Sooner or later, some travelers will encounter an emergency while abroad. Dealing with a serious injury, illness, an assault, or even just running out of funds is never a plesant situation. However a little preparation beforehand can help you better prepare and cope with the situations life throws at you.
Health insurance Carry your insurance card with you. Inquiry about what coverage you have overseas. In some countries medical costs are very low. However, many overseas hospitals will insist on having payment for services before providing (or continuing) medical care. Having an insurance card may show the hospital that you have sufficient resources to provide medical care, even if you have no money on hand.
Medevac insurance Medevac means "Medical Evacuation". This is the process of chartering a special jet with medical personnel to bring you back from wherever you are to the nearest country with decent medical care or your home country, where medical care may be better and where your friends and family can be near. The price of this can be completely ludicrous if you're crossing oceans: $500,000 is not uncommon, and many insurers recommend having coverage of up to one million. Seperate medevac policies are a good idea, particularly if you are going to spend a long time abroad.
Important phone numbers There is no substitute for knowing the emergency phone numbers of the country you are in. Carry in your wallet the local phone numbers for emergency services, such as ambulance or police. Also carry the phone number of your country's embassy and your credit card issuer. On GSM phones, the number 112 is guaranteed to connect to emergency services, no matter what country you're in. In a pinch, you can also try 911, which many countries forward to the local number.
Carry money wisely and in multiple forms Carrying all your money in one wallet can wreck havoc on your trip if the wallet is lost of stolen. Spread your money out both on your person and in your bags. Furthermore, try to have multiple financial resources available. For example, a budget traveller might take a supply of cash for most ordinary purchases, keep an ATM or debit card for cash withdrawls, and carry a credit card or two for emergencies or to buy airline tickets. Each of these (cash, credit cards, ATM card) can themselves be a seperate means of getting money. Keep them in safe places, but split between your bags and your person.
Know the lingo Be able to say, "I need help, Please call police" in the local language (or carry a card with the words in local script).
Know yourself, know your locale Emergency response standards and medical care vary enormously around the world. Be realistic on what you can handle. In dangerous countries, such as war zones, know where it is safe to get help.
First Responders In the event of an sudden injury or assault, try to summon help from any way you can. If you are able to, call the emergency services number on your own. In the event of a trauma injury, get to any hospital ASAP. You can always transfer hospitals later once your condition has stabilized
If your condition is stable and you have some time, make a wise choice as to which hospital to go to. Call your country's Embassy or Consulate and inquire about which hospital the Embassy recommends or its staff use. Even in third world countries with poor health care often have a handful of hospitals that are up to international standards. Find out where they are.
Notify your family as soon as possible.
Assaults and robberies
Report the crime to the police. In third world countries where you are unsure of the reliability of local police, report the situation first to your Embassy or Consulate, which may be able to assist you in notifying the police, as well as assist if you need help in notifying your family.
What your embassy can do
The quick answer is "much less than you'd expect" — in particular, they will never pay a single cent of any costs caused by the emergency — but their assistance can still be invaluable. These services can also be provided by consulates and associated countries (eg. Commonwealth embassies for Commonwealth citizens, EU embassies for EU citizens).
If you're arrested, you have a right to consular assistance. This means that the embassy can arrange a lawyer, a translator and contact your family. You'll have to pay for at least the first two. The embassy cannot pay fines or get you out of jail.
If you're the victim of a crime, your embassy can put you in touch with lawyers, translators and the police. They will not pay any expenses.
If you lose your passport, your embassy can make a new one for you, often very quickly. Fees will apply.
If you lose all your money, your embassy will, in extreme cases, arrange transportation back home. This is a last resort (they'll try to contact friends/relatives and have them wire money first) and you'll have to pay the costs with interest when you get back.
If you're hospitalized, the embassy can notify insurers or relatives. They cannot pay the bills on your behalf.
If you die, the embassy will confirm your identity, contact next of kin and collect paperwork. They cannot pay for expenses such as funerals or transporting the body.