with smallish boulders and occasionally sand between them.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 12m.
Named for the large rock favoured by seabirds and lightly coated in guano. Moderate relief close to shore, but fairly flat with only small boulders and outcrops. Notable for the beds of pebbles, silt, and shells between the rocky inshore zone and the flat sand bottom further offshore, where large numbers of the False Bay Burrowing Anemone (Cerianthid) can be found.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 13m.
Named for the twin reefs just offshore which approach and sometimes break the surface, and which are reminiscent of a whale cow and calf. Rugged reefs of sandstone with quartzite veins. The ridges are roughly parallel to the shoreline. Bottom is rock and medium to small boulders with pebbles, sand and shell in crevices.
  • Pinnacle: S34°10.468’ E018°49.981’
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 14m.
Named for the rock pinnacle that breaks the surface just offshore at most states of the tide.
An area of sandstone reef including a tall pinnacle, a small cavern, numerous gullies and ridges and a lot of boulders. Great diversity of invertebrates for a small area.
Reef dive. Boat access. Maximum depth about 14m.
Fairly rugged reef with medium to large ridges and outcrops sloping down fairly steeply to a shelly pebble zone and finally sand bottom.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 14m.
The site is named for the cave at the head of the inlet which shows signs of recent habitation in the form of garbage and discarded utensils. Sandstone reef ridges are roughly parallel to the shore formations, and get to 9m very close to outer edge of shoreline, then shelves down gradually to 14m, by which time it is fine sand. There are some fairly big outcrops and boulders up to about 3m high, and some overhangs near the shoreline, especially in the inlet.
Reef dive. Boat access. Maximum depth about 10m.
Named for the bits of motor vehicle still to be found in the cove. Several vehicles have gone off the road above the bay over the years and ended in the water. Flattish bottom, sand at about 10m. Bottom of wave rounded boulders in the bay. More rugged and steep near sides.
Reef dive. Boat access. Maximum depth about 14m.
Sand bottom at about 14m, then moderate relief reef of sandstone rocks and ridges with sandy gaps running more or less parallel to shoreline. Gets more rugged closer to shore, and is deep quite close inshore.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth more than 20m.
This is not actually a bay at all. The coastline has a convex curve along this dive site. The resort on the shore is called Rocky Bay, and the site name follows from that.
The shoreline is very steep and reflects rather than breaks waves, so the anchorage is very bumpy in a swell. Further out the bottom is gradually sloped, with moderate size ridges and outcrops. Further offshore it gets flatter with low rocky reef and pebbles and small boulders.

Rooi-els

This area includes some of the best and most popular shore dive sites in the east side of False Bay. All can also be dived from a boat, though there is limited access for launching in the area, and it is a long ride from Gordon’s Bay. At many of these sites there is a rugged bit of coast to negotiate and in some cases a long climb. The dive sites are mostly close inshore, but in some cases extend out a considerable distance. There is usually kelp in the shallower areas at these sites. Baboons can be a nuisance at Rooi-els, though here they are not quite as problematic as south of Simon’s Town. Do not leave unattended food open, and do not feed the baboons as this encourages then to become even more of a nuisance.

Local Geography: The sites to the north of Rooi-els Bay are at the foot of Rooielsberg (636m), which slopes rather steeply on the north west side, but has a more gradual slope just to the north of the Rooi-els river mouth, where there is a sandy beach well sheltered from the south west swells. However, the underwater topography is in apparent contradiction to this, as the site at Bloukrans is shallower and more gradually shelving than at Percy’s Hole, where the depth drops off to about 12m within a very short distance of the shoreline.

Outcrops of dark rock of the Tygerberg formation at Bloukrans, with sandstones of the Table Mountain series further south. Strike is about north east at Rooi-els, with dip around 25° south east.

The sites include:

  • Blouklip (Bloukrans): S34°16.439’ E018°50.163’
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth 17m.
Named for the dark rock ridge of the Tygerberg formation at the entry point. The mountain range behind the site is known as the Blousteenberge, and the peak directly above it is Rooielsberg.
Inshore reef is moderate size boulders and outcrops. Further out they get lower until at 10m there are fairly flat gravel beds. Further out are more outcrops, some flat shale reef, more gravel beds and yet more outcrops.There are also some little patches of sand amongst the rocks and gravel.
Reef dive. Boat access only. Maximum depth not recorded, probably about 18m.
This site is a few hundred metres south west of Blouklip. It extends to the shoreline, but access from the road is steep and difficult and no parking is available nearby.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 24m.
Named for the turbulent gap between the group of rocks and the south end of the cove which produces some awesome vortices in a strong surge. Bottom trends down gradually in series of parallel sandstone ridges and gullies, of varying size but consistent dip and strike.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 23m.
This is one of the best known and most interesting sites in the Rooi-els area. The entry gully drops down to 14m between the heads, there is a stepped wall to the south, and extensive high profile rocky reefs to the north with a swimthrough inshore of the exposed rock pinnacle (Seal Rocks). To seaward of these high reefs the bottom slopes down to 23m with sand bottom, and to the north is a small cavern. This is a site of varied topographical features and a rich ecological diversity.
  • Kruis (Crosses): S34°17.431’ E018°49.304
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 22m.
Named for the cross erected in memory of J.F. Marais, Rector of the Stellenbosch Gymnasium, who drowned in the vicinity. The inlet slopes down gradually to the north west over an extensive area of deeper low profile reef with some sand patches until it reaches the sand bottom. To seaward of the entry gully there is a fairly large, quite shallow reef which drops steeply to the low deep reef.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 20m.
The point at Rooi-els seems an obvious place for a dive site. There is a break that extends north of the point indicating an extended reef. These reefs are a continuation of the reefs at Coral Gardens to the north and are very similar in many ways. Rugged sandstone ridges and gullies, mostly fairly broken, and of variable height on a reasonably consistent bottom depth.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth more than 25m.
Named for the abundant gorgonians, sea fans and soft corals found in the area. Rocky ridges run approximately north east to south west. Large outcrops and boulders make rugged relief and provide a habitat for a large variety of invertebrates. There are three large pinnacles at the south ends of truncated ridges. The southernmost of these ridges has an arch feature just south of the high point. The northern ridge has a cave/swimthrough under a big boulder.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth reported as 25m.
This site was used for training and as a general recreational dive site some years ago.
  • Balcony: S34°18.454’ E018°48.911’
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 10m.
This site is mostly used as a training site or when conditions are marginal. It is not very deep and the reef is not very spectacular, but it is better protected from the swells than most sites in the area. Low to moderate sandstone reef sloping down quite steeply to sand bottom.
  • Ankers: S34°17.350’ E018°49.377’
Reef dive. Shore access. Maximum depth about 20m.
Named for the original house which stood on the rise above the cove, which was demolished and rebuilt in 2003. This is a site with a relatively sheltered entry and exit area.
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 20m.
This is the continuation of the reefs which run south from Ankers, at the north headland of Container Bay. The site is seldom dived and has not been mapped.
  • Container Bay (Mike’s Bay) : S34°18.75’ E018°49.05’ (approximate)
Reef dive. Shore or boat access. Maximum depth about 14m.
This site is named after a container that was washed ashore several years ago, and which has almost completely rusted away. It is not often dived on scuba. The access is relatively good.

