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{{pagebanner|Czech Republic Banner.jpg}}{{quickbar
|image=Ceske Budejovice.jpg
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| image=České Budějovice - náměstí z Černé veže.jpg
| location=LocationCzechRepublic.png
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| caption=Přemysl Otakar II Square in [[České Budějovice]]
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| location=Czech Republic in its region.svg
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| flag=Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
 
| capital=[[Prague]]
 
| capital=[[Prague]]
 
| government=parliamentary democracy
 
| government=parliamentary democracy
| currency=Czech crown (CZK) - "koruna"
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| currency=Koruna (CZK)
 
| area=''total:'' 78,866 km²  
 
| area=''total:'' 78,866 km²  
| population=10,235,455 (July 2006 est.)
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| population=10,553,443 (2015 est.)
| language=[[Czech phrasebook|Czech]](official), [[Slovak phrasebook|Slovak]]
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| language=[[Czech phrasebook|Czech]]
| religion=agnostic and atheist 59%, Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%  
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| religion=undeclared 45.2% <br> atheist 34.2% <br> Roman Catholic 10.3% <br> Protestant 0.9% <br> other 2.7% <br> unspecified 6.7%  
 
| electricity=230V/50Hz (European plug)
 
| electricity=230V/50Hz (European plug)
 
| callingcode=420
 
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| timezone=UTC + 1 (winter time) UTC+2 (summer time)
 
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The [http://www.czechtourism.com '''Czech Republic'''] or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechia#Etymology '''Czechia'''] is a small landlocked country in [[Central Europe]], situated south-east of [[Germany]] and bordering [[Austria]] to the south, [[Poland]] to the north and [[Slovakia]] to the south-east.
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The [http://www.czechtourism.com '''Czech Republic'''] (or informally [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechia#Etymology '''Czechia''']) is a small landlocked country in [[Central Europe]], situated southeast of [[Germany]] and bordering [[Austria]] to the south, [[Poland]] to the north and [[Slovakia]] to the southeast.
  
 
==Understand==
 
==Understand==
The Czech Republic is not a large country but has a rich and eventful history. From time immemorial Czechs, Germans, Jews and Slovaks, as well as Italian stonemasons and stucco workers, French tradesmen and deserters from Napoleon’s army have all lived and worked here, all influencing one another. For centuries they jointly cultivated their land, creating works that still command our respect and admiration today. It is thanks to their inventiveness and skill that this small country is graced with hundreds of ancient castles, monasteries and stately mansions, and even entire towns that give the impression of being comprehensive artifacts. The Czech Republic contains a vast of amount of architectural treasure and has beautiful forests and mountains to match.
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The Czech Republic is not a geographically large country, but it has a rich and eventful history. From time immemorial, Czechs, Germans, Jews and Slovaks, as well as Italian stonemasons and stucco workers, French tradesmen and deserters from Napoleon’s army, have all lived and worked here, all influencing one another. For centuries they jointly cultivated their land, creating works that still command respect and admiration today. It is thanks to their inventiveness and skill that this small country is graced with hundreds of ancient castles, monasteries and stately mansions, and even entire towns that give the impression of being comprehensive artifacts. The Czech Republic contains a vast amount of architectural treasure, as well as beautiful forests and mountains to match.
  
 
===History===
 
===History===
The Czech region was inhabited by Celtic tribe ''Boii'' for the first 4 centuries of the first millennium. The Celts gave way to post-Roman Germanic tribes. Later, Slavs arrived and, in the 9th century they founded the Great Moravian Empire, stretching from Germany to Ukraine. After fall of Great Moravia the Bohemian Kingdom was formed, creating a territorial unit almost identical to the modern Czechia. The rise of the Habsburgs led to Czechia becoming a part of the Austrian Empire, and later Austria-Hungary, and a massive influx of German immigrants.
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The contemporary Czech lands were originally inhabited by the Boii, a Celtic tribe for the first four centuries of the common era. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Celts gave way to Germanic tribes. Another four centuries later, Slavs arrived from the east, and by the 9th century, had established the Great Moravian Empire, stretching from modern-day Germany to [[Ukraine]]. After the fall of Great Moravia, the Lands of the Bohemian Crown was formed, whose borders for most of its history remain nearly identical to contemporary Czech borders. From the 11th to the 14th century, massive German colonization, known in German as the ''Ostsiedlung'', occurred in the then-underpopulated borders of the kingdom.  
  
After the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged together to form the new nation of Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Hungarians. A poor relationship with the German minority (20% of the overall population) was a particular problem that was capitalized on by Hitler and used as "rationale" for the dismemberment of the nation before the outbreak of WWII. The country was annexed and brutally occupied by Germany during the war.
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Under the reign of Emperor Charles IV in the second half of the 14th century, the Bohemian Kingdom became the center of the Holy Roman Empire, with [[Prague]] as its capital, ushering in the kingdom's golden era. Under his enlightened and largely peaceful reign, royal investment into Czech institutions, culture, education, and infrastructure received royal patronage. Among some of those gifted with Charles IV's personal and financial support were Prague's Charles Bridge, Charles University, its New Town, St. Vitus Cathedral, Karlštejn Castle, and the foundation of the city of [[Karlovy Vary]]. Bohemia's golden era came to an end with Charles' death in 1378.  
  
After World War II, Czechoslovakia expelled most of its Germans by force and many of the ethnic Hungarians under direction of the Potsdam Conference. However, the nation was very blessed in the fact that it emerged from the war more or less physically intact as it avoided the fate of the massive air bombardments and invasions that levelled most of the historic neighbouring cities in Germany, Austria, Poland and Belarus. The country fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and remained so by force until 1989.  
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Following Charles' death, the kingdom slowly slid into religious anarchy. The rise of Jan Hus and his Hussite followers in the 1410s violently rejected the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church, sparking a series of Hussite Wars that lasted until the 1430s, placing Bohemian proto-Protestant peasants and lords against Catholic armies. The rise of the Habsburgs to the south led to the Bohemian Kingdom becoming absorbed into the Austrian Empire beginning in the 1520s. In 1618, the Bohemian Kingdom revolted against their Catholic Habsburg overlords, sparking the tumultuous Thirty Years' War. Defeated and humiliated at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, the Czechs endured a strong Habsburg imperial occupation and forced catholicization for decades to come. Despite the occupation, the Czech lands prospered under Austria, with Baroque palaces and buildings spreading across the kingdom throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The Czech lands became one of the first industrialize by the 19th century, rising to one of the most economically advanced parts of the empire. At the same time, the Czech National Revival spurred Czech nationalist and pan-Slavic feelings among the populace, which resulted in a backlash against Austrian germanization. 
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[[Image:Night view of the Castle and Charles Bridge, Prague - 8034.jpg|thumb|Prague Castle and the Charles Bridge.]]Shortly before the end of World War I and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the closely-related Slavic nations of Czechs and Slovaks declared their independence, merging together to form the new state of Czechoslovakia on 28 October 1918. With Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, a highly-esteemed philosopher and sociologist (who remains well-regarded to the current day) as head of state, the First Republic—as it became known—managed to remain as the only democracy in Central Europe throughout the 1920s and '30s and acted as an island of stability, facing off threats from a revanchist [[Poland]] to the north, politically unstable [[Austria]] and [[Germany|Weimar Germany]] to the south and west, and an irredentist [[Hungary]] to the southeast. The First Republic culturally and economically flourished during this period, and is often considered as another golden era by many modern Czechs. However, the state's strong centralization resulted in a poor relationship with its Sudeten German population, who accounted for 20% of the overall population—more than the state's total amount of Slovaks—as well as with its smaller Hungarian and Polish minorities. Combined with the rise of fascism and ethnic nationalism, this situation was exploited by Hitler, Hungary's Horthy and Poland's Śmigły-Rydz as a pretext to annex large swaths of Czechoslovakia in 1938 during the Sudetenland Crisis, effectively ending the First Republic. A year later in March 1939, Nazi Germany occupied the entirety of the Czech lands and declared it a protectorate of the Third Reich, while Slovakia was forced to secede as a puppet state. This resulted in a brutal occupation that lasted until 1945, marked by mass arrests, torture, and the genocide of much of Czechoslovakia's Jewish and Romani population.  
  
In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face". Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression and conservatism within the party ranks. In November 1989, the Communist government was deposed in a peaceful ''Velvet Revolution''.
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After World War II, the newly-reunited Czechoslovakia expelled nearly the entirety of its German population, as well as tens of thousands of Hungarians by force with the Beneš Decrees, an event that remains controversial to this day. The country emerged from the war more or less intact as it avoided the fate of the massive air bombardments and pitched battles that reduced its neighbouring states to ruins. However, the country fell within the Soviet sphere of influence, with the Czechoslovak Communist Party staging a coup in February 1948, toppling its democratic government.  
  
On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and [[Slovakia]]. Now a member of NATO (since 1999) and EU (since 2004), the Czech Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks.
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At the beginning of the Stalinist 1950s, massive and numerous Soviet-inspired show trials, purging “subversive conspiratorial elements” took place; the most commonly known was the death sentence of anti-fascist social democrat Milada Horáková. Following Stalin's death and the subsequent de-Stalinization of the country, more moderate forces gradually took control of the Communist Party, which included party leader Alexander Dubček, who wished to liberalize Czechoslovakia and create “socialism with a human face.” In a brief period known as the Prague Spring (''Pražské jaro''), travel, media and speech restrictions were greatly loosened, and the country would be federalized. By August 1968, a Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion force militarily deposed Czechoslovakia's liberal leadership and ended its new freedoms. Mass anti-Soviet demonstrations in the following year ushered in the Normalization era (''Normalizace''), a period of harsh repression and conservatism. In November 1989, in the wake of elections in [[Poland]] and the collapse of the Berlin Wall nearby in [[Germany]], the totalitarian lid could no longer be held. Growing popular discontent and the brutal actions of the state police spilled over into mass demonstrations that helped topple the communists peacefully, in an event known as the Velvet Revolution. A democratic federal government was quickly installed.
  
The Czech flag (see above) is the same one formerly used by Czechoslovakia, having been readopted in 1993.
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At the stroke of midnight on 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved upon an agreement between Czech bureaucrats and Slovak nationalists in an event known as the Velvet Divorce, becoming the new states of the Czech Republic and [[Slovakia]]. Joining NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004, the contemporary Czech Republic is a stable democratic parliamentary republic.  
  
