Denmark

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Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. However, the country has opted out of European Union's Maastricht Treaty, the European monetary system (EMU), and issues concerning certain internal affairs.

Map

Quick Facts
Areatotal: 43,094 sq km
water: 700 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
land: 42,394 sq km
Population5,368,854 (July 2002 est.)
ReligionEvangelical Lutheran 95%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, Muslim 2%
Government typeconstitutional monarchy
CapitalCopenhagen
CurrencyDanish krone (DKK)

Da-map.gif

Geography

Location 
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaelland and Fyn)
Geographic coordinates 
56 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references 
Europe
Area 
total: 43,094 sq km
water: 700 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
land: 42,394 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts
Land boundaries 
total: 68 km
border countries: Germany 68 km
Coastline 
7,314 km
Maritime claims 
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate 
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain 
low and flat to gently rolling plains
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Yding Skovhoej 173 m
Natural resources 
petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, stone, gravel and sand
Land use 
arable land: 55.74%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 44.07% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
4,760 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
Environment - current issues 
air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note 
controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

People

Population 
5,368,854 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 18.7% (male 514,589; female 488,121)
15-64 years: 66.4% (male 1,806,722; female 1,760,149)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 334,599; female 464,674) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
0.29% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
11.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
10.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
2.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
4.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 76.91 years
female: 79.67 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.3 years
Total fertility rate 
1.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.17% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
4,300 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish
Ethnic groups 
Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali
Religions 
Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, Muslim 2%
Languages 
Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local short form: Danmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
Government type 
constitutional monarchy
Capital 
Copenhagen
Administrative divisions 
metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 2 boroughs* (amtskommuner, singular - amtskomunes); Arhus, Bornholm, Fredericksberg*, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavns*, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg
note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part of the Kingdom of Denmark and are self-governing overseas administrative divisions
Independence 
first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy
National holiday 
none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June is generally viewed as the National Day
Constitution 
1849 was the original constitution; there was a major overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state
Legal system 
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 May 1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN (since 27 November 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
Legislative branch 
unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 November 2001 (next to be held by November 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party 56, Social Democrats 52, Danish People's Party 22, Conservative Party 16, Socialist People's Party 12, Social Liberal Party 9, Christian People's Party 4, Unity List 4; note - does not include the 2 seats from Greenland and the 2 seats from the Faroe Islands
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch for life)
Political parties and leaders 
Center Democratic Party [Mimi JAKOBSEN]; Christian People's Party [Jann SJURSEN]; Conservative Party (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party) [Bendt BENDTSEN]; Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Social Democratic Party [Mogens LYKKETOFT]; Social Liberal Party (sometimes called the Radical Left) [Marianne JELVED, leader; Johannes LEBECH, chairman]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN]; Red-Green Unity List (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Denmark, Socialist Workers' Party) [collective leadership]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Ulrik Andreas FEDERSPIEL
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Stuart BERNSTEIN
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716
telephone: [45] 35 55 31 44
FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23
Flag description 
red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

Economy

Economy - overview 
This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has a comfortable balance of payments surplus. Government objectives include streamlining the bureaucracy and further privatization of state assets. The government has been successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency) of the European Monetary Union (EMU), but Denmark has decided not to join the 12 other EU members in the euro; even so, the Danish Krone remains pegged to the euro. Given the sluggish state of the world economy, growth in 2003 likely will be only moderately higher than in 2002.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $155.5 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
1.8% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $29,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 3%
industry: 26%
services: 71% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 24% (2000 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
25 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
2.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force 
2.856 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
services 79%, industry 17%, agriculture 4% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 
5.1% (2002)
Budget 
revenues: $52.9 billion
expenditures: $51.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (2001 est.)
Industries 
food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products, shipbuilding, windmills
Industrial production growth rate 
1.4% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production 
35.792 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 84%
hydro: 0%
other: 16% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
33.925 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
7.679 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
8.318 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish
Exports 
$56.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities 
machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, chemicals, furniture, ships, windmills
Exports - partners 
EU 64.7% (Germany 19.6%, Sweden 11.8%, UK 9.5%, France 5.1%, Netherlands 4.5%), US 6.9%, Norway 5.5% (2001)
Imports 
$47.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners 
EU 69.9% (Germany 21.9%, Sweden 12.1%, UK 7.5%, Netherlands 7.1%, France 5.7%, Italy 4.5%), US 4.2% (2001)
Debt - external 
$21.7 billion (2000)
Economic aid - donor 
ODA, $1.63 billion (1999)
Currency 
Danish krone (DKK)
Currency code 
DKK
Exchange rates 
Danish kroner per US dollar - 8.418 (January 2002), 8.323 (2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997); note - the Danes rejected the euro in a 28 September 2000 referendum
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
4.785 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
1,444,016 (1997)
Telephone system 
general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems
international: 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 2, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 
6.02 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
26 (plus 51 repeaters) (1998)
Televisions 
3.121 million (1997)
Internet country code 
.dk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
13 (2000)
Internet users 
3.37 million (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 2,859 km (508 km privately owned and operated)
standard gauge: 2,859 km 1.435-m gauge (600 km electrified; 760 km double-track) (1998 est.)
Highways 
total: 71,474 km
paved: 71,474 km (including 880 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Waterways 
417 km
Pipelines 
crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km
Ports and harbors 
Abenra, Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Frederikshavn, Hirtshals, Kolding, Odense, Roenne (Bornholm), Vejle
Merchant marine 
total: 301 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,258,959 GRT/8,143,520 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Greenland 1, Indonesia 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 9, United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 105, chemical tanker 26, container 72, liquefied gas 20, livestock carrier 5, petroleum tanker 25, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 16, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 3
Airports 
116 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 76
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 71 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard
Military manpower - military age 
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 1,287,168 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 1,099,900 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 29,212 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$2.47 billion (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
1.4% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); dispute with Iceland over the Faroe Islands' fisheries median line boundary within 200 NM; disputes with Iceland, the UK, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM; Faroese are considering proposals for full independence