Pringle Bay and Hangklip

These areas are mostly dived by spearfishers, but are known to have been dived on scuba. Unfortunately no information is available at this stage.

The sites include:

  • Pringle Bay:
Reef dive. Shore access.
  • Pingle Bay Point:
Reef dive. Shore or boat access.
  • Hangklip Ridge:
Reef dive. Boat access.

Fresh water dive sites

Blue Rock quarry seen from the road near the entrance.

There is only one fresh water site of note in the region which is open to the public. This is the Blue Rock Quarry at the bottom of Sir Lowry’s Pass, near Gordon’s Bay,

The sites include:

Quarry dive. Shore access only. Maximum depth at least 47m, possibly more. Mostly shallower than 30m.
Named for the building aggregate which was quarried here in the past, which was a dark blue-grey colour. The quarry was closed and is now flooded and used for water sports including diving and water skiing using an overhead cable system.

Respect

Diving on rocky reefs

As a general rule avoid contact with living organisms. This is obviously impossible in Kelp forests, so it is fortunate that sea bamboo and the split-fan kelp are both fast growing and tough. In fact it is recommended that if you need to steady yourself in a surge, you use the lower part of the kelp stipes as handholds in preference to other organisms if there is no clear substrate to grip. They are generally strongly attached to the substrate as they must withstand a severe battering in storms, so the occasional diver holding on seems a light burden. In some cases small kelp plants may be ripped off in strong surge. You will learn to recognise when this is likely to happen and must then make another plan.

The damage done by divers in our local marine ecology appears to be mostly to slow-growing relatively fragile organisms below the surf zone. The false corals (Bryozoa) appear to be among the more fragile, and all contact with the scrolled, pore-plated and staghorn false corals should be avoided. Hard corals, soft corals, anemones and sea fans should also be treated as very sensitive. Sponges are probably less sensitive to being touched, but are not generally very strong and can tear fairly easily, and are unsuitable for holding on.

Red bait (the very common and prolific large sea squirt Pyura stolonifera) seems to be tough and resilient, and can be used as handholds, as it seems to take no noticeable harm, This does not apply to all ascidians, most are much more delicate. Red bait is also frequently the substrate for other, more delicate organisms, in which case, treat with the care appropriate to the more delicate species.

Kicking the reef and stirring up the sand bottom with your fins is considered bad form and the mark of an unskilled diver. Avoid this by maintaining neutral buoyancy and being aware of your position relative to your surroundings, keep leg and arm movements moderate, trim yourself to allow appropriate body orientation, and avoid dangling equipment, which may bang into the reef or get hooked up on things and cause direct or indirect damage. As a general rule, a horizontal orientation with fins raised above the torso is appropriate and allows maneuvering by using the fins without kicking the reef or stirring up a cloud of sand.

Some photographers seem to have developed a nasty habit of shifting things around to suit the desired composition of the picture. This is extremely irresponsible and should not be done, as the handling may be fatal to some organisms. It is also illegal in Marine Protected Areas, though in practice, virtually impossible to enforce.

Collection of marine organisms is illegal without the appropriate permit. If you need the organisms for some legitimate purpose, get the permit. Otherwise leave them undisturbed, and do not unnecessarily disturb other neighbouring organisms if you do collect.

There are concerns regarding the impact of sport diving on the reef ecology. Some of these may be legitimate, and study is necessary to test whether this is a real problem. The number of dives in the region has increased significantly over the years, but there is no numerical data available. The number of sites has also increased, so the frequency of dives at most sites will not have increased proportionately. Unfortunately the government department of Marine and Coastal Management has seen an opportunity to interfere with sporting activity and has made use of surveys on tropical coral reefs to support an effort to take control of sport diving on the temperate reefs around the Cape Peninsula. No surveys of temperate reefs can be produced to justify their claims and it seems unlikely that their interference will benefit either the ecology or the diving industry.

Marine Protected Areas

A large number of the dive sites of Cape Town are in the Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area as published in the Government Gazette No. 26431 of 4th June 2004 in terms of the Marine Natural Resources Act, 18 of 1998.

A permit is required to scuba dive in any MPA. The permits are valid for a year and are available at some branches of the Post Office. Temporary permits, valid for a month, may be available at dive shops or from dive boat operators.

Boundaries of this Marine Protected Area are shown in the image, which also shows the Restricted zones, where in theory, no fishing or harvesting activities are allowed. This does not stop the poachers, and if you have political pull it appears that you can get commercial fishing permits for some of the restricted zones.

Wreck diving around the Cape Peninsula and False Bay

Diving on wrecks in South Africa is a popular activity, and historical wrecks are legally protected against vandalism and unauthorised salvage and extractive archaeology. An interesting, though not particularly logical consequence of the legislation, is that any wreck automatically becomes a historical wreck 60 years after the date of wrecking, with the effect that a pile of rusty rubbish, which anyone can remove at will, can overnight become a valuable and irreplaceable historical artifact and part of the National Heritage. There seems to be a similar effect on divers, who will assiduously scrabble around in a wreck, in the hope of finding an artifact that they wouldn't bend over to pick up if it lay in the street.

Nevertheless, wreck diving has its attractions, and the waters of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay have a large number of wrecks. The reasons for this are firstly that one of the world's major shipping routes passes round Cape Point, and secondly that the weather and sea conditions in this region can be very rough. The anchorage in Table Bay provides little shelter if the wind is from the north west, which is common in winter, and many ships have been driven ashore in and near Table Bay during winter storms when anchors have dragged or cables failed, and the ship was unable to beat off the lee shore. This happens less frequently since ships were motorised, but every few years another ship is blown ashore in Table Bay due to breakdowns or incompetence.

The list of wrecks is long, but the list of wrecks in areas convenient for diving is much shorter, and a significant number of the wrecks that are probably in convenient areas, have not been found. — Recording an exact position as the vessel went down was not often a high priority to the crews, even when it would have been possible. As a result, there is continued exploration and searches made by the wreck diving enthusiasts for wrecks for which approximate positions are known, and there are a few operators who jealously guard their knowledge of wreck locations so that they can have exclusive access.

Many ships sank a significant distance beyond the point at which they were damaged, and many in water either too deep to dive or right up on the shore, where they were subsequently battered to bits by wave action. Others have deteriorated to the point where the average recreational diver would hardly recognise them as the remains of a ship. As a result of these factors, the number of wrecks which are popular dive sites is a small subset of the total number known, and many of these were originally scuttled, either as naval target practice, or as artificial reefs. These wrecks are dived fairly frequently, as conditions allow.

Get help

In case of emergency:

National Hyperbarics has closed indefinitely from January 2011. There is currently no decompression chamber available for recreational diving accidents in the Cape Town area. Until further notice, contact DAN or Metro Rescue.


In cases where there is a need for life support during evacuation, contact one of the paramedic services such as Netcare 911. If the diver is a DAN member, at least try to contact DAN (Diver Alert Network) during the evacuation, as they will make further arrangements. For non-DAN members contact the paramedic service or Metro Rescue direct.

If you need to transport the casualty yourself, go to the Claremont Hospital Emergency Medical Unit first, where the personnel know about diving accidents and can provide life support and appropriate treatment.

It is strongly recommended that someone from the dive group should accompany the casualty in the ambulance, preferably with a cell phone so that they can answer questions about the incident. The casualty's dive computer should be transported with the casualty, and it is helpful if the person accompanying the casualty knows how to extract the dive history from the computer.

  • DAN Southern Africa 24-HOUR HOTLINE, 0800 020 111. (alternative numbers 082 810 6010 or 010 209 8112)
  • Netcare 911, 082 911. (Sea rescue, Helicopter, Ambulance, Hyperbaric chamber, Poisons and Medical emergency advice line)
  • Metro Rescue, 10177.
  • Claremont Hospital Emergency Unit, 021 670 4333. (Position 33°59'11.57"S, 10°27'59.69"E, access from Main Road)
  • National Sea Rescue Institute, 021 449 3500.
  • Mountain Rescue, 021 937 1211.
  • Fire, 107.
  • S. A. Police Service, 10111.
  • In case of difficulties with an emergency call, 1022.

Find out:

  • Southern Underwater Research Group (SURG), (), [6]. For identification of marine life and field guidebooks. Send a photo to SURG and they will try to identify the organism.
  • Underwater Africa, [7]. “The CPR of diving”: Conservation, promotion and representation. Underwater Africa attempts to serve its members by identifying key issues that affect the growth and success of recreational diving. It is the united voice that speaks on behalf of the sport and its operational function is to create focused programs that positively affect both recreational diving and the underwater environment. Specifically, if you have difficulty getting a diving permit from a Post Office on a foreign passport, or for persons under the age of 16, Underwater Africa will try to sort out your problem, as some Post Office staff are not adequately aware of the rules.
  • The Maritime Archaeologist at SAHRA, P O Box 4637, Cape Town 8000, +27 (0)21 462 4502 (, fax: +27 (0)21 462 4509), [8].

Get service

Learn

See Services directory for contact details.

Dive schools:

  • Alpha Dive Centre
  • Bubble Blowers
  • Cruise Sub Aqua
  • Dive Action
  • Dive and Adventure
  • DiveInn
  • The Dive Tribe
  • Down South Scuba
  • Duck 'n Dive
  • Indigo Scuba Diving Centre
  • Into the Blue
  • Learn to Dive Today
  • Maties Underwater Club
  • Orca Industries
  • Pisces Divers
  • SCUBAfrique
  • SCUBA Academy
  • Scuba Junction
  • Sub-Atlandian Diving
  • The Scuba School
  • Underwater Explorers (Tech only)

Buy

See Services directory for contact details.

Dive shops:

The retail dealers specialising in diving equipment are listed. Other sporting goods stores may also supply a limited range of diving equipment.

  • Dive Action
  • Indigo Scuba Diving Centre
  • Into the Blue
  • Orca Industries
  • Pisces Divers
  • Underwater Systems

Scuba cylinder fills:

The listed dealers will fill cylinders for the general public. Some other service providers will fill for members only or for their own students or charter customers. See directory for more details.

  • Alpha Dive Centre: Air.
  • Alternative Dive Supply: Air. Nitrox(?)
  • Bubble Blowers: Air, Nitrox.
  • Dive Action: Air, Oxygen compatible air, Nitrox (all percentages), Trimix.
  • Dive and Adventure: Air
  • Duck 'n Dive: Air.
  • Executive Safety Supplies (ESS): Air.
  • Orca Industries: Air, Oxygen compatible air, Nitrox (continuous and partial pressre all percentages), Oxygen.
  • Indigo Scuba Diving Centre: Air.
  • Into the Blue: Air.
  • Pisces Divers: Air, Oxygen compatible air, Nitrox (partial pressure all percentages), Oxygen
  • Research Diving Unit: Air, Oxygen compatible air, Nitrox (continuous and partial pressure).
  • SCUBAfrique: Air.
  • Sub-Atlandian Diving: Air, Oxygen compatible air, Nitrox.
  • The Scuba School: Air up to 300 bar, Nitrox

Rent

Some dive operators will rent you equipment when you dive with them. Check when making a booking. The listed operators rent full Scuba equipment. Most charter boats will provide full cylinders on request.

  • Dive and Adventure
  • Into the Blue
  • Pisces Diving
  • SCUBA Academy
  • The Scuba School

Do

See Services Directory for contact details.


Boat dive charters:

Boat dives from a specialist dive boat. Usually one dive per trip, sometimes two. Booking essential. Some operators provide a divemaster, some will rent equipment, others only provide transport. Dives may be cancelled up to the last minute if conditions turn bad. If the trip is cancelled, you can expect a refund. Some operators will cancel if they think the dive will not be good, others will launch unless it looks too dangerous. Check terms before booking.

This listing is of operators who own and run a boat. Most dive shops and schools which do not run their own boat will book boat dives for clients on these boats. This is usually the way to go if you neet to rent equipment or need transport. Direct booking is appropriate if you have your own equipment. Most dive charters will rent cylinders.

  • Animal Ocean
  • Blue Flash (Tech friendly)
  • Bubble Blowers
  • Dashdivers
  • Dive Action (Tech and Rebreather friendly)
  • Dive and Adventure
  • Indigo Scuba Diving Centre
  • Pisces Divers
  • Underwater Explorers (Tech friendly)

Guided shore dives:

Shore dives led by a Divemaster. Usually one dive per trip. Booking usually required. Most operators rent equipment, some provide transport to the site from a specific assembly area, usually a dive shop. Check terms before booking

  • Alpha Dive Centre
  • Bubble Blowers
  • Dashdivers
  • DiveInn
  • Indigo Scuba Diving Centre
  • Into the Blue
  • Learn to Dive Today
  • Pisces Divers
  • SCUBAfrique
  • Sub-Atlandian Diving
  • The Scuba School

Dive Clubs:

Places where divers gather to fill cylinders, have a drink and discuss diving. Clubs also generally offer training and equipment rental to members, and air and occasionally Nitrox and Trimix fills. Only dive clubs not exclusively affiliated to a dive school or dive shop are listed here. Some clubs welcome visitors to club dive outings, but non-members will usually have to provide their own equipment.

  • Aquaholics Club
  • Bellville Underwater Club
  • Cape Scuba Club
  • False Bay Underwater Club
  • Maties Underwater Club (Stellenbosch Underwater Club)
  • Old Mutual Sub Aqua Club
  • University of Cape Town Underwater Club

Cage Diving (sharks)

A small number of licenced operators offer open water cage diving to get up close to the great whites in their own environment. April to September is the peak time to see Great Whites in South Africa. There are morning and afternoon trips to Seal Island, where you can see the famous breaching Great White sharks of False Bay as well as cage diving, sometimes all in one trip. Not all cage diving is on scuba — in fact most is done on breathhold. Check when booking.

  • African Shark Eco-Charters
  • Apex Shark Expeditions
  • Shark Adventures
  • Shark Explorers

Fix

See Services directory for contact details.

Scuba equipment servicing and repair:

  • Alpha Dive Centre
  • Dive Action
  • Indigo Scuba Diving Centre
  • Orca Industries.
  • Pisces Divers.
  • Sub-Atlandian Diving.

Scuba cylinder inspection and testing:

  • Executive Safety Systems.
  • Orca Industries. (includes "Visual plus" eddy current testing of Aluminium cylinders and Oxygen service cleaning on request).

Dry suit servicing and repair:

  • Blue Flash.

Wet suit repairs and custom fitting:

  • Coral Wetsuits.
  • Reef Wetsuits.

Services directory

  • African Shark Eco-Charters, Shop WC13, Simon's Town Boardwalk Centre, St Georges Street, Simon's Town, +27 (0)21 785 1941 (), [9]. Office: 9AM to 6PM. mobile: +27(0)82 674 9454 White shark cage dives. Great White shark cage dives R1450 to R1750.
  • Animal Ocean Marine Adventures, Mobile operation - no offices, +27 (0)79 488 5053 (), [10]. Available anytime on email or cell phone. Seal Snorkeling, Ocean Safaris, Boat Charters, Sardine Run and Specialist Photographic Expeditions. Local boat dive R200 excluding equipment, min of 2 people.
  • Alpha Dive Centre, 96 Main Road, Strand (opposite the railway station), +27 (0)21 854 3150 (, fax: +27 (0)86 551 0702), [11]. M to F: 7.30AM to 6PM, Sa, Su: 7.30AM to 2PM. NAUI, PADI and DAN training; Equipment sales and rental; Air fills; Regulator and BC servicing; Boat and shore dives (Gordon's Bay).
  • Alternative Dive Supply, 12 Natal Street, Paarden Eiland, +27 (0)21 511 5344 (mobile)+27 (0)82 900 7141 (fax: +27 (0)21 511 1740). Commercial diving equipment sales and servicing, Air and Nitrox fills.
  • Apex Shark Expeditions, Quayside Building, Shop no 3, Main Road, Simon’s Town, 7975, +27 (0)21 786 5717 (), [12]. mobile:+ 27 (0)79 051 8558 White shark cage diving.
  • Aqua-holics Club, 1st floor, 256 Koeberg road, Rugby, (), [13]. Open to all divers no matter if you scuba, spear, free dive or just snorkel
  • Bellville Underwater Club, Jack Muller Park, Frans Conradie Drive, Opposite DF Malan Highschool (GPS S33° 53.431' and E18° 37.704'), (), [14]. Club night Wednesday, 7PM to 11PM. CMAS-ISA, and IANTD training; Club dives most Sundays; Air and Nitrox fills for members; Social club for Recreational and Technical divers.
  • Blue Flash, 5 Glenbrae Avenue, Tokai, +27 (0)73 1676677 (), [15]. Dry suit service, repairs and adjustments; Used dry suit sales; Recreational and technical dive charters; High speed boat trips and marine touring; Exploration of new wrecks and reefs (Cape Peninsula) Local boat dive R200 excluding equipment.
  • Bubble Blowers, Bubble Blowers Blouberg, 72 Sandown Road, BloubergStrand, +27 (0)21 554 3817 (, fax: +27 (0)21 913 0804), [16]. M to F: 9AM to 5PM, Sa: 9AM to 1PM, Su: Closed.. PADI training; Equipment sales and rental; Boat and shore dives(Cape Peninsula); Air and Nitrox fills; Regulator and BC servicing. Also have a branch in Tygerberg. Local boat dive R170 excluding equipment.
  • Cape Scuba Club, (), [17]. Weekly social gatherings. Cape Scuba Club is a fun, family-based scuba diving club. Members get: Discounted air fills, discounted boat charters, support from experienced scuba divers, weekend scuba diving in Cape Town led by experienced divers, including night dives, wreck dives, boat dives and shore entries, and weekend scuba diving trips.
  • Coral Wetsuits, 18 Brickfield road Salt River, +27 (0)21 447 1985 / 448 8275 (, fax: +27 (0)21 448 8249), [18]. Stock and Custom wetsuits. Wetsuit tailoring and repairs.
  • Cruise Sub Aqua, Cruise House. 25 Main Road, Fish Hoek., +27 (0)21 785 6994, Cell: +27 (0)82 623 7390 (, fax: +27 (0)21 785 7670), [19]. M to Su: 8.30AM to 5PM. PADI Training; Equipment rental; Boat and shore dive packages (local and national); Airport shuttle service; Transport to dives available.
  • Dashdivers - 083 317 0195 Boat and shore entry charter, experienced dive masters and skippers. Email
dashdiver81@gmail Visit our website for more info www.dashdivers.co.za
  • Dive Action, 22 Carlisle Street, Paarden Eiland., +27 (0)21 511 0800 (), [20]. M to F: 8.30AM to 5.30PM, Sa: 8.30AM to 1PM, Su: Closed. PADI and IANTD training (NAUI on request); Recreational and technical dive charters (Cape Peninsula); Equipment sales and rentals; Air, Nitrox, Oxygen and Trimix fills; Regulator and BC servicing; Rebreather fills and sorb. High speed boat trips and tours. Local boat dive R200 excluding equipment.
  • Dive and Adventure, Harbour Island, Gordon's Bay, +27 (0)83 962 8276 (). CMAS-ISA training; Equipment rental; Boat dive charters (Gordon's Bay); Air fills; Small boat skipper training.
  • DiveInn, +27 (0)84 4481601 (), [21]. PADI Training, equipment rental, cultural tours to the Cape Winelands, Cape Town city tours, shore diving
  • The Dive Tribe, Tyger Valley, +27 (0)82 324 3157 (), [22]. SDI training: Scuba Diver and Advanced Scuba Diver. For equipment retail see Underwater Systems.
  • Down South Scuba, The Old Post Office, 153 Main Road, Muizenberg (Between Surfer's Corner and Main Road Muizenberg), +27 (0)21 788 7616 Mobile: +27 (0)82 422 2979 (, fax: +27 (0)86 661 2979), [23]. M: Closed, Tu to F: 9AM to 5PM, Sa-Su: 8AM to 4PM. PADI training.
  • Duck 'n Dive, Shop 4 - 1st Floor, 256 Koeberg Rd, Milnerton, +27 (0)21 511 2468 (, fax: +27 (0)21 511 2467), [24]. M to F: 9AM to 5PM, Sa: 9AM to 1PM Su: Closed. NAUI Training; Equipment sales (new and used); Air fills; Dive charters (Cape Peninsula).
  • Executive Safety Services (E.S.S.), 4 Dorsetshire St, Paarden Eiland, +27 (0)21 510 4726 (, fax: +27 (0)21 510 8758). M to Th: 8AM to 4PM, F: 8AM to 3PM. Scuba cylinder inspection and testing; Air fills.
  • False Bay Underwater Club, Under Wetton road bridge, Wynberg (Entrance is in Belper road, off Kildare road), (), [25]. Club night Wednesday, 7PM to 11PM. CMAS-ISA, SSI and IANTD training; Club dives most Sundays; Air, Nitrox and Trimix fills for members; Social club for Recreational, Technical and Scientific divers, Spearos and Underwater hockey.
  • Indigo Scuba Diving Centre, 16 Bluegum Avenue, Gordon's Bay, (Mobile)+27 (0)83 268 1851 (), [26]. Mo to F: 09:00AM to 05:00PM, Sa, 08:30AM to 02:00PM. SSI and NAUI training to instructor level; Equipment sales and rental; Air fills, Equipment servicing.
  • Into the Blue, 88b Main Road, Sea Point (Right across from the Pick 'n Pay in Sea Point Main Road), +27 (0)21 434 3358 (mobile) +27 (0)71 875 9284 (), [27]. M to Sa 9AM to 6PM. PADI training. Equipment rental. Shore dives 7 day per week conditions permitting. Boat dives W, Sa and Su. Shark dive bookings and transport. Transportation provided from City centre. Boat dives R280, Full equipment rental R360/day.
  • Learn to Dive Today, +27 (0) 76 817 1099 (), [28]. PADI training and guided shore dives. Equipment rental for students. DAN Business member.
  • Maties Underwater Club (Stellenbosch Underwater Club), University of Stellenbosch sports grounds, Coetzenburg, Stellenbosch., [29]. Open membership recreational diving club. Scuba, Spearfishing, Underwater Hockey; Equipment rental and air fills for members.
  • Old Mutual Sub Aqua Club (OMSAC), Old Mutual head office in Pinelands, [30]. Thursday nights from 7PM. Air fills and equipment hire for members. Open membership recreational diving club. Visit www.omsac.co.za for more info.
  • Orca Industries, 3 Bowwood Road, Claremont, +27 (0)21 671 9673 (), [31]. M to F: 8.30AM to 5.30PM, Sa: 8.30AM to 1PM. NAUI & CMAS-ISA training; Equipment sales; Air, Nitrox and Oxygen fills; Regulator and BC servicing; Scuba cylinder inspection and testing (Visual Plus); Oxygen cleaning.
  • Pisces Divers, 12 Glen Road, Glencairn, Cape Town, +27 (0)21 782 7205, Mobile +27 (0)83 231 0240, (fax +27 (0)21 782 7201) (), [32]. Tu to F: 8.30AM to 5.30PM, Sa, Su: 8:30AM to 4PM, M: Closed. PADI training; Dive charters (Cape Peninsula); Equipment sales and rental; Air and Nitrox fills, Regulator and BC servicing. Local boat dive R180 excluding equipment.
  • Reef Wetsuits, Royal Park, Percy Road, Ottery, +27 (0)21 703 6662 (, fax: +27 (0)21 703 6678), [33]. M to Th 8AM to 4.30PM, F 8AM to 2.30PM. Stock and custom wetsuits, Wetsuit tailoring and repairs
  • SCUBA Academy, 80 Via Appia, Somerset West, +27 79 083 7654 (), [34]. Office: 9AM to 6PM. mobile: +2779 083 7654. PADI training, Gear rental Shore Entries = R250 & Boat dives = R350. Full equpment rental included!.
  • Shark Adventures, 11 Faure Street, Gordons Bay, 7150, +27 (0)21 856 4055 (, fax: +27 (0)86 627 0374), [36]. mobile: +27 (0)83 225 7227. White shark cage dives.
  • Shark Explorers, +27 825641904 (), [37]. Shark, seal and kelp forest diving packages. Cage dives with Great Whites R1300 per person.
  • Sub-Atlandian Diving, Unit 3b, Edgar Street, Somerset-West, +27 (0)82 337 7006 (), [38]. NAUI training, Boat and shore dives (False Bay), Equipment sales, Air and Nitrox fills, Equipment servicing. Local boat dive R180 excluding equipment.
  • The Scuba School, Western Cape, Independant, (, fax: +27 86 662 3989), [39]. PADI Recreational & Technical Diver training, EFR & DAN First Aid training, Sharklife Training, Air and Nitrox fills, Equipment rental, Boat and shore dives.
  • Underwater Systems, Shop12E, Squires Building, St Georges St, Simonstown (1st Shop on Right as you enter Simons Town from the north.), +27 (0)82 324 3157, [40]. Hours by appointment. Supply of Diving Equipment and Systems - Underwater Communication specialists. No credit card facilities. For SDI training see The Dive Tribe (34'1120 S,18'2532E)
  • Underwater Explorers, PO Box 60604, Flamingo Square, 7439, Cape Town, South Africa, +27 (0)82 6487261 (), [41]. Technical diver training; Recreational and technical dive charters. DAN Diving Safety Partner Local boat dive R150 excluding equipment.
  • University of Cape Town Underwater Club (UCTUC), Lower Campus Sports Complex, off Woolsack Road, Rondebosch., [42]. Training, equipment rental and air fills to members.

Get around

Transportation to shore dive sites or boat launching sites is best done by road. In most cases there is no other option. The public transport in the region is not diver-friendly. Trains do not stop near most of the sites, Buses are infrequent, and also usually do not pass near the sites, and Mini-bus taxis are geared to maximising the number of passengers. If you are visiting for a short period and do not wish to rent a vehicle, it may be possible to arrange transport through a local divemaster or charter organisation. Ask if they have facilities for fetching you from your accommodation when you arrange a dive. Not all will offer this service, but it can be a great convenience if available. Some will even fetch you from the airport.

If travelling in your own or a rented vehicle, bear in mind that many dive sites, particularly on the Cape Peninsula, are notorious for theft from parked vehicles. Do not leave any items that may attract unwanted interest in the front of the vehicle, and ensure that the luggage compartment is secure. Dive clubs will sometimes arrange for an attendant to watch over parked vehicles during club dives.

The Street Guide to Cape Town, published by MapStudio and available at most book shops in Cape Town, is recommended for finding your way around to any of the sites north of Miller’s Point on the peninsula, and north of Steenbras river mouth on the east side of False Bay. This is adequate for most divers.

The map shows the most useful main road routes for getting around the dive sites. Road signs for these routes are as good as any in the region. The National roads are indicated with white numbers on blue signs and the prefix N. Regional routes are white on green signs prefixed with R. Main routes in the greater metropolitan area are prefixed with an M and are usually black on white signs.

Map links to Geocoded sites — Most of the dive sites harbours and slipways featured in this guide are Geocoded. Look in the left hand sidebar 'toolbox' for a "Map" link. If you click on this a choice of on-line zoomable street maps will become available. The Google maps have the advantage that a photo-overlay is available as an option.

Boat dives

Day trips

Dive charter boats in Cape Town

Most of the dive charter boats of Cape Town are large rigid hulled inflatable boats powered by twin outboard engines. These boats are usually launched from a slipway for the day’s dives and are transported to the slipway on trailers. The boats are usually from 6 to 7.5m in length and are licenced to carry from 8 to 12 divers.

Bookings are made by phone, e-mail or in the shop. If you are not known to the operator you will be asked to present certification, and usually to sign a disclaimer.

Many of the dive charter boats in this area are purely transport facilities, leaving the responsibility for safety during the dive to the divers. If you want a guided tour, or need a buddy, check whether this is provided before booking.

Equipment is usually loaded onto the boats before launching or at a jetty near the slip. Diving suits are generally put on before boarding and worn during the ride, though occasionally jackets may be carried and put on at the site if the weather and sea conditions are suitable. Ask your skipper.

If you dive with unusual or specialised equipment such as large twin cylinders, side mounts, rebreather or bulky video equipment it is recommended that you clear this with the operator before booking. Similarly if you wish to dive solo or do scheduled decompression this should be cleared before booking, as some charter boats do not cater for these procedures.

Liveaboards

There are no liveaboard dive boats based in Cape Town. However there are a number of large motor and sailing yachts that may be chartered, and there is no fundamental reason why they could not be chartered for a dive trip. Enquire about diving equipment and compressor rental when booking, as these will generally not be included.

Harbours and slipways

The public slipway at Miller's Point

Atlantic seaboard:

The Atlantic seaboard is served by the Hout Bay harbour and slipway, and the Oceana Power Boat Club slipway at Granger Bay, just west of the V&A Waterfront. The peninsula south of Noordhoek is also served by the Witsand slipway at the Crayfish factory near Scarborough.


False Bay coast of the Cape Peninsula:

Western False Bay launches are usually from the slipway at Miller's Point, though occasionally the slipway at the False Bay Yacht Club in Simon's Town is used, usually for the annual Scubapro Dive Festival. There is a slipway at Buffels Bay, but that is seldom used by divers.

Gordon's Bay:

On the east side of False Bay, there are two good slipways in Gordon's Bay: at the Old Harbour and at Harbour Island.

Rooi-els:

There is a small and very shallow slipway at Rooi-els which can only be used by local residents who have permits, and is too small for the charter boats.

Hangklip:

Lastly there is a slipway at Masbaai just east of Hangklip, which is open to the public, but is very shallow at low tide.

Stay safe

The regional and local hazards are of the following main types:

Topographical features

Many of the local dive sites require some level of fitness and agility to access as shore dives. Research the site, ask the locals, but the final responsibility is with the diver to assess each site personally. Beware of loose rocks and slippery slopes.

Sea and Weather conditions

These are variable, and even the experts get them wrong occasionally from forecasts and reports. You just have to estimate which area looks most promising, and go there to take a look. Be aware that a strong offshore wind can develop in a relatively short time, and plan accordingly. This is particularly prevalent in summer, when a strong south easter can spring up from a quiet morning, and make a long surface return swim hard work.

Many of the shore dive sites have limited access areas, which may vary in suitability with changes in tide or weather conditions.

The air and water temperatures can also be considered as hazards, particularly in summer on the Atlantic coast, where on an extreme day it is possible for the air temperature to be over 30°C and the water below 10°C. Both hyperthermia and hypothermia are possible on the same dive outing.

Boats and shipping

Some areas are more heavily used by seaborne traffic than others. In this respect, shore dives are not generally a problem, except for a few of the deeper shore dives on the west side of False Bay, in the vicinity of Miller’s Point. It is recommended to tow a brightly coloured SMB with an Alpha flag if you dive Boat Rock, Outer Castle, Oatlands outer reefs, or Photographer’s Reef as a shore dive.

Bakoven is a launching site for the National Sea Rescue Institute, and divers are required to tow a SMB when diving there.

The Law requires all powerboats to be in the charge of a licensed skipper who is theoretically aware of the international regulations regarding divers in the water and keeping clear, but in reality there are a number of skippers who are either ignorant or don’t care. Look out for yourself and do not fasten the SMB to your equipment in an area of boat traffic, in case it gets hooked up on a boat and you get dragged up. Report incidences of dangerous boat-handling to Table Mountain National Park offices if in their jurisdiction, or to the nearest harbour master.

Incidences of dangerous or illegal boat handling can be reported to the SA Police Services Water Wing in Simon's Town, but it appears that they only work alternating weekends, so there is a 50% chance there will be no-one there, and the regular police charge office does not know how to deal with this class of offense. More action is likely if you report the problem to SAMSA, (South African Marine Safety Authority). Try to provide as much information as possible to identify the offenders. Ideally the registration number of the vessel should be included, and a photograph can be helpful.

Marine life forms

The One-fin electric ray can deliver a startling shock to the unwary diver
The Cape urchin is abundant and its spines are sharp but not venomous


The Great White Shark is found in False Bay and is considered by some to be a danger to divers. This may be true, and it would be prudent to avoid them when possible. There are areas and seasons when they are more common. The west side of False Bay from Muizenberg to Simon’s Town seems to be the most popular inshore cruising ground, particularly in spring and summer, and Whittle Rock has also been reported to be a popular site for the sharks. Seal island is known as their main feeding area, and there are known cases of attacks on divers and close encounters of the terrifying kind from that area. If you want to see the sharks, do a cage dive with a licensed operator. If you do encounter one during a dive, try to avoid looking like a seal. Some divers suggest keeping close to the bottom, most recommend getting out quickly. Hanging around in mid-water or on the surface is not recommended by anyone. If there are Great Whites around, a safety stop may not be safe. On the other hand, if you do a cage dive, some cage operators will tell you that the noise of open circuit Scuba keeps the sharks away, but this may be to save them money by not providing air and space on the boat for Scuba equipment. Cow sharks are not kept away by Scuba noise.

Bluebottles or Portuguese Man o’ War are often seen in the bay, and can give an unpleasant sting, which may be dangerous to sensitive people. A wet suit is good protection. Avoid contact with your face; hands can be used to cover the exposed parts, or dive below the trailing tentacles, which can be quite long. Box jellyfish are also reputed to sting. Note that the stinging cells of bluebottles and jellyfish may become attached to your gloves or other equipment by contact during a dive, and may later sting you if they come into contact with unprotected skin. The trianglar shaped leafed succulent beach groundcover creeper the 'Sour Fig' provides excellent treatment. Rub some of the leaf`s juice on the sting. Ammonia also works well as does Meat Tenderiser.

Cape Fur Seals are not considered a hazard, though they make some people nervous. If they are relaxed, there are probably no Great Whites hunting nearby. If you ignore them they will typically get bored eventually and go away. They are big, strong, fast and have large teeth with strong jaws, so don't molest them.

Stingrays are theoretically a hazard. If you walk on one it may swipe you with its tail barb. This does not happen here, as we don’t walk on them. If you don’t try to grab hold they will not sting you.

Electric or Torpedo rays may shock you if you touch them. This is unlikely to happen as they are shy and usually avoid divers, but it could happen that you might touch one inadvertently when it is buried under the sand. This is highly unlikely, and will probably not do any lasting harm. Don’t worry about it, and don’t touch any disc-shaped ray that your buddy suggests you handle.

Sea urchin spines are a real but minor hazard. Surge or inattention may result in you getting spiked by these. If they bother you, get medical attention, but usually they will dissolve or if large may work their way out in time. A few spines is not usually considered a reason to abort a dive. There are so many sea urchins that it is only a matter of time before you get spiked by one. It is no big deal, the local urchins have fairly short and non-venomous spines, but they will go right through most suits and gloves.

There are various polychaete worms with bristles that may be an irritant. Avoid touching them. Gloves which are recommended as thermal protection will also protect against these bristles.

Red tides have occasionally produced irritant aerosols which can affect the respiratory passages. More often they do not and merely cause poor visibility, but bear this in mind. If by some chance you find yourself diving in waters where the air on the surface seems to be an irritant, breathe off your scuba gear until clear of the water. Associated toxins in the water may also produce a skin rash in these conditions, so get out as soon as possible.

Terrestrial life forms

Most of the terrestrial life forms in the Western Cape are not ordinarily considered a hazard to divers, though theft from parked vehicles at dive sites puts people at the top of the list.

Baboons in the southern peninsula and Rooi-els areas have become an occasional nuisance as they have learned to steal food from tourists, and as they are quick and strong and are armed with large teeth, they should be taken seriously. Some have learned how to open car doors and break into houses. Do not feed them, do not let them see that you are carrying food, and do not leave food where they can get to it. If you do you may be prosecuted, and will certainly be contributing to a problem that may result in serious injury to people and the necessity to kill the offending baboons.

There are a few species of venomous snake in the area, but mostly they are shy and keep away from people.

At some sites it is necessary to walk through bush with overgrown paths. Some of the bushes may have thorns. They will not usually penetrate a wet-suit, but be careful.

Microbiological hazards

These are not generally considered a problem in the region. There are no endemic parasite-transmitted diseases. The area is free of Malaria, Bilharzia, Sleeping sickness and other tropical diseases. Aids can be avoided by the usual precautions, and municipal water supplies are safe to drink. Sewage is treated before discharge to the sea, and the greatest hazard is probably storm water runoff from the Cape Flats after heavy rains. Most of the dive sites are in areas well clear of major storm drainage, and if the water looks clear it should be fine.

Marine filter feeders should not be eaten after Red tides, but anything served in a restaurant should be safe.

Artificial hazards

Unfortunately some of our citizens and visitors are complete slobs and dispose of their garbage illegally, and broken bottles and similar hazards may be encountered. This can happen almost anywhere, but is most common at the roadside within throwing distance and along the paths where you need to walk. Some places are worse than others, and you will just have to be careful. Wet-suit boots are not always sufficient protection. Areas controlled by SAN Parks Board are usually better than those theoretically maintained by the City Council. Areas outside the municipal and Table Mountain National Park area appear not to be maintained at all.

See

Cowshark

The waters of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay support a thriving ecology of cool temperate marine organisms, many of them endemic to South Africa, or even smaller regions, and although the fish are not as spectacularly coloured as those seen in tropical waters, many are quite colourful in order to camouflage themselves among the extremely vivid invertebrates that cover the reefs.

Marine animals

There are a wide range of marine animals which one may see while diving this region, and they include some of the most awesome and spectacular encounters possible for a diver.

Whales and Dolphins

False Bay is a destination noted for whale watching. Large numbers of Southern Right whales visit the bay every year, but it is unusual to see one during a dive. Other whale species occasionally seen in False Bay are Humpback whales, Bryde's whales and Orca, and these are even less likely to be seen while diving. If you do have the good luck to encounter a whale during a dive, be careful, as their huge size makes it easy for a diver to be injured unintentionally.

Dolphins are also seen in False Bay and on the Atlantic seaboard. Common dolphins occasionally visit on schools numbering in hundreds to thousands, but are not often seen by divers. Dusky dolphins tend to travel in smaller groups, but are also more likely to investigate a diver at the safety stop. Other species occasionally visit, but are more noted for stranding incidents that being seen underwater by divers.

Sharks

Leopard catshark

False Bay is one of the most reliable places to view Great White sharks, although rarely as a diver, and several other shark species are also frequently seen. The Sevengill or Cowshark can often be seen at a few sites, while Gully sharks and catsharks are more widespread. There are four common catshark species locally, from the colourful puffadder shyshark to the much larger pyjama shark. Other pelagic sharks are usually only seen on offshore "blue-water" dives off the south peninsula, and several large pelagic fish species can be seen on similar trips.

Pelagics

Yellowtail are occasionally seen in large shoals

Large shoals of Yellowtail are occasionally seen at some dive sites, and on unpredictable occasions divers may be lucky enough to see Oceanic sunfish, Southern right whales, Humpback whales, Common, Bottlenose or Dusky dolphins.

The common Snoek, which is the cornerstone of a local linefishing industry, is very shy and hardly ever seen by divers, in spite of its habit of shoaling in large numbers.

Penguins and seals

Cape fur seals will come to look at a diver

There are colonies of African penguins in False Bay, but it is extremely unusual to see them during a dive. On the other hand, the Cape fur seals are both curious and unafraid of divers, and are very commonly seen, both in False Bay and on the Atlantic seaboard. There are several places where they can almost be guaranteed to be seen.

Reef fish

Roman
Cape knifejaw
Blue-spotted klipfish
Robust klipfish, a rare but large cryptic reef fish
Horsefish
Seacatfish

Reef fish of this region are most varied in False Bay, and most common in the restricted zones of the Marine Protected Areas, where they have been protected by law for several decades, though poaching still occurs, and enforcement is quite unreliable. Most of the reef fish are camouflaged to some extent. Many are silvery grey and countershaded, like the ubiquitous Hottentot seabream, the silvery Fransmadam and the Steentjie. Others have vertical bars or dark patches which may help break up their profile in kelp, such as White stumpnose, Zebra, and White steenbras, while many of the smaller species are cryptically coloured and blend very well into their environment. These are generally fish which spend most of their time on or very close to the reef, and their coloration is usually an indication of the typical colours of their habitat. These include various endemic klipfish, and a few blennies and gobies, the fingerfins, Cape triplefin, Smoothskin scorpionfish, two species of horsefish, a pipefish and the Rocksucker. There are also a few red fish, which are fairly visible, such as the very common Roman, and the less common Red stumpnose and Red steenbras. Most of the fish mentioned are solitary or found in small shoals, but there are also Strepies and Maasbanker which tend to shoal in fairly large numbers, and moderately large shoals of Hottentot are seen quite frequently. Galjoen are fairly rare and usually seen in small groups on top of the reef where there is a lot of wave movement, and the similar looking Cape knifejaw prefers deeper and high profile reef between the rocks. Seacatfish are shy and tend to spend the daytime in crevices and holes.

Sandy areas

Sole

The sandy areas also have their characteristic fish, which include a few species of ray, soles, gurnards, a pufferfish and the Beaked sandfish, which is rare and shy by day, but may be seen in large numbers at night at some sites, when it comes out of the sand it hides in and swims around freely. A few species of klipfish are also sand-dwelling, with the various species preferring different densities of sand, with those preferring fine sand having a more snake-like body, whereas those in coarse sand being more robust. Their body pattern tends to match the type of sand as well.

Reef invertebrates

Benthic invertebrates provide most of the bright colours on the reefs of this region, and the distribution of species is as characteristic of the different sub-regions as the depth and water temperature. The diversity is large, and there is a big variation in the predominant reef cover with both depth and geographical location. The characteristic reef life varies considerably between the east and west sides of the Cape Peninsula, and this is recognised as the border between the South Western Cape and Agulhas Inshore Bioregions. The vertical zonation is also characteristic of the different bioregions, so there can be very noticeable differences in what can be seen at the various sites.

There is a general tendency for a given area of reef to be dominated by a particular species of organism, for example, Common feather stars, Red-chested sea cucumbers, Mauve sea cucumbers, Red Bait or sea urchins, to the extent that a major part of the surface area is covered by the dominant organism. This does not mean that there is no variety, as there is a large range of habitats on most reefs depending on orientation and rugosity, and to a large extent, sessile organisms live where they can, and this is largely dependent on where the planktonic larvae find a foothold.

Midwater

Pelagic invertebrates are by their mostly planktonic nature unpredictable as to when and where they can be seen. They include several species of jellyfish, a few species of comb jelly, a few sporadic siphonophores, salps and pteropods, and lots of things too small to easily notice. There are also squid, but they are very shy and are seldom seen by day.

Seaweeds

Kelp forests

Kelp forests are the most obvious seaweeds of Cape Town. There are three genera found locally, sometimes in close proximity. The most obvious is the Sea bamboo, which reaches the surface when fully grown, and has a thick stipe with a gas-filled cavity at the top, and which keeps the frond near the surface for maximum exposure to the light. This kelp is very common on the Atlantic seaboard, and is also found on both sides of False Bay, but more commonly towards the southern part of the bay.

The smaller Split-fan kelp grows on deeper reefs, and does not reach the surface. The stipes are shorter and there is no gas-filled cavity, so the fronds stay submerged in the darker waters. This kelp is found in deeper water than the Sea bamboo, with a similar geographic range.

The third is the Bladder kelp, which has clusters of long thin stipes, with long fronds and large numbers of small gas-filled bladders which keep the kelp upright and the fronds at the surface. This kelp is not found in False Bay, and is mostly seen near Robben Island.

Algal turfs and kelp forest understoreys.

Below the kelp fronds, the reef in shallower areas where there is enough light, may be covered by an understorey of assorted seaweeds, and the particular species will depend on a variety of factors, including the amount of light available, and the amount of water movement. As a rule, green and brown seaweeds will be found in shallower areas, and reds will be deeper, as they can survive with less light. The deepest are often the red coralline algae, which can form a dense turf on the upper surfaces of rocks.

Encrusting corallines.

Where the surf is too powerful or the light is too dim for other seaweeds, the encrusting coralline algae may still find a foothold and thrive. These red algae form a fairly hard and tightly adherent crust on the reef, and are also known as "pink paint", which is a fair description of their appearance — they don't look at all like seaweeds. Their range is almost anywhere in the region where enough light penetrates and there is no other occupant already on the reef.


Shipwrecks

Divers on the wreck of the Cape Matapan in Table Bay


The Cape of Storms and the Cape of Good Hope are both traditional appellations for this region, and for good reason. The weather can be very bad at times, and the coast is very exposed, with few sheltered harbours, but is also an important waypoint on one of the worlds great maritime trade routes. As a result, there are a daunting number of shipwrecks recorded along the local coastline.

Many of these wrecks have never been found, and many others have been broken up beyond recognition, or covered in sand, or in the case of Table Bay, been buried under land reclamation projects, but several are in diveable places and may be visited by divers if conditions are suitable.

Depths of the diveable wrecks vary from 3 or 4 metres, to more than 65 metres, and condition varies from half buried fragments of wood or steel, to ships that retain most of their original structure and appearance, and loom out of the depths as if sailing through the sand bottom.

Most are heavily encrusted with reef organisms, ranging from seaweeds in the shallow water to a large range of colourful invertebrates in deeper water. They also shelter a variety of reef fish, and may be visited by pelagic fish on unpredictable occasions. In effect, they serve as artificial reefs, and as a result are generally also of interest to divers who are not particularly interested in them as artifacts.

Topographical features

Many of the sites are characterised by interesting topographical features, including pinnacles, gullies, caverns, swimthroughs and overhangs. These features ore notable not only for their contribution to the seascape, but also provide major variations in available habitats at the site, and the result is a strong correlation between high biodiversity and interesting topography. The general topographical character of a site is dependent on the geology, and the granite sites are instantly distinguishable from the sedimentary sandstone and shale sites. The granite rocks are typically rounded and stacked as corestone boulders on outcrops of the same rock, often with white quartz sand between them, or as a gradually sloping base. These stacks of variously sized rocks often form pinnacles, and gullies in fairly random directions, and the overhangs and holes between them are in some cases large enough for divers to swim through, providing a spectacular reef structure.

The sandstone strata tend to produce formations dominated by the local dip and strike, and this is more predictable. However, the detail on a smaller scale tends to produce more small holes, crevices, ledges and ridges than the granite areas, and these are less spectacular as a general rule. There are exceptions, where the sandstone reefs are very craggy, usually where the dip is quite steep, but not vertical, and the shoreline is quite steep, but in a different plane to the dip.

Fortunately the old dictum "as above, so below" applies quite well, and the character of the reefs can be predicted fairly reliably by observing the adjacent shoreline landscape. The major exception to this rule is south of Smitswinkel Bay, where there are sandstones above the water and granite below.

Read

Reference books on the ecology of Cape Town's waters:

From SURG[43], specifically for divers in this region: Available from selected dive shops and book shops in Cape Town, and direct from SURG.

Jones, Georgina. 2008. A Field Guide to the Marine Animals of the Cape Peninsula, SURG, Cape Town. ISBN 978-0-620-41639-9

Zsilavecz, Guido. 2005. Coastal Fishes of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, SURG, Cape Town. ISBN 0-620-34230-7

Zsilavecz, Guido. 2007. Nudibranchs of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, SURG, Cape Town. ISBN 0-620-38054-3

From other publishers, and of more general application:

Branch, G. and Branch, M. 1981, The Living Shores of Southern Africa, Struik, Cape Town. ISBN 0-86977-1159

Branch, G.M. Griffiths,C.L. Branch, M.L and Beckley, L.E. 2010, Two Oceans – A guide to the marine Life of Southern Africa, David Philip, Cape Town. ISBN 987-1-77007-772-0

Gosliner, T. 1987. Nudibranchs of Southern Arica, Sea Challengers & Jeff Hamann, Monterey. ISBN 0-930118-13-8

Heemstra, P. and Heemstra E. 2004, Coastal Fishes of Southern Africa, NISC/SAIAB, Grahamstown.

Ed. Smith, M.M. and Heemstra, P. 2003 Smith’s Sea Fishes. Struik, Cape Town

Stegenga, H. Bolton, J.J. and Anderson, R.J. 1997, Seaweeds of the South African West Coast. Bolus Herbarium, Cape Town. ISBN 0-7992-1793-X (rather technical)

Reference books on the Geology of the Cape Peninsula:

Compton, John S. 2004, The Rocks and Mountains of Cape Town. Double Storey, Cape Town. ISBN 1-919930-70-1

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