===Habits and Customs===
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The Czech flag is the same one formerly used by Czechoslovakia, originally adopted in 1920.
*'''Easter''' (Velikonoce): On Easter Monday it is customary for guys to (slightly) spank girls and women with a wicker stick with colourful ribbons at the end (''pomlázka''), in the hope that the girls and women will in turn give them coloured eggs, candy or drinks. Obviously tourists are often (but not always) exempt.  
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*'''Witch Burning''' (Pálení čarodějnic) or '''Night of Witches''' (Čarodějnice): On the last April evening, bonfires are lit around the country. "Witch" figurines, as a symbol of evil, are made and burned in the fire. This is the reinterpretation of the old pagan festival (Beltane) influenced by Christian inquisition. Because probably most Czechs would prefer the witches over the inquisitors, in many fires no witches are burnt, and the feast is celebrated in a more original pagan way - witches are those who should celebrate the night, not be burnt. It doesn't stop jokes like "Honey, hide or you will be burnt tonight!".
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===Holidays===
*'''Last Ringing''' (Poslední zvonění) is a traditional celebration of the end of the last year at a high school. It is celebrated usually in late April or early May, a week or more before the final exams (maturita) take place (the time may be different in different schools). Students get a free day and usually do silly things in silly costumes. They go to the streets and collect money from people passing by, sometimes threatening them with water, writing on their faces with a lipstick or spraying them with perfume. The collected money is used at a party after the exams.
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[[Image:Fájl- Karlovy Vary.jpg|thumb|Spas and apartments in [[Karlovy Vary]].]]
*'''Feast of St. Mikuláš (St. Nicolaus, Santa Claus), Dec. 5''': On this day, St. Mikuláš roams about with his consorts, an angel and a devil. He gives small presents and candy to children to reward them for their good behaviour throughout the year, while the devil chastises children for their wrongdoings over the course of the year and gives them potatoes, coal (or sometimes spankings) as a punishment. Old Town Square in Prague is a great place to watch the festivities.
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*'''Easter''' (''Velikonoce''), Easter Monday: It is customary for guys to (slightly) spank girls and women with a wicker stick with colourful ribbons at the end (''pomlázka'') to grant them fertility and good health, and in return girls and women will give the men coloured eggs, candy or drinks. In areas close to the Slovak border in Moravia, it also common to douse women with cold water. Obviously tourists are often (but not always) exempt.  
*'''Christmas''' (Vánoce): Czechs begin celebrating this holiday on Christmas Eve and continue to celebrate until the 26th (the Feast of Stephen). Presents are placed under a Christmas tree (by ''Ježíšek'' (The Baby Jesus) as little children believe) and taken after dinner on Christmas Eve. Potato salad and carp is a traditional Christmas meal, and for this reason one can see live carp being sold out of huge tanks throughout the streets of Czech cities and towns just before Christmas.
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*'''Witch Burning''' (''Pálení čarodějnic'') or '''Night of Witches''' (''Čarodějnice''), 30 April. On the last April evening, bonfires are lit around the country. "Witch" effigies, as a symbol of evil, are made and burned in the fire. This is the reinterpretation of the old pagan festival Beltane, influenced by the Catholic inquisition. As some Czechs prefer witches over the inquisitors, in many fires no witches are burnt, and the feast is celebrated in a more original pagan way - witches are those who should celebrate the night, not be burnt. It doesn't stop jokes like "Honey, hide or you will be burnt tonight!". This is a cultural holiday, and not a public one. 
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*'''May Day''' (''Svátek práce''), 1 May: Celebration of workers rights and struggles. Once an enormous affair during communism, since the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, May Day is now largely a quiet day of rest and barbeques, with only some small political gatherings by social democrats or unrepentant communists. A public holiday with most businesses closed. 
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*'''Victory Day''' (''Den vítězství''), 8 May: Commemoration of the defeat of Nazi Germany. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
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*'''Last Ringing''' (''Poslední zvonění''), late April to mid May: Traditional celebration of the end of the last year at high school, usually a week or more before ''maturita'' (the final exam) takes place. Students get a free day and usually do silly things in costumes, sometimes going into the streets to collect money from people passing by, sometimes threatening them with water, writing on their faces with lipstick, or spraying them with perfume. The collected money is used for party after the exams.
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*'''St. Cyril and St. Methodius Day''' (''Den slovanských věrozvěstů Cyrila a Metoděje''), 5 July: Celebration of the Christian saints' arrival in the Slavic lands of Great Moravia. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
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*'''Jan Hus Day''' (''Den upálení mistra Jana Husa''), 6 July: Celebration of pre-Martin Luther Protestant religious agitator Jan Hus. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
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[[Image:opa.JPG|thumb|The Czech Silesian city of [[Opava]] during Christmas.]]
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* '''Czechoslovak Independence Day''' (''Den vzniku samostatného československého státu''), 28 October: Commemoration of Czechoslovakia's independence declaration from the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, marked usually by political speeches and flag displays. A public holiday with many businesses closed.
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*'''Day of Struggle for Freedom and Democracy''' (''Den boje za svobodu a demokracii''), 17 November: Commemoration of the start of the 1989 Velvet Revolution and the collapse of the Czechoslovak communist state, marked normally by political speeches and marches. A public holiday with most businesses closed.  
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*'''Feast of St. Mikuláš (St. Nicolaus, Santa Claus)''', 5 December: St. Mikuláš roams about with his consorts, an angel and a devil across the country. Mikuláš gives small presents and candy to children to reward good behaviour, while the devil chastises children for wrongdoings over the course of the year and gives them potatoes, coal (or sometimes spankings) as a punishment. Old Town Square in Prague is a great place to watch the festivities. Strictly a cultural holiday.  
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*'''Christmas''' (''Vánoce''), 24-25 December: Czechs begin celebrating this holiday on Christmas Eve and continue to celebrate until the 26th (the Feast of Stephen). Presents are placed under a Christmas tree by ''Ježíšek'' (Baby Jesus), as little children believe, and taken after dinner on Christmas Eve. Potato salad with carp is the traditional Christmas meal, and for this reason one can see live carp being sold out of huge tanks throughout the streets of Czech cities and towns just before Christmas.
  
 
===Historic regions===
 
===Historic regions===
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====Bohemia====
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Although the modern adjective ''bohemian'' refers to Bohemia, its usage was based on a broad stereotype and also a poor grasp of geography, so don't expect the Bohemians you meet to be nomadic or anti-conventional artistic/literary ''bohemians'', or to see anything out of Puccini's "La Bohème". And no, ''Bohemian Rhapsody'' (its lyrics sprinkled with Italian and Arabic) is not a local anthem!
  
===Bohemia====
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The words ''Bohemia'' and ''Bohemian'' originate from the Boii Celtic tribe. The term ''Bohemian'' had ended up meaning more or less ''Czech'' by the end of the 19th century with the awakening of pan-Slavic nationalism. However, it was also used to refer to any inhabitant of Bohemia, including the vast number of Sudeten Germans that used to inhabit the region until 1945. Bohemia (''Čechy'') today strictly refers to the larger western half of the country, and is its political, economic and population centre.
 
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Although the modern adjective ''bohemian'' refers to Bohemia, that usage was based on a broad stereotype and also a poor grasp of geography, so don't expect the Bohemians you meet to be nomadic or anti-conventional artistic/literary ''bohemians'', or to see anything out of Puccini's "La Bohème".  And no, ''Bohemian Rhapsody'' (its lyrics sprinkled with Italian and Arabic) is not a local anthem!
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So the word Bohemia/Bohemian came from the name of the Celtic tribe Boii. The term ''Bohemian'' had ended up meaning more or less ''Czech'' by the end of the 19th Century with the awakening of Slavic nationalism. However, it was also used to refer to any inhabitant of Bohemia, including the vast number of Germans that used to inhabit the region until the end months of WWII.
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====Moravia and Czech Silesia====
 
====Moravia and Czech Silesia====
Moravia, along with Bohemia (the other half of the Czech Republic), was among the first regions of continental Europe to undergo the Industrial Revolution; however it did not experience the mass urbanisation of Bohemia. The region is therefore still home to gorgeous vineyards, orchards, fields full of "organic" produce, and filled with scenic mountain vistas and cute little villages. Even the regional capital, Brno, is renowned for its small town charm. There is an extremely extensive rail system, and the region contains historic factories such as Zbrojovka [[Brno]] (weapons) and the Baťa factory in [[Zlín]] (shoes).  
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[[Image:ArionOlomouc.JPG|thumb|[[Olomouc]], the historic capital of Moravia.]]
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Moravia, along with Bohemia, was among the first regions of continental Europe to undergo the Industrial Revolution; however it did not experience mass urbanisation as in Bohemia. The region is therefore still home to gorgeous vineyards, orchards, fields full of "organic" produce, and filled with scenic mountain vistas and little villages. The region's strategic location at the Moravian Gate (a pass through the imposing mountain ranges of Central Europe) has led to a confluence of a great amount of history. Even the regional capital, [[Brno]], is renowned for its small town charm. There is an extremely extensive rail system, and the region contains historic factories such as Zbrojovka (weapons) in Brno and Baťa in [[Zlín]] (shoes). Culturally, Moravians prefer a slower pace of life than Bohemians, with some Moravians confessing to have stronger cultural affinities with [[Slovakia]] than with Bohemia.  
  
The dialects of Czech spoken in Moravia are slightly different from those spoken in Bohemia, particularly in Prague. Moravians pride themselves on their dialect and learning a few stereotypical regionalisms may go down well (or terribly, depending on just what it is you think you're saying and what you end up saying).
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The dialects of Czech spoken in Moravia are slightly different from those spoken in Bohemia, particularly in Prague. Moravians pride themselves on their dialect and learning a few stereotypical regionalisms will go down well with the locals (for example, for the word "tram," say ''šalina'' instead of the Bohemian ''tramvaj'').
  
The region's strategic location at the Moravian Gate (a pass through the imposing mountain ranges of Central Europe) has led to a confluence of a great amount of history.
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Czech Silesia to the very east is often regarded as the heavy industrial center of the republic, known extensively for its coal mines and steel mills, with [[Ostrava]] as its largest city and cultural center, and [[Opava]] as its historical capital. The region is known for its extensive cross-border cultural connections with [[Silesian Voivodeship|Polish Silesia]], whose industrial economy and historical experience is similar. There is also a fairly significant Polish minority near the border, although they are fully integrated into mainstream Czech society.  
  
[[Opava]] is a former capital of Silesia.
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Silesian dialects in Czech are also different from those found elsewhere in country, often characterized as being short, gruff, and to the point.  
  
 
==Regions==
 
==Regions==
 
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The Czech Republic has 14 political regions (''kraj'') which can be grouped together into eight general regions:
The Czech Republic has 14 political regions which can be grouped in eight historical regions:
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{{Regionlist
 
{{Regionlist
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| regionmap=Czech-regions.png
 
| regionmap=Czech-regions.png
 
| regionmaptext=Regions of Czech Republic
 
| regionmaptext=Regions of Czech Republic
| regionmapsize=450px
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| regionmapsize=440px
  
 
| region1name=[[Central Bohemia]]
 
| region1name=[[Central Bohemia]]
 
| region1color=#6698bb
 
| region1color=#6698bb
| region1items=
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| region1items=[[Prague]], [[Kutná Hora]], [[Karlštejn]]
| region1description=The central part of the Czech Republic with the capital [[Prague]].
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| region1description=The metropolitan centre of the Czech Republic with its capital city, known for its river valleys, extinct volcanic mounds, and green pastures.
  
 
| region2name=[[West Bohemia]]
 
| region2name=[[West Bohemia]]
 
| region2color=#c5995c
 
| region2color=#c5995c
| region2items=
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| region2items=[[Pilsen]], [[Karlovy Vary]], [[Mariánské Lázně]], [[Františkovy Lázně]]
| region2description=
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| region2description=A forested and mountainous region, home of the pilsner beer, numerous spas towns, and the Bohemian Forest (''Šumava'').
  
 
| region3name=[[North Bohemia]]
 
| region3name=[[North Bohemia]]
 
| region3color=#608860
 
| region3color=#608860
| region3items=
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| region3items=[[Liberec]], [[Ústí nad Labem]], [[Děčín]], [[Bohemian Paradise]]
| region3description=
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| region3description=A mountainous and coal mining region with a strong industrial past, and the location of the Ore Mountains (''Krušné hory'') and parts of the Giant Mountains (''Krkonoše''). Site to numerous winter resorts.
  
 
| region4name=[[East Bohemia]]
 
| region4name=[[East Bohemia]]
 
| region4color=#c8b7b7
 
| region4color=#c8b7b7
| region4items=
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| region4items=[[Hradec Králové]], [[Pardubice]], [[Litomyšl]], [[Špindlerův Mlýn]]
| region4description=
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| region4description=Main location of the highly-popular Giant Mountains (''Krkonoše'') and the Czech Republic's highest peak, Sněžka.
  
 
| region5name=[[South Bohemia]]
 
| region5name=[[South Bohemia]]
 
| region5color=#dde58b
 
| region5color=#dde58b
| region5items=
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| region5items=[[České Budějovice]], [[Český Krumlov]], [[Třeboň]]
| region5description=
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| region5description=Hilly, forested landscapes and the source of the Vltava River. A highly popular area for rafters in the summer.
  
 
| region6name=[[Bohemian-Moravian Highlands]]
 
| region6name=[[Bohemian-Moravian Highlands]]
 
| region6color=#608860
 
| region6color=#608860
| region6items=
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| region6items=[[Telč]], [[Třebíč]], [[Žďár nad Sázavou]]
| region6description=
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| region6description=A very green and uneven region, considered the geographic heart of the republic
  
 
| region7name=[[North Moravia]]
 
| region7name=[[North Moravia]]
 
| region7color=#a4c28d
 
| region7color=#a4c28d
| region7items=
+
| region7items=[[Ostrava]], [[Olomouc]], [[Opava]], [[Litovel]]
| region7description=
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| region7description=A highly industrial region which includes Czech Silesia, although dotted with beautiful hills and mountains.
  
 
| region8name=[[South Moravia]]
 
| region8name=[[South Moravia]]
 
| region8color=#b383b3
 
| region8color=#b383b3
| region8items=
+
| region8items=[[Brno]], [[Znojmo]], [[Zlín]], [[Lednice-Valtice]]
| region8description=
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| region8description=Well-known for its rural, slow pace of life, warm summers, rolling vineyards, and its potent plum brandy (''slivovice'').
  
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
==Cities==
 
==Cities==
[[Image:Kvary.JPG|thumb|Karlovy Vary]]
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[[Image:Catedral de San Pedro y San Pablo - Brno - República Checa (7139907551).jpg|thumb|The Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul is a prominent site in [[Brno]], the country's second largest city.]]
[[Image:ArionOlomouc.JPG|thumb|Olomouc Square at dusk]]
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*[[Prague]] (''Praha'') — the country's capital and largest city, and one of Europe's premier tourist destinations. Its large and beautiful historical core is listed as a [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/616 UNESCO World Heritage Site].
[[Image:opa.JPG|thumb|Opava]]
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*[[Brno]] — the largest city in Moravia and the republic's second city, with several excellent museums, an accessible old town, a stunning cathedral, and the annual Grand Prix.
 
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*[[České Budějovice]] – known also as Budweis, an attractive city in [[South Bohemia]] with an impressive old town square.
These are at least '''nine''' interesting cities selected to represent variety of Czech urban areas. For other exciting destinations, see the individual regions.  
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*[[Český Krumlov]] — a stunning medieval and Renaissance town in [[South Bohemia]], home to the country's second largest palace, and is a [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/617 UNESCO World Heritage Site].
 
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*[[Karlovy Vary]] — a historic spa resort and the republic's largest, especially popular with German and Russian tourists, and the site of the country's most prestigious film festival.
*[[Prague]] — the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic with a large and beautiful historic centre
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*[[Kutná Hora]] — a historical medieval town in [[Central Bohemia]], home to St. Barbara's Church, old silver mines, and the Sedlec Ossuary, decorated with tens of thousands of human remains. Its attractions are listed as a [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/732 UNESCO World Heritage Site].
*[[Brno]] — largest city in Moravia with several excellent museums, and the annual Moto GP Grand Prix
+
*[[Olomouc]] — a riverside university town with a thousand-year history, and the second largest historical centre in the Czech Republic after Prague.
*[[Český Krumlov]] — beautiful old town in South Bohemia with the country's second biggest chateau
+
*[[Ostrava]] — a vibrant and sometimes gritty blue collar city with a strong subculture, and a long history of coal mining and steel production.
*[[Karlovy Vary]] — historic (and biggest Czech) spa resort, especially popular with German and Russian tourist groups
+
*[[Opava]] — the former capital of Silesia.
*[[Kutná Hora]] — historical town with famous St. Barbora cathedral, old silver mines and the Chapel of All Saints, which is decorated with thousands of human bones
+
*[[Pilsen]] (''Plzeň'') — home of the original Pilsner Urquell beer and the Škoda Works, and the largest city in [[West Bohemia]].
*[[Olomouc]] — riverside university town with a 1,000 year history and the second-largest historical centre in the Czech Republic
+
*[[Telč]] — a perfectly preserved Renaissance town centre surrounded by shallow man-made lakes. The town is a [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/621 UNESCO World Heritage Site].
*[[Ostrava]] — a vibrant local subculture and long history of coal mining and heavy industry
+
*[[Opava]] — former capital of Silesia
+
*[[Pilsen]] — home of the original Pilsner Urquell beer, and the largest city in West Bohemia
+
*[[Telč]] — this town has a perfectly preserved Renaissance town centre surrounded by shallow man-made lakes
+
  
 
==Other destinations==
 
==Other destinations==
[[Image:Trosky.JPG|thumb|Trosky Castle]]
+
[[Image:Hrad Trosky, letecký snímek.jpg|thumb|Trosky Castle near the [[Bohemian Paradise]].]]
*[[Bohemian Paradise]]: (''Český Ráj'') A region of towering rock formations and isolated castles located north-east of [[Prague]]. The gateway city of Jičín is an interesting destination in its own right, but Turnov is closer to most of the castles and rock formations. The twin towers of the ruined castle Trosky are a symbol of the area and can be climbed for the views
+
*[[Bohemian Paradise]] (''Český Ráj'') — a region of towering rock formations and isolated castles located north-east of [[Prague]]. The gateway city of Jičín is an interesting destination in its own right, but Turnov is closer to most of the castles and rock formations. The twin towers of the ruined Trosky Castle  are a symbol of the area and can be climbed for the views.
*[[Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou]]: A small town circa 50 km from Jihlava (towards Znojmo) with the Baroque Castle and Church of St. Margaret
+
*[[Dvůr Králové nad Labem]] — a small town 20 km west of Trutnov in [[East Bohemia]] with a large outdoor zoo and safari park.
*[[Karlstejn|Karlštejn Castle and the holy cave monastery]]: Hiking trip to the famous castle as well as an off the beaten track monastery
+
*[[Františkovy Lázně]] — a traditional spa town in [[West Bohemia]].
*[[Krkonose|Krkonoše]]: (''Giant Mountains'') The highest mountains in the Czech Republic along the Polish border. Most popular Czech skiing resorts are situated here, such as Špindlerův Mlýn, however considered overpriced by locals...
+
*[[Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou]] — a small town 50 km south of Jihlava, home to Jaroměřice Castle, known as the Moravian [[Versailles]], and the Church of St. Margaret
 +
*[[Karlštejn|Karlštejn Castle and St. John Monastery]] — an exquisite medieval castle dating to Charles IV, as well as an off the beaten track monastery.
 +
*[[Krkonose|Krkonoše]] (''Giant Mountains'') — the highest mountains in the Czech Republic along the Polish border, home to the most popular Czech skiing resorts, such as [[Špindlerův Mlýn]], however considered overpriced by locals.
 
[[Image:Litomysl.JPG|thumb|Litomyšl monastery gardens]]
 
[[Image:Litomysl.JPG|thumb|Litomyšl monastery gardens]]
*[[Litomysl|Litomyšl]]: A beautiful small town in East Bohemia. The renaissance main square and chateau are among the Czech Republic’s prettiest and the town has been home to many important and influential artists, including composer Bedřich Smetana, sculptor Olbram Zoubek and painter Josef Váchal. There are two international opera festivals at the chateau each year.
+
*[[Litomysl|Litomyšl]] — a beautiful small town in [[East Bohemia]]. The renaissance main square and castle are among the country's prettiest, and the town has been home to many important and influential artists, including composer Bedřich Smetana, sculptor Olbram Zoubek and painter Josef Váchal. There are two international opera festivals at the castle each year. The castle is a [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/901 UNESCO World Heritage Site].
*[[Mariánské Lázně]]: A spa town in Western Bohemia.
+
*[[Luhačovice]] — one of the best known Moravian spa towns.
*[[Moravian Karst Caves|Moravský Kras]]: Extensive karst area between Brno and Olomouc with the deepest abyss in the country and, in the Punkevní Caves, the opportunity to take a boat ride along an underground river.  
+
*[[Mariánské Lázně]] — a popular spa town in [[West Bohemia]].
*[[Mutenice Wine Region|Mutěnice Wine Region]]: Some of the best vineyards in the Czech Republic and totally off the well beaten tourist path
+
*[[Moravian Karst|Moravský Kras]] — an extensive karst area between [[Brno]] and [[Olomouc]] with the deepest abyss in the country. In its Punkevní Caves, there is an opportunity to take a boat ride along an underground river.  
*[[Nové Město na Moravě]] : Cross country skiing resort. The race of Tour de Ski takes place here.
+
*[[Mutenice Wine Region|Mutěnice Wine Region]] — located in [[South Moravia]], this region contains some of the best vineyards in the Czech Republic and remains off the well beaten tourist path for most tourists.
[[Image:Telc.JPG|thumb|Main Square of Telč]]
+
*[[Nové Město na Moravě]] — a cross country skiing resort, and home of the Tour de Ski race.
*[[Terezín]]: A red-brick baroque fortress 70km north of Prague beside the Ohře river. It was used during WWII as a Jewish ghetto and concentration camp.
+
*[[Terezín]] — a red-brick 18th baroque fortress 70 km north of Prague in [[Central Bohemia]] beside the Ohře river, used during WWII as a Jewish ghetto, transit center, and concentration camp.
[[Image:znojmorotunda.JPG|thumb|Znojmo Rotunda]]
+
*[[Znojmo]] — a medieval town close to the [[Austria|Austrian]] border in [[South Moravia]], site of the Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine, containing the oldest frescoes in the republic.
*[[Znojmo]]: The Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine with the oldest frescoes in the Czech Republic.
+
*[[Chomutov]] — an industrial city with a historical center, a zoo specializing in Eurasian fauna and Kamencové Lake, the only alum lake in the world.
  
 
==Get in==
 
==Get in==
 +
{{infobox|Maximum length of stay on a visa exemption|* As a Schengen state, ''in general'', non-[[EEA]] citizens who qualify for a visa exemption can only stay for a maximum of 90 days in a 180 day period within the Schengen zone (including the Czech Republic) '''''as a whole'''''.
 +
* '''''However''''', for non-EU/EFTA citizens whose home country/territory had an existing '''bi'''lateral visa exemption agreement with the Czech Republic before it fully implemented the Schengen ''acquis'', the maximum length of stay on a visa exemption as stipulated in the bilateral agreement continues to apply, rather than Schengen regulations. In effect, this means that for these non-EU/EFTA citizens, they can spend up to 90 days in the Czech Republic visa-free and are '''not''' limited by the Schengen limit of 90 days in a 180 day period.
 +
* Non-EU/EFTA citizens whose home country/territory had an existing bilateral visa exemption agreement with the Czech Republic before joining the EU are: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Brunei, Costa Rica, Chile, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Japan, Macao SAR, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, San Marino, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Uruguay, the Vatican and Venezuela - but '''not''' Australia, Canada or the United States.
 +
* More information about these bilateral visa exemption agreements is available with the [http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/entry-stay-and-permanent-residence-in-the-czech-republic-third-country-nationals.aspx Ministry of the Interior] (under the 'Conditions for a short-term stay' section) as well as this [http://prague.tv/articles/relocation/schengen article]. [http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/ExpertGroups/aa/XG.AMMONIA.Visa%20waiver%20for%20CZ.doc This document] also provides a comprehensive list of visa waiver agreements with the Czech Republic (some countries have unilateral, rather than '''bi'''lateral visa agreements).}}
 
===Visa requirements===
 
===Visa requirements===
{{infobox|Maximum length of stay on a visa exemption|* As a Schengen signatory state, ''in general'', non-EU/EFTA citizens who qualify for a visa exemption can only stay for a maximum of 90 days in a 180 day period in the Schengen zone (including the Czech Republic) '''''as a whole'''''.
 
* '''''However''''', for non-EU/EFTA citizens whose home country/territory had an existing '''bi'''lateral visa exemption agreement with the Czech Republic before it fully implemented the Schengen acquis, the maximum length of stay on a visa exemption as stipulated in the bilateral agreement continues to apply, rather than the Schengen regulations. In effect, this means that for these non-EU/EFTA citizens, they can spend up to 90 days in the Czech Republic visa-free and are '''not''' limited by the Schengen limit of 90 days in a 180 day period.
 
* Non-EU/EFTA citizens whose home country/territory had an existing bilateral visa exemption agreement with the Czech Republic before joining the EU are: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Brunei, Costa Rica, Chile, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Japan, Macao SAR, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, San Marino, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Uruguay, the Vatican and Venezuela - but '''not''' Australia, Canada or the United States.
 
* More information about these bilateral visa exemption agreements is available at this [http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/entry-stay-and-permanent-residence-in-the-czech-republic-third-country-nationals.aspx webpage of the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic] (under the 'Conditions for a short-term stay' section) as well as this [http://prague.tv/articles/relocation/schengen article]. [http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/ExpertGroups/aa/XG.AMMONIA.Visa%20waiver%20for%20CZ.doc This document] also provides a comprehensive list of visa waiver agreements with the Czech Republic (some countries have unilateral, rather than '''bi'''lateral visa agreements).}}
 
The {{Schengen}}
 
  
 
===Travel document requirements===
 
===Travel document requirements===
 +
For EU, EEA and Swiss nationals, passports and national identity cards only need to be valid for the period of their stay in the Czech Republic. For all other nationals, passports/travel documents must be valid for a period of '''at least 90 days''' beyond the expected length of stay in the Czech Republic or the Schengen Area.
  
For EU, EEA and Swiss nationals, passports and national identity cards only need to be valid for the period of their stay in the Czech Republic.
+
EU nationals whose stay in the Czech Republic will exceed 30 days are required to register within 30 days of their arrival in the Czech Republic with the [http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/contacts-alien-police-alien-police.aspx Foreign Police]; other foreigners must register within 3 working days. In case you stay in a hotel or a similar institution, the accommodation provider should arrange this registration for you.
 
+
For all other nationals, passports/travel documents must be valid for a period of '''at least 90 days''' beyond the expected length of stay in the Czech Republic/Schengen Area.
+
 
+
EU nationals whose stay in the Czech Republic will exceed 30 days are required to register within 30 days on their arrival in the Czech Republic with the Alien and Border Police; other foreigners must register within 3 working days. In case you stay in a hotel or similar institution, the provider of the accommodation should arrange this registration for you.
+
  
 
Children inscribed in their parents´ passports are allowed to travel with their parents up to the age of 15. Once the child has reached the age of 15, a separate passport is necessary.
 
Children inscribed in their parents´ passports are allowed to travel with their parents up to the age of 15. Once the child has reached the age of 15, a separate passport is necessary.
  
Visit [http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/information_for_aliens/general_visa_information/travel_document.html this webpage of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic] for more information on what constitutes a valid and acceptable travel document for the purpose of entering the Czech Republic.
+
The [http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/information_for_aliens/general_visa_information/travel_document.html Ministry of Foreign Affairs] offers more information on what constitutes as a valid and acceptable travel document for the purpose of entering the Czech Republic.
  
 
===By plane===
 
===By plane===
'''Vaclav Havel Airport''' [http://www.prg.aero/en/] &ndash; located about 10 km west of the centre of [[Prague]], (''Praha'' in Czech), is a hub of Czech national carrier &ndash; '''Czech Airlines''' (ČSA), a SkyTeam member.
+
All of Europe's major airlines fly to the Czech Republic. The country's flag carrier is [http://www.csa.cz/ ČSA Czech Airlines], a SkyTeam member. Many of Europe's [[Discount airlines in Europe|low cost airlines]] also fly to the country, including [http://easyjet.com EasyJet], [http://wizzair.com WizzAir], [http://www.ryanair.com Ryanair], [http://www.germanwings.com Germanwings], [http://www.norwegian.no/sw22123.asp Norwegian], [http://www.jet2.com/ Jet2.com], [http://sprintair.eu/en/ SprintAir], [http://www.smartwings.com/en/ SmartWings], and [https://www.airberlin.com/en/site/start.php Air Berlin].
  
Other international airports are in [[Brno]] (with flights to [[London]], [[Moscow]], [[Rome]], [[Bergamo]], [[Eindhoven]] and Prague), [[Ostrava]] (flights to [[Vienna]] and Prague), [[Pardubice]], [[Karlovy Vary]] (flights to [[Moscow]] and [[Uherské Hradiště]]).
+
Apart from direct air connections from many European cities, ČSA and [https://www.koreanair.com/global/en.html Korean Air] operate direct Asian flights to and from [[Seoul]], while [http://www.emirates.com Emirates] and [https://www.flydubai.com/en/ Flydubai] operate from [[Dubai]], [http://www.delta.com/ Delta] with a [[New York]] route, [http://flyrouge.com/ Air Canada Rouge] operates from [[Toronto]], [http://www.aeroflot.ru/ru-en Aeroflot] to [[Moscow]], [https://www.hainanairlines.com/ Hainan Airlines] from [[Beijing]], and [http://global.ceair.com/ China Eastern Airlines] with [[Shanghai]], just to name several major routes.
  
There are several low-cost airlines going to/from Prague (e.g. EasyJet from [[Lyon]]). [[Ryanair]] flies to Brno from [[London]] and [[Bergamo]]. Other nearby airports are [[Nuremberg]] (200 km) and [[Munich]] (320 km) in [[Germany]], [[Vienna]] having a bus shuttle to Brno city (260 km to Prague, 110 km to Brno) in [[Austria]], [[Wroclaw]] (200 km) in [[Poland]] (might be a good idea if you want to go to the [[Giant Mountains]]) and [[Bratislava]] (280 km to Prague, only 120 km to Brno) in [[Slovakia]].
+
[[Prague|Prague’s]] [http://www.prg.aero/en/ Vaclav Havel Airport (PRG)], located about 10km west of the city centre, is the largest and busiest airport in the republic, as well as its most common entrance by airplane. Havel Airport is also the hub of ČSA. Other commericial international airports in the Czech Republic include [http://www.brno-airport.cz/en/ Brno (BRQ)], [http://www.airport-ostrava.cz/en/ Ostrava (OSR)], [http://www.airport-pardubice.cz/ Pardubice (PED)], and [http://www.airport-k-vary.cz/en/ Karlovy Vary (KLV)]. Many of the republic's smaller airports outside of Prague are served by discount or seasonal charter airlines to a variety of destinations around [[Europe]].  
  
====Airport transfers====
+
===By train===
 +
International train service runs from most points in [[Europe]] to [[Prague]], with some offering direct connections. In general, there are direct rail connections (without train changes) with [[Germany]], [[Austria]], [[Poland]], [[Hungary]], [[Belarus]], and [[Russia]].
  
In order to transfer from Ruzyně Airport to the centre of Prague and beyond, you can take:
+
===By car===
*'''PragueTransfer''' [http://www.praguetransfer.net] Minibus service. Prices range from 25€ for a party of 4 to 180€ for a party of 49.
+
[[Image:Zdice, Knihov a D5.jpg|thumb|The D5 motorway links [[Prague]] and [[Pilsen]] to the German autobahn network in [[Bavaria]].]]
*'''AirportShuttle.cz''' [http://www.airportshuttle.cz] Minibus service. Prices range from 9€ for an individual to 3€ per person for a party of 15 (i.e. 45€)
+
Drivers can enter the Czech Republic through a multitude of roads from its neighbouring states. Since the Czech Republic entered into the Schengen Agreement, all checkpoints on its border crossings have been removed, although the border police does from time to time flag down cars or buses for random searches. Due to its Central European location, all of the Czech Republic's neighbors provide good road access to the country.  
*'''Airport Express''' [http://www.prg.aero/en/parking-transport/transport/public-transit/] Czech railways public bus service. 60 CZK per ticket. This bus stops at terminals 1 and 2. It connects to Metro line A ("Dejvická station"), Metro line B ("Náměstí republiky station"), Train Station Masarykovo and to Prague Main Train Station in 35 minutes.
+
*'''Public bus lines''' [http://www.prg.aero/en/parking-transport/transport/public-transit/] Tickets can be purchased at the arrivals halls of terminals 1 and 2, or from ticket machines placed at bus stops for 32 CZK. Tickets can also be purchased directly from the driver for 40 CZK. None of these services are direct to Prague centre but will take you to the nearest Metro station, where you can continue to the city centre. The ticket is valid for 90 minutes in all buses, trams and Metro and needs to be stamped after entering the bus. Routes servicing the airport are:
+
**'''119''' Terminates in 24 minutes at the "Dejvická" Metro Station. Transfer to Metro line A for city.
+
**'''100''' Terminates in western Prague ("Zličín" Metro station) in 18 minutes. Transfer to Metro line B for city.
+
**'''510''' A night service every 30 minutes. Goes to the south of the city, but passes near the centre ("Jiráskovo náměstí" or "I.P.Pavlova" stops) which takes 42 minutes.
+
*'''Taxi''' Airport authorised service. Rates are 28 CZK per kilometre plus 40 CZK per journey.
+
  
 
===By bus===
 
===By bus===
International bus service runs from many cities in [[Europe]] with direct connections from [[Germany]], [[Poland]], [[Netherlands]], [[Slovakia]], [[Switzerland]], [[Austria]] etc. Good service is offered by Eurolines bus company [http://www.bei.cz] and Student Agency [http://jizdenky.studentagency.cz/].  
+
Being in the centre of Europe, the Czech Republic is often a destination for a variety of bus services. Among some of the best-known and reliable international bus companies providing service to the country include:
Cheap tickets from Poland are offered by PolskiBus [http://www.polskibus.com/en].
+
* '''[http://www.eurolines.com/en/ Eurolines]''' — one of the most comprehensive bus companies found throughout Europe, offering travel from nearly every major European state.
 
+
* '''[https://www.regiojet.cz RegioJet]''' — Czech-based carrier, offering affordable and comfortable travel from [[Slovakia]], [[Hungary]], [[Poland]], [[Austria]], [[Germany]], [[Italy]], [[Switzerland]], [[Luxembourg]], [[The Netherlands]], [[France]], [[Belgium]], [[Denmark]], [[Norway]], [[Sweden]], and the [[UK]].
===By train===
+
* '''[http://www.polskibus.com/en/index.htm PolskiBus]''' — Polish-based service, connecting numerous Polish cities with [[Prague]] and [[Brno]].
International train service runs from most points in [[Europe]] with direct connections from [[Slovakia]], [[Poland]], [[Germany]], [[Netherlands]], [[Denmark]], [[Switzerland]], [[Austria]], [[Hungary]], [[Serbia]], [[Ukraine]], [[Belarus]] and [[Russia]]; in summer also from [[Romania]], [[Bulgaria]] and [[Montenegro]].
+
* '''[https://meinfernbus.de/en Flixbus]''' — German-based carrier with a hub in Prague, connecting cities in [[Germany]] and [[Austria]] with locations in the Czech Republic.  
 +
* '''[http://www.luxexpress.eu/en Lux Express]''' — Estonian-based carrier, connecting the [[Baltic states]] and [[Poland]] to [[Prague]].
 +
* '''[http://www.ecolines.net Ecolines]''' — Latvian-based carrier, provides routes from [[Poland]], the [[Baltic states]], and [[Russia]], with stops in [[Prague]] and [[Hradec Králové]].
 +
* '''[https://www.helloe.com/en/ Hellö]'''  — Austrian-based carrier related to rail company ÖBB, with service to [[Prague]], [[Brno]], and [[České Budějovice]].
 +
* '''[http://www.orangeways.com/en Orangeways]''' — Hungarian-based carrier, connecting several Hungarian and Slovak cities to [[Prague]].  
  
 
====From Germany====
 
====From Germany====
 +
German rail carrier '''[http://www.bahn.de Deutsche Bahn]''' operates EC trains  every two hours from '''[[Berlin]]''' or '''[[Hamburg]]''' to '''[[Prague]]''' and '''[[Brno]]'''. Direct overnight sleeper car serves '''[[Cologne]]''', '''[[Frankfurt]]''' and '''[[Karlsruhe]]'''. If bought in advance, tickets can begin at €19–€39 for seat and €60 for a couchette. Deutsche Bahn also operates express non-stop buses every two hours between '''[[Mannheim]]''', '''[[Nuremberg]]''' and [[Prague]], fully integrated with the German railway tariff. If you have an [[InterRail]] or [[Eurail]] pass, consider that these buses require a compulsory reservation.
  
EC trains operate every two hours from [[Berlin]] or [[Hamburg]] to [[Prague]] and [[Brno]]. Direct overnight sleeper car serves [[Cologne]], [[Frankfurt]] and [[Karlsruhe]]. Cheap tickets on these direct trains are available at German Railways website [http://www.bahn.de], if bought in advance. The price begins at €19–39 for seat and €49 for couchette.
+
There are four daily trains from '''[[Munich]]''' to '''[[Prague]]''' (with a followup from [[Nuremberg]]), but they are slower than the abovementioned bus, because of the slow and curvy (although picturesque) railway between the [[Bavaria|Bavarian]]-[[West Bohemia|West Bohemian]] border. The cheapest way to use this line is with a '''[http://www.bahn.de/regional/view/regionen/bayern/freizeit/bayern_boehmen_ticket.shtml Bayern-Böhmen-Ticket]''', valid up to [[Pilsen]], combined with a Czech domestic online ticket.
  
German Railways operate express non-stop buses every two hours between [[Nuremberg]] and [[Prague]], fully integrated to German railway tariff. If you have an [[InterRail]] or [[Eurail]] pass, consider that these buses require compulsory reservation.
+
Similarly, there is a cheap local train (not EC or EN) connection between '''[[Dresden]]''' and '''[[Prague]]''' with a possible change of trains at [[Bad Schandau]] and [[Děčín]], by taking advantage of the '''[http://www.bahn.de/regional/view/regionen/sachsen/freizeit/boehmen_ticket.shtml Sachsen-Böhmen-Ticket]''' or the '''[https://www.vvo-online.de/en/tariff-tickets/tickets/elbe-labe-129.cshtml Elbe-Labe-Ticket]'''.
  
There are four daily trains from [[Munich]] to [[Prague]] (with a followup from [[Nuremberg]]), but they are slower than the abovementioned bus, because of slow and curvy (although pictoresque) railway at southwestern Czech border. The cheapest way is a
+
In the vicinity of the Czech-German-Polish three-way border, you may profit from the unified fare of the '''[http://www.zvon.de ZVON]''' transport system.
'''Bayern-Böhmen-Ticket''' [http://www.bahn.de/regional/view/regionen/bayern/freizeit/bayern_boehmen_ticket.shtml], valid up to [[Pilsen]], combined with a Czech domestic ticket (see [[#Cheap ticket combinations]]).
+
  
If you cross the border in a local train (not EC or EN), consider taking advantage of the '''Bayern-Böhmen-Ticket''' [http://www.bahn.de/regional/view/regionen/bayern/freizeit/bayern_boehmen_ticket.shtml] or the '''Sachsen-Böhmen-Ticket''' [http://www.bahn.de/regional/view/regionen/sachsen/freizeit/boehmen_ticket.shtml]. In the vicinity of the Czech-German-Polish three country border, you may profit from the unified fare of the '''ZVON''' transport system [http://www.zvon.de/]
+
By car, the German and Czech road networks are well connected, with autobahn '''A17''' connecting to Czech motorway '''D8''' ([[Ústí nad Labem]], Prague), and  '''A6''' in Bavaria connecting to '''D5''' ([[Pilsen]], Prague).
  
 
====From Poland====
 
====From Poland====
 +
[[Image:Cesky Tesin 02.jpg|thumb|Bilingual train station signs in Czech and Polish at the border in Český Těšín.]]
 +
Polish rail carrier '''[http://www.intercity.pl/en/ PKP Intercity]''' operates EIC and TLK trains from '''[[Warsaw]]''' to [[Prague]], as well as to '''[[Ostrava]]''', continuing to [[Vienna]]. There are also direct sleeper cars from [[Warsaw]] and '''[[Kraków]]'''. Promotion tickets for these trains costs €19–€29, if bought at least three day in advance, however PKP Intercity does not sell these tickets online, meaning travellers will need to visit the ticket counter to purchase. The regular one-way price from [[Warsaw]] to [[Prague]] is €70 (return €105), while from [[Kraków]] to [[Prague]] is normally around €43 (return €73). Both PKP Intercity and České dráhy accept '''[http://www.interrail.eu/ Interrail]''' tickets.
  
There is one direct EC train from [[Warszawa]] to [[Prague]] and other two to [[Ostrava]], continuing towards Břeclav and Vienna. There are also direct sleeper cars from Warszawa and [[Kraków]]. The ticket for the daytime train costs €19–29, if bought at least three day in advance. For night trains there are is no such a cheap offer, but you can use a tricky combination, see [[#Cheap ticket combinations]].
+
There are only direct night trains from '''[[Kraków]]''' to '''[[Prague]]'''; in all other journeys between the two cities, passengers must change trains in '''[[Katowice]]'''. For those looking for a more direct journey from Kraków, '''[http://regiojet.cz/ RegioJet]''', '''[http://leoexpress.cz LEO Express]''' and '''[http://www.cd.cz/eshop/ České dráhy]''' all offer bus services that can connect to the Czech rail network.
  
Apart from the long-distance trains there are very few local trains. For long-distance travel a semi-fast train from [[Wroclaw]] to [[Pardubice]] can be useful.
+
Apart from these long-distance trains there are a few local trains offering cross border connections, including direct connections from '''[[Kłodzko]]''' to '''Ústí nad Orlicí''', '''Międzylesie''' to '''Lichkov''', and '''[[Szklarska Poręba]]''' to '''[[Liberec]]'''. For these local trains (not IC or EC), it is possible to buy a special '''cross-border ticket''' ([[Polish]]: ''bilet przechodowy'') which is valid between Czech and Polish (or vice versa) border stations and costs only 15CZK or 2PLN. You can buy it from the conductor on the train (or completely ignore it if the conductor does not emerge before you reach the other border station, which does happen) and combine it with domestic tickets of the two countries. In the vicinity of the Czech-German-Polish three-way border, you may profit from the unified fare of the '''[http://www.zvon.de/ ZVON]''' transport system.
  
In local trains (not IC or EC), it is possible to buy a special '''cross-border ticket''' ([[Polish]]: ''bilet przechodowy'') which is valid between the Czech and Polish (or vice versa) border stations and costs only CZK 15 or PLN 2. You can buy it from the conductor on the train (or completely ignore it if the conductor does not emerge before you reach the other border station, which happens) and combine it with domestic tickets of the two countries. In the vicinity of the Czech-German-Polish three country border, you may profit from the unified fare of the '''ZVON''' transport system: [http://www.zvon.de/].
+
Polish regional rail operator '''[https://www.biletyregionalne.pl/login Przewozy Regionalne]''' also offers [https://www.przewozyregionalne.pl/jedziemy-do-czech Czechy + and Czechy + Max] tickets from Polish border rail stations to the rest of the Czech rail nework. Travel must be completed within 24 hours of the ticket's validity, with prices ranging from 19 to 49PLN.  
  
====From Slovakia====
+
For many Polish and Czech towns sharing a common border, it is often possible to walk or take a bus between the two. Some notable examples include '''[[Cieszyn]]''' separated from its Czech counterpart '''Český Těšín''' by only a short bridge, '''[[Kudowa-Zdrój]]''' separated 7 km from its Czech sister city of '''[[Náchod]]''', '''Mieroszów''' from '''Meziměstí''' (6 km), and the Polish and Czech winter resorts of '''[[Szklarska Poręba]]''' and '''Harrachov''' separated by 14 km of mountains and pristine forest. In each case, each border town has good transportation links with their respective nations.
  
As parts of former Czechoslovakia, the trains between Czechia and Slovakia are frequent. EC trains operates every two hours from [[Bratislava]] to [[Prague]] and [[Brno]], and from [[Žilina]] to Prague and [[Ostrava]]. There is one daily train from [[Banská Bystrica]], [[Zvolen]] and [[Košice]] to Prague and [[Ostrava]]. All these cities have also a direct overnight sleeper car connection to Prague.
+
Polish motorway '''A1''' transitions into Czech motorway '''D1''', connecting [[Katowice]] and much of the Silesian Metropolis with [[Ostrava]], [[Olomouc]], and [[Brno]].
  
Regular oneway ticket to Prague costs €27 from Bratislava and €42 from Košice. There is a return discount of (roughly) 30% called ''CityStar''. Slovak railways [http://www.zssk.sk/] also offer discounted online ''SparNight'' tickets in advance - e.g. the day train from Bratislava to Praha costs €15 and night train including couchette reservation from Košice to Prague €27.
+
====From Slovakia====
 +
[[Image:State border tripoint - panoramio.jpg|thumb|The three-way border between the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Austria.]]
 +
As the former other half of Czechoslovakia, trains between the Czech Republic and [[Slovakia]] are frequent and reliable. EC trains operated by České dráhy and Slovak carrier '''[http://www.slovakrail.sk/en.html ZSSK]''' run every two hours from '''[[Bratislava]]''' to '''[[Prague]]''' and '''[[Brno]]''', as well as from '''[[Žilina]]''', '''[[Zvolen]]''', and '''[[Košice]]''' to '''[[Prague]]''', '''[[Olomouc]]''', '''[[Pardubice]]''', and '''[[Ostrava]]'''. All these cities also have a direct overnight sleeper car connection to Prague.
  
====From Austria====
+
A regular one-way ticket to Prague can cost €27 from Bratislava and €42 from Košice. There is a return discount of (roughly) 30% called ''CityStar''. ZSSK also offers discounted online tickets in advance, with the day train from [[Bratislava]] to Prague costing €15, [[Košice]] to Prague €18, and the night train including a couchette reservation from [[Košice]] to Prague €27.
  
EC trains from [[Vienna]] to [[Prague]] and [[Brno]] operate every two hours. From [[Linz]] to Prague there are two directs connections and two more connections with change in [[České Budějovice]].  
+
Private rail operators '''[http://www.regiojet.cz/ RegioJet]''' and '''[http://leoexpress.cz LEO Express]''' also provide daily connections from [[Košice]] to the Czech Republic via [[Žilina]] as well, with discounted online tickets starting at €9 and €12.
  
Cheap tickets to Prague, Brno and Ostrava are available at Austrian Railways website [http://www.oebb.at], if bought at least 3 days in advance. The price begins at €19 for Vienna-Brno, €29 for Vienna-Prague and Linz-Prague.
+
Additionally, both countries are linked together by a number of roads, with Slovak and Czech motorway '''D2''' linking [[Bratislava]] to [[Brno]]
  
If you cross the border in a local train (not IC, EC), you can take advantage of discounted return ticket '''EURegio''' [http://www.oebb.at/en/Travelling_abroad/EURegio/EURegio_Czech_Republic/].
+
====From Austria====
 +
České dráhy's Railjet trains from '''[[Vienna]]''' to '''[[Prague]]''' and '''[[Brno]]''' operate every two hours. Austrian rail carrier '''[http://www.oebb.at/en/ ÖBB]''' also frequently operates trains from '''[[Linz]]''' to '''[[České Budějovice]]''' and '''[[Prague]]''', with two direct connections and three more connections with a change of trains in [[České Budějovice]]. If booked well in advance, ÖBB offers prices beginning at €9 for Vienna to Brno, and €19 for Vienna to Prague, although when closer to the day of departure, tickets can become significantly expensive. Aside from rail connections, both countries are well-linked by roads, although there are presently no motorways between the two.
  
 
====Cheap ticket combinations====
 
====Cheap ticket combinations====
 +
The full-price of international tickets can be quite expensive, so if no commercial discount fits your needs, you can combine domestic tickets to save money.
 +
 +
* Buy a German/Austrian/Slovak/Polish domestic ticket to the Czech border point and then ask the Czech conductor for a Czech domestic ticket starting at the border point (the surcharge for buying the ticket in the train is 40CZK). Remember there is a significant group discount starting with 2 passengers.
  
The full-price international tickets are quite expensive, so if no commercial discount fits your needs, you can combine domestic tickets to save money:
 
* Buy a German/Austrian/Slovak/Polish domestic ticket to the Czech border point and then ask the Czech conductor for a Czech domestic ticket starting at the border point (the surcharge for buying the ticket in the train is CZK 40). Remember there is a significant group discount starting from 2 passengers. According to the Czech Railways website, conductors on international trains should accept payments in EUR [http://www.cd.cz/vnitrostatni-cestovani/jizdenka/jak-koupit/-3582/].
 
* On weekends, instead of the standard Czech domestic ticket, you can also buy online a network ticket called '''Skupinová víkendová jízdenka''' [https://www.cd.cz/eshop/netticket.aspx?type=1] for CZK 600 (valid up to 2 adults and 3 children for one weekend day). You have to print this ticket on your printer or present it on the screen of your notebook.
 
 
The border point names are:
 
The border point names are:
 
* from Berlin: Schöna Gr.
 
* from Berlin: Schöna Gr.
Line 235: Line 243:
 
* from Nuremberg: Furth im Wald Gr. (trains via [[Schwandorf]]) or Cheb Gr. (trains via [[Cheb]])
 
* from Nuremberg: Furth im Wald Gr. (trains via [[Schwandorf]]) or Cheb Gr. (trains via [[Cheb]])
 
* from Munich: Furth im Wald Gr.
 
* from Munich: Furth im Wald Gr.
* from Košice: Horní Lideč Gr. (trains via [[Vsetín]]) or Čadca Gr. (trains via [[Ostrava]])
+
* from Košice: Horní Lideč Gr. (trains via [[Vsetín]]) or Čadca Gr. (trains via [[Ostrava]])
* from Warszawa and Kraków: Zebrzydowice Gr.
+
* from Warsaw and Kraków: Zebrzydowice Gr.
* from Wroclaw: Lichkov Gr.
+
* from Wrocław: Lichkov Gr.
 
The ''Gr.'' means a ''border point'' to distinguish them from stations with the same name.
 
The ''Gr.'' means a ''border point'' to distinguish them from stations with the same name.
  
 
==Get around==
 
==Get around==
IDOS [http://jizdnirady.idnes.cz/vlakyautobusymhdvse/spojeni/?lng=E] offers an exceptionally useful online timetable, that covers all Czech trains, buses and city transport and many train and bus lines abroad.
 
 
 
===By plane===
 
===By plane===
There are domestic flights from [[Prague]] to [[Brno]] and [[Ostrava]], operated by CSA Czech Airlines [http://www.czechairlines.com/].
+
There are domestic flights between [[Prague]] and [[Ostrava]], operated by [http://www.csa.cz/ ČSA Czech Airlines]. However, these flights can be expensive considering the distance, and are seldom used by locals, although it is surely the fastest way to cross the country.
 
+
===By bus===
+
A cheap and excellent means of travelling between [[Prague]] and other major cities are the buses from Student Agency. These buses are usually a bit faster and cost less than the Czech trains (not considering discounts). On some routes (e.g. Prague to Brno) this is marginal, but on others such as Prague to Karlovy Vary or Liberec, there is no direct train connection so the buses are by far the best option. Usually, you do not have to book a seat but if you travel on Fridays or during holidays from or to Prague, it is recommended. You can reserve seats online at the Student Agency website, [http://www.studentagency.cz]. Apart from this operator there are many other bus companies that link Prague and other cities and towns, even remote villages, regularly. Most buses leave Prague from the central bus station at Florenc, but other major bus stations can be found at Na Knížecí (metro station Anděl), Černý Most, Zličín and Roztyly, all of which are located next to metro stations.
+
 
+
Local bus travel between small towns and surrounding villages is usually operated by companies named '''ČSAD (district name)''', a remnant of the nationwide state-run company '''''Č'''esko'''s'''lovenská '''A'''utobusová '''D'''oprava'' from communist times. On local buses you simply tell the driver where you're going and pay him a fare as you get on.
+
 
+
Timetables for both local and long-distance bus travel are available on the IDOS website.
+
 
+
===By car===
+
The Czech drivers may seem aggressive sometimes, especially in Prague, but it is far from "madness" as found in some southern Europe countries. 
+
 
+
The Czech Republic is a '''zero tolerance''' country. It is illegal to drive a motor vehicle under the influence of any amount of alcohol, and violations are heavily punished.
+
 
+
In order to drive on the well-kept motorways, however, you need to purchase a toll sticker. These stickers cost CZK 310 for ten days (for vehicles lighter than 3.5 tonnes, price as of September 2012), but can be purchased for longer periods of time (1 month or a year). If you do not have a toll sticker on your car when you drive on the motorways, the fines can be very steep (CZK 5000 minimum).
+
 
+
Make certain that you purchase the correct toll sticker: there are those for vehicles under 3.5 tonnes in weight and those for vehicles between 3.5 and 12 tonnes. Vehicles larger than 12 tonnes in weight must use an on-board unit ("premid" unit) to pay tolls based on distance.
+
 
+
The condition of many roads is continually improving, but to be economical and fast, drive on the motorways as much as possible, although if you want to get to remote parts of the country you will not avoid side-roads that may be a little bumpy sometimes.
+
 
+
Speed limits in the Czech Republic are usually 130 km/h on motorways, 90 km/h off the motorways, and 50 km/h in towns. Petrol is inexpensive compared to the rest of Europe (CZK 37 / 1,40€), but it is expensive compared to the United States, as it is heavily taxed.
+
 
+
Traffic fines can usually be paid on the spot.
+
 
+
The use of headlights is mandatory at all times.  Failure to have your lights on while driving may result in a police fine.
+
  
 
===By train===
 
===By train===
Trains in Czech Republic are operated mostly by state-owned company České Dráhy [http://cd.cz] (Czech Railways, ČD). At Praha–Ostrava line there are two new private operators Regiojet [http://regiojet.cz] (a subsidiary of Student Agency) and Leo Express [http://le.cz] with very comfortable and modern trains comparable to European standards.
+
[[Image:CD-RJ als EC 73.jpg|thumb|One of ČD's modern Railjets.]]
 +
The Czech Republic has a highly dense railway network, most of it operated by national rail carrier '''[http://cd.cz České dráhy (ČD)]'''. České dráhy's services are widespread across the country, with major hubs in [[Prague]], [[Brno]], [[Pilsen]], [[Pardubice]], [[České Budějovice]], and [[Ostrava]]. In both Prague and [[Ostrava]], the company also operates a fleet of urban Esko (S-Bahn) trains, connecting these cities' various train stations with their outside suburbs.
  
The trains go even to the most remote locations of the Czech Republic and unlike buses, they usually operate regularly during off-peak hours and during weekends. However, outside the modernized main corridors, the standard of travelling is often the same as it was in the 1970's, and therefore it is quite time consuming to get to the provincial towns or villages, the trains tending to meander around the countryside.
+
Since the 2000s, ČD has lost its exclusive monopoly on passenger rail travel, and is now open to competition. Private passenger company '''[http://regiojet.cz RegioJet]''' operates distinctive yellow-coloured high-speed trains on the [[Prague]]-[[Ostrava]] line, with stops in [[Pardubice]] and [[Olomouc]] in between, with some rail services continuing onwards into [[Slovakia]]. Another private rail company, '''[http://leoexpress.cz LEO Express]''', also operates on the same Prague-Ostrava line, with limited rail and bus services continuing into Slovakia and [[Poland]].  
  
==== Train categories ====
+
České dráhy's trains tend to widely vary with age and quality. The carrier operates high-speed Pendolinos between [[Františkovy Lázně]] near the [[Germany|German]] border, [[Prague]], and [[Ostrava]], as well modern Railjets between [[Prague]], [[Brno]] and [[Vienna]]. Other rolling stock, however, varies from the modern to the rusty 1970s. Trains going to remote locations, such as provincial towns or villages away from the main rail corridors, tend to be old and travel time can be time consuming. RegioJet and LEO Express, however, operate with modern trains and carriages, offering affordable food and drinks, and free wi-fi, yet their domestic routes are presently limited only between Prague and Ostrava.
  
The following train categories are recognized and shown in timetables [http://jizdnirady.idnes.cz/vlaky/spojeni/?lng=E] or departure boards [http://provoz.szdc.cz/Tabule/]:
+
When choosing which rail carrier to use, bear in mind that '''there is no universal train ticket''', as České dráhy, RegioJet, and LEO Express are '''three entirely separate companies''', with separate ticket offices and tickets to purchase, meaning '''you can only use a specific ticket with the company it was purchased from'''.
  
* '''Osobní (Os)''' – slow local trains, stop everywhere, usually operated by '''ČD'''
+
====Train categories====
 +
The following train categories are recognized and shown in timetables such as '''[http://jizdnirady.idnes.cz/vlaky/spojeni/?lng=E Idos]''' and with this [http://provoz.szdc.cz/Tabule/ real-time departure and arrival database]:
 +
[[Image:RegioJet, vlak s lokomotivou 162.112.jpg|thumb|RegioJet, a popular private train service.]]
 +
* '''Osobní (Os)''' – slow local (and usually old) trains, stopping everywhere, operated by '''ČD'''.
 +
* '''Spěšný (Sp)''' – faster than ''osobni'' and normally more modern, usually skipping little villages, operated by '''ČD'''.
 +
* '''Rychlík (R)''' – fast trains, stop in major towns, commonly used trains for longer distances, operated by '''ČD'''.
 +
* '''Rychlík vyšší kvality (Rx)''' – fast trains like ''rychlík'', with use of newer and more comfortable carriages, operated by '''ČD'''.
 +
* '''Expres (Ex)''' – faster and use of newer and more comfortable carriages than ''rychlík'', operated by '''ČD'''.
 +
* '''Intercity (IC)''' – fast trains at European standards.
 +
* '''LEO Express (LE)''' – '''LEO Express''' trains, with compulsory seat reservation.
 +
* '''Eurocity (EC)''' – international fast trains at European standards, stopping in major cities only, operated by '''ČD'''.
 +
* '''Railjet (rj)''' – international fast trains to Austria, stopping in major cities only, operated by '''ČD'''.
 +
* '''Regiojet (RJ)''' – '''RegioJet's''' trains, with compulsory seat reservation. 
 +
* '''Supercity (SC)''' – Pendolino trains operated by '''ČD''', with compulsory seat reservation
  
* '''Spěšný (Sp)''' – faster than "osobní", usually skip little villages, operated by '''ČD'''
+
====Train tickets====
 +
Compared to Western European standards, Czech rail travel is cheap, highly affordable, and largely reliable. Tickets from all three of the republic's rail companies can be purchased online, and can be printed either at home or shown on tablets and smartphones to the conductor once aboard. Tickets can also often be bought in person at the station from window agents. RegioJet and LEO Express ticket agents near universally speak English, while České dráhy's agents outside of the main cities often cannot. In order to avoid any potential language confusion, travellers can write the destination name and the desired time of their journey, which will be universally understood by the ČD agent. Smaller ČD stations or stops without an active agent window or office will usually have conductors on their passing trains to purchase tickets from once you board.
  
* '''Rychlík (R)''' – fast trains, stop in major towns, commonly used trains for longer distances, operated by '''ČD'''
+
Frequent users of České dráhy can register online to join its [https://www.cd.cz/eshop/customer/loyaltyprogram.aspx Loyalty Programme], earning points for every trip taken under their name. With more points accumulated, users can receive significant discounts off of future rail travel, as well as discounts for attractions or for other activities listed online. Similarly, users of LEO Express can also join its [http://leoexpress.cz/cms/rewards-1221.htm Smile Club] to collect kilometers as points for future travel discounts. RegioJet offers [https://bustickets.regiojet.com/CreateAccount?1 registration] for discounted travel, although it does not have a rewards programme.
  
* '''Expres (Ex)''' – faster and usually a bit cleaner kind of "Rychlík", operated by '''ČD'''
+
If you are buying in person, travellers on ČD going on a roundtrip journey can receive a 5% discount, and when travelling in a group (even two travellers are considered as a "group"), the first person pays full price, while the second gets a 25% discount, and others get a 50% discount. Therefore ask for group discount (''skupinová sleva'') and/or return discount (''zpáteční sleva'') to the agent.
 +
[[Image:14-06-04-praha-hlavní nádraží-02.jpg|thumb|LEO Express is another private rail company and popular alternative to ČD.]]
 +
For journeys between larger cities with ČD, you can buy a discounted [https://www.cd.cz/eshop/sporotiket_cesko.aspx First Minute Czech Republic] ticket, which is generally at the same price or even cheaper than buses. The earlier you buy it, the cheaper it is. The ticket isn't bound to any particular train, only to a specific day and route, and is available to buy online (it is bound to your name and Passport/ID number) and print it yourself (or present it on your smartphone or tablet, or tell the conductor the 6-digit ticket number). You can buy these tickets also directly at station counters too, but at least one day in advance. A group discount does not apply with these tickets.
  
* '''Intercity (IC)''' – fast trains coming up to European standards, currently only the '''RegioJet''' uses this category, with a compulsory seat reservation
+
On weekends, instead of the standard Czech domestic ticket, ČD offers an online [https://www.cd.cz/eshop/netticket.aspx?type=1 Group Weekend Ticket] for 679CZK for a nationwide ticket, or between 229-279CZK depending on which specific region you are traveling in (valid up to 2 adults and 3 children for one weekend day).
  
* '''LeoExpress (LE)''' – the '''LeoExpress''' has registered its own train category, with a compulsory seat reservation
+
Frequent ČD travellers can purchase an [http://www.cd.cz/en/vyhody-pro-cestujici/default.htm In-karta Card], offering 25%, 50%, or 100% discounts. For the IN 25, the most common card (with a 25% discount), prices start from 150-190CZK (3 months), 250-400CZK (1 year) or 490-990CZK (3 years). Its price [ays for itself quickly. Fill in an application form at the ticket counter and provide a photograph, and you will receive a temporary paper card immediately to start using the discount. After three weeks, a plastic chip card will arrive by post.
  
* '''Eurocity (EC)''' – international fast trains coming up to European standards, stop in major cities only, operated by '''ČD'''
+
České dráhy also offers [https://www.cd.cz/en/mezinarodni-cestovani/jizdenka/slevy-evropa/-9070/ First Minute Europe] tickets for international travel, which are often much cheaper than tickets purchased at a train station. However, there are limitations: only major destinations are subject to this discount, tickets cannot be used to travel ''to'' the Czech Republic, but only for one-way or return trips starting ''in'' the Czech Republic. They must be printed beforehand and stamped by a Czech conductor, purchased at least 3 days in advance, and bound to the specific train and passenger name.
  
* '''Supercity or Pendolino (SC)''' – the fastest tilting trains between Prague and Ostrava, operated by '''ČD''', with a compulsory seat reservation
+
The complete list of discounts can be found on the company's [http://www.cd.cz/en/vnitrostatni-cestovani/jizdenka/default.htm travel discount page]. Idos also hosts a '''[http://jizdenka.idos.cz/NT.aspx domestic fare calculator]''' for prices between cities.
  
====Train tickets====
+
====Taking bikes or pets====
 +
Basic ČD tickets for a bike costs between 25 to 75CZK depending on the distance. You load and unload your bike by yourself onto the train. Trains with such possibilities are marked with a bike symbol in the timetable, as well as on carriages suitable for bike transport. Some trains with a square-framed bike/suitcase symbol in the timetable require compulsory reservation for bikes for 20CZK. Some long-distance trains (with a suitcase symbol in the timetable) have a luggage car, where the train staff will care for your bike for an extra charge of 10CZK, payable on the train. For more on bike transport, visit the company's [http://www.cd.cz/vnitrostatni-cestovani/zavazadla-a-zvirata/preprava-kol/-8893/ bike policy page].
  
The normal train ticket price can be discouraging (roughly CZK 1.40 per km), but Czech Railways (ČD) offer plenty of discounts. Return ticket gives you a 5% discount, and a group of travellers (even two travellers are considered as a "group") is treated roughly as "first person pays full price, others pay half price". Therefore ask for "skupinová sleva" (group discount) and/or "zpáteční sleva" (return discount).
+
Unfortunately, bicycles are not permitted aboard RegioJet nor LEO Express trains.  
<!-- a note by OtoValek TO THE CZECH RAILWAYS GROUP DISCOUNT:
+
- there were attempts here to describe the group discount as "two persons pay 75% of full price, others pay half price"
+
- yes, this is technically correct (Czech Railways official "TR10" tariff defines the group discount like this)
+
- but this is a page for foreign tourists and description of "first person pays full price, others pay half price" is much simpler
+
- the eventual difference is only caused by rounding - a maximum of one CZK, no foreign tourist will care about it
+
-->
+
  
For journeys between larger cities you can buy a discounted ticket called '''Včasná jízdenka Česko''' [https://www.cd.cz/eshop/acquisitions.aspx], which is generally of the same price or even cheaper than bus. The earlier you buy it, the cheaper it is. The ticket isn't bound to particular train, only to a specific day and route. You'll buy it online (it is bound to your name and Passport/ID number) and print it yourself. You can buy these tickets directly at station counters too, but at least one day in advance.
+
Pets travelling with ČD are allowed in cages or hard bottom bags, and can travel for free. Bigger dogs must have a muzzle and be on a leash. The basic price ranges from 15 to  50CZK depending on the distance. For more information on dog transport, visit the company's [http://www.cd.cz/vnitrostatni-cestovani/zavazadla-a-zvirata/-8897/ dog and small animal policy page].
  
The ČD e-shop offers also international e-tickets called '''Včasná jízdenka Evropa''' [https://www.cd.cz/eshop/acquisitions.aspx], which are often much cheaper (sometimes more than twice) than tickets purchased at a train station. However there are limitations: only major destinations are subject to this discount, tickets cannot be used to travel to the Czech Republic, but only for one-way or return trips starting in the Czech Republic, they must be stamped by Czech conductor, purchased at least 3 days in advance, bound to the specific train and passenger name, they are non refundable and you must print them before the journey on your own printer.
+
Dogs are allowed on LEO Express trains for free, and must be in cages or hard bottom bags (with the exception of guide or assistance dogs). Only small dogs in hard bottomed bags are allowed aboard RegioJet, with large dogs largely forbidden.
  
Regular travellers can use a '''ČD loyalty card''', called ''In-karta IN25'' [https://www.cd.cz/eshop/inkarta/inkarta_select.aspx], for CZK 150 (3 months), CZK 550 (1 year) or CZK 990 (3 years). It offers a 25% discount for normal and return train tickets and 5–25% for the ''Včasná jízdenka Česko''. Its price will pay for itself quickly. You have to fill in an application form at the ticket counter and provide a photograph. You will get a temporary paper card immediately and start using the discount. After three weeks you will get a plastic chip card.
+
===By bus===
 +
[[Image:14-09-30-praha-florenc-RalfR-16.jpg|thumb|RegioJet is one of the country's most recognized bus transport brands.]]
 +
The Czech Republic is blessed with a highly complex and integrated bus network, providing service to all corners of the republic, from its largest cities to often tiny villages. Many locals prefer using buses over trains due to cost, comfort, and reliability. Perhaps the best-known bus carrier is '''[https://www.regiojet.cz RegioJet]'''. Formerly known as '''Student Agency''' for many years, RegioJet's yellow buses are easy to spot on many roads and highways throughout the country, and are known for their comfort, entertainment options, wi-fi, and free coffee, water and tea for travellers.  
  
The complete list of discounts can be found at the ČD website [http://www.cd.cz/en/vnitrostatni-cestovani/jizdenka/default.htm].
+
A number of smaller bus companies also operate throughout the Czech Republic. Local travel between smaller towns or surrounding villages is usually operated by companies named '''ČSAD (''district name'')''', a remnant of the state-run '''''Č'''esko'''s'''lovenská '''A'''utobusová '''D'''oprava'' from communist times. On local buses, simply tell the driver where you're going, or hold up a sign if you can't pronounce the location. Be aware that most bus drivers cannot speak English. Afterwards, you will receive a paper ticket from a small machine showing the price and destination, and will pay the driver the fare printed. An excellent database to search for all connections is through '''[http://jizdnirady.idnes.cz/vlakyautobusymhdvse/spojeni/ Idos]''', a highly comprehensive timetable for bus connections. Online bus tickets for these smaller companies can often be purchased via Idos.
  
Note that if you intend to travel on the '''RegioJet''' or '''Leo Express''' train, a special ticket is required. The ČD tickets and international tickets (including [[Eurail#InterRail|InterRail]]) are not valid on these trains. If you combine private and ČD trains, you have to buy two separate tickets. Both private companies offer a comprehensive e-shop and have ticket offices at major stations at Praha–Ostrava route. They have similar ticketing system to airlines, so the earlier you book the ticket, the cheaper it will be.
+
===By car===
 +
[[Image:CZ traffic sign IS16a - D1.svg|150px|thumb|A motorway-level road sign.]]
 +
[[Image:SilniceI2.svg|150px|thumb|A first class road sign.]]
 +
[[Image:SilniceII368.svg|150px|thumb|A second class-level road sign.]]
 +
There are nearly 1,200 km (745 mi) of motorways in the Czech Republic, with most of the major cities connected together through a spiderweb-like ring of roads originating from Prague. However, much is still missing from the map, blocked by government mismanagement and corruption, though there are plans to connect the entire country with high-speed motorways by 2030. Until then, drivers can sometimes expect detours on smaller roads with high vehicle capacity and many areas of construction.  
  
====Travel tips====
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'''Motorways''' are demarcated by red and white signs with only a number on it. Below motorways are '''first class roads''', with blue and white signs and a one or two-digit number. Many first-class roads are two or sometimes four-laned, and are generally considered to connect medium-sized municipalities together. Next are '''second class roads''', also blue and white, with a three-digit number. These roads are smaller and located in the countryside, though still provide a degree of traffic between locations. Finally are the '''third class roads''', with four-digits, which are countryside roads and for strictly rural traffic. The condition of many smaller state and local roads is continually improving, yet to be economical and fast, use the motorways as much as possible, although if you want to get to more remote parts of the republic you cannot avoid second or third class roads whose conditionals could be subpar.
  
There is an unofficial English page [http://captainoddsocks.blogspot.com/2008/04/czech-republic-train-tickets-how-to-buy.html] about Czech train travel tariff, but not quite up to date. And consider a calculator of domestic [http://jizdenka.idos.cz/NT.aspx] and international [http://jizdenka.idos.cz/IT.aspx] ticket prices. It uses same system as cash desks at train stations, so its interface can be a bit user-unfriendly for a newbie.
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In order to drive on motorways, you will need to purchase a '''[http://www.sfdi.cz/en/vignettes/ vignette]'''. These cost 310CZK (12‎€) for ten days, 440CZK (16.50€) for a month, and 1500CZK (56.50€) for a year. Vignettes can be purchased at petrol stations or vignette offices close to the border, or in [https://www.ceskaposta.cz/en/sluzby/prodej-a-eshop Česká pošta] offices around the country. If you do not have a vignette on your car when driving on motorways, the fine can be very steep (5000CZK minimum). Vehicles over 3.5 tonnes in weight must use an on-board unit (''premid'') to pay tolls based on distance; this is required also on primary roads (marked with M in a circle). Drivers can also easily obtain pre-paid premids at most petrol stations.
  
If you travel in a group on weekends, you can use a daily pass ''Skupinová víkendová jízdenka''[https://www.cd.cz/eshop/netticket.aspx?type=1] for unlimited travelling on Saturday or Sunday. It is valid for group up to 2 adults and 3 children. The pass is valid in all trains including EC, but in SC you need a compulsory reservation. The whole-network variant costs CZK 600 and regional variant costs CZK 200 to 275. Buying online and printing the ticket yourself gives you a small discount of 3% and you'll avoid the queue at the station.
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The use of headlights or day-time lights is mandatory at all times (day-time lights are allowed between dawn and dusk and in good visibility only). Failure to comply with this may result in a fine of up to 2000CZK. If other cars are flashing their high beam at you, it might be a friendly warning that your headlights are off.
  
Although many train stations were repaired and modernized, the rest is still like a trip back in time to the communist era. There is no need to be afraid but try to avoid them in the late night hours. Trains are generally safe (there are regular police guards assigned for fast trains) and very popular mean of transport and they are widely used both by students and commuters. Therefore especially the principal rail axis Praha–Pardubice–Olomouc–Ostrava is crowded during peak times (Friday and Sunday afternoon) and seat reservation is recommended.
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Speed limits in the Czech Republic are '''130 km/h (81 mph) on motorways''', '''90 km/h (56 mph) on rural first class roads''' and '''50 km/h (31 mph) through towns'''. Petrol is inexpensive compared to the rest of Europe), yet remains expensive compared to North America due to taxes. Speeding is common but so are speed traps and speeding cameras, especially if you do not know the area. Many drivers use the [https://www.waze.com/ Waze mobile app] to warn fellow motorists about speed traps, hazards on road etc., so if you purchased a local SIM card with aa good data plan (or if you have good roaming data plan on your own), try it out.
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{{disclaimerbox|Unlike most of the motorway network, the '''D1 motorway''' between [[Prague]] and [[Brno]] is in a bad shape. Although reconstruction is slowly underway, there are still long sections of misaligned concrete blocks which cause a bumpy ride. Combined with heavy traffic, reckless driving styles, rapidly changing weather due to the higher elevation (as the motorway crosses the [[Bohemian-Moravian Highlands]]) and virtually no detour routes, it makes the D1 notorious for mind-bogglingly long traffic, little patience, and car crashes. '''Drive carefully'''; the 130 km/h speed limit is in many places too fast for this route, especially if you don't know the terrain well.}}
  
Prague has a pretty good network of local trains connecting it with suburbs and surrounding cities called ''Esko'' (S-Bahn). The Prague public transport tickets (e.g. CZK 32 for 90 minutes) are valid on these trains (''Os'' and ''Sp'' category) for travel within the area of Prague.
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The Czech Republic is a '''zero tolerance''' country. It is illegal to drive any vehicle (including bicycles and kick scooters) under the influence of any amount of alcohol, and violations over .03% are heavily punished. However up to .02 % is usually tolerated as it can be naturally occurring. Traffic fines for small offences can be paid on the spot. Large offences (drunk driving, more than 40 (town)/50 (rural) km/h over limit, etc.) require an administrative hearing and you may be required to pay a large deposit and/or your driving license can be suspended. In criminal offences which would result in a trial (eg. heavily drunk or drugged driving, car chase, etc.), your car can be seized. Some police cars (mostly on highways) accept payment by cards yet most don't.
 
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====Taking bikes or pets on the train====
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The basic ČD ticket for a bike costs CZK 25 for one train or CZK 50 for whole day. You load and unload your bike by yourself. Trains with such possibility are marked with a bike symbol in the timetable.
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Some long-distance trains (with a suitcase symbol in timetable) have a luggage wagon, where the train staff will care of your bike, but the ticket costs CZK 30 for one train or CZK 60 for whole day.
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Some trains (with square-framed bike or suitcase symbol in timetable) require compulsory reservation for bikes for CZK 15 at counter or CZK 100 at train staff.
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Smaller pets in cages or bags may travel for free. Bigger dogs must have a muzzle and must be on a leash. Price is CZK 15 for one train or CZK 30 for the whole day.
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No bikes or bigger dogs are permitted on private trains of RegioJet and LeoExpres.
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===By bicycle===
 
===By bicycle===
The Czech Republic is an excellent place for cycling. There are lots of pleasant country lanes, cycling marked paths and picturesque villages along these paths (always with a pub...), it's easy to find the way, and the trains have bicycle racks in the baggage section for when you get tired. Try cycling in South [[Moravia]] region (close to Austrian borders) where you can find dozens of well-marked paths that will lead you through beautiful countryside full of vineyards, vine cellars and colourful villages.
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The Czech Republic is an excellent place for cycling. There are lots of pleasant country roads, cycling marked paths and picturesque villages along these paths (always with a pub). It's easy to find the way, with trains and some buses having bicycle racks in the baggage section for when you get tired. Try cycling in [[South Moravia]] (close to the Austrian border) where you can find dozens of well-marked paths that will lead you through beautiful countryside full of vineyards, wine cellars and colourful villages.
  
Also border mountains (Krkonoše, Šumava, Jeseníky etc.) are more and more popular among mountain-bikers. There are usually no fences along the trails but always keep to the roads or marked cycling paths here as these mountains are National Parks/Reserves and you can be fined if you cycle "off the beaten track".
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The border mountain ranges (Krkonoše, Šumava, Jeseníky etc.) are growing in popularity among mountain-bikers. There are usually no fences along the trails but always keep to the roads or marked cycling paths here as these mountains are national parks or reserves and you can be fined if you cycle "off the beaten track".
  
CzechCycling.info [http://czechcycling.info/] is a non-profit website with cycling information for Prague and surrounding areas. Good source is also Mapy.cz [http://mapy.cz/] - switch the map (via ''Změnit mapu'' - ''Turistická'') to see cycling routes in violet color.
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Beware that drunk cycling is illegal and, although quite common, the police do routine checks (especially on paved cycling paths). See [[#By_car|By car]] for more information.
  
 
===On foot===
 
===On foot===
In addition to walking in the cities, there are a great number of hiking paths and scenery-rich trails going through the Czech Republic's forests and natural areas, and the Czech Tourist Club (Klub českých turistů) [http://lnbm.kct.cz/files/upload/uf00000001_obecny_letak_int6.pdf] has mapped and marked these trails so that walkers can easily locate and navigate thousands of kilometres of scenic paths, in fact it is probably the best maintained system of marking in Europe. You can buy maps of their paths on their website [http://www.klubturistu.cz/?oid=10189&PHPSESSID=4fc32e5556b2c3037acbec31f5565ec9], or in the Czech Republic in most bookstores, tobacco shops or museums (green maps, marked with the organization's symbol and the words EDICE TURISTICKÝCH MAP KČT 1:50000 [http://kct.cz/?oid=10189&PHPSESSID=07fcff9810a926df89b6daa78a4fb660/] at the top). These maps are based on military maps and very accurate. It's also possible to go by train to a small village at the edge of a forest and find the on-site map of the surrounding area, and four possible paths will be visible, marked in red, yellow, green, and blue nice tourist maps [http://www.mapy.cz/#x=131707392@y=135332352@z=11@mm=RTTtP]. Nearby such a map will be a set of directing signs, usually posted to a tree, pointing the initial direction on any of the coloured paths. The path's colour will be marked on trees throughout the path: three short horizontal bars, the outer two white and the innermost the colour of the path you're on. This symbol at times will appear as an arrow, indicating a turn. Bus and train stops will also be indicated on signs. You can also register to become a member [http://kct.cz/?oid=11119&PHPSESSID=07fcff9810a926df89b6daa78a4fb660/] of the Czech Tourist Club, where you can camp for 30&ndash;50 Kč a night in cottages [http://kct.cz/?oid=10188&PHPSESSID=5887debad5091526fd5823074d4a7bcc] around the Czech Republic.
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[[Image:Národní park Podyjí Dyje Nationalpark Thayatal 2013 10 a.jpg|thumb|[[Podyjí National Park]].]]
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In addition to urban walking, there are a great number of hiking paths and scenery-rich trails going through the Czech Republic's forests and natural areas, and the [http://www.kct.cz/cms/ Czech Tourist Club] has mapped and marked these trails so walkers can easily locate and navigate thousands of kilometres of scenic paths, perhaps one of the best maintained system of marking in Europe. You can buy maps of their paths on their website, or in most bookstores, tobacco shops, or museums (green maps, marked with the organization's symbol and the words ''EDICE TURISTICKÝCH MAP KČT 1:50000'' at the top. These maps are based on military maps and are very accurate. It's also possible to go by train to a small village at the edge of a forest and find the onsite map of the surrounding area, and four possible paths will be visible, marked in red, yellow, green, and blue on tourist maps. These coloured directing signs are posted on trees, displaying three short horizontal bars, the outer two are white and the innermost the colour of the path you're on, pointing the direction of any of the coloured paths. This symbol at times will appear as an arrow, indicating a turn. Bus and train stops will also be indicated on signs. Visitors can register as a member of the Czech Tourist Club, where you can camp for as low as 50 Kč a night in their cottages around the Czech Republic.
  
===By thumb===
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===By hitchhiking===
Hitchhiking is very common and some drivers stop even on places where they shouldn't.
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Hitchhiking is common among young people, and some drivers stop even in places where they shouldn't. Hitchhiking is strictly '''illegal on motorways''', with the exception of service areas and at on ramps. Normally, first and second class roads are the best places to hitchhike.  
  
Take care to use very a clear gesture with the thumb pointing upwards. A gesture looking like you are pointing to the ground may be mistaken for prostitution solicitation.
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Take care to use very a clear gesture with the thumb pointing upwards. A gesture looking like you are pointing to the ground may be mistaken for prostitution.
  
As a word of advice, if you are hitch-hiking through the Czech Republic from the south to the German town of Dresden, ''never'' go to or past Prague unless you are in a ride going all the way to Dresden. Prague itself has no major and continuous beltway, so residents of the area must maneuver a ring of major and local roads to get around the city from south to north. Therefore the great majority of traffic you will encounter is going into the city. Past Prague, the previously major highway turns into a two-lane mountain road through local villages, in which again, the ''great'' majority of traffic is local and international travelers are hesitant to stop.
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Try a letter-sized (A4) piece of paper with the destination (or one of former license plate codes) written on it so it is clearly visible where you would like to go. See some other [[Tips for hitchhiking]].
  
Try a letter-sized (A4) piece of paper with the destination written on it so it is clearly visible where you would like to go. See some other [[Tips for hitchhiking]].
 
 
====By thumb with pet====
 
====By thumb with pet====
 
It is possible to hitch-hike with smaller dog, although "waiting time" will be longer. Expect another dog in the car.
 
It is possible to hitch-hike with smaller dog, although "waiting time" will be longer. Expect another dog in the car.
  
 
==Talk==
 
==Talk==
The main language spoken is, not surprisingly, '''[[Czech phrasebook|Czech]]'''. The '''[[Slovak phrasebook|Slovak]]''' language can also be often heard, as there is a sizable Slovak minority and both languages are mutually intelligible. Czech people are very proud of their language, and thus, even in Prague you will not find many signs written in English (outside of the main tourist areas). Many older people, especially outside the large cities, are also unable to converse in English, so it's good to learn some Czech or Slovak before your arrival. However, most young people speak at least some English, as it has been taught in most schools since 1990.
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[[Image:Telc.JPG|thumb|Main Square of [[Telč]].]]
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The main language spoken is '''[[Czech phrasebook|Czech]]''', a Slavic language spoken by over 10 million. The '''[[Slovak phrasebook|Slovak]]''' language can also frequently be heard, especially in large cities, as there is a sizable Slovak minority, and both languages are mostly mutually intelligible to each other. Czech people are very proud of their language, and thus, even in Prague, you will not find many signs written in English outside of the main tourist areas. Many older people, especially outside the large cities, are unable to converse in English, so it's good to learn some Czech words or phrases before your arrival. However, most young people speak at least some English, as it has been taught in most schools since 1990.
  
Most Czechs speak a second and often a third language. English is the most widely known, especially among younger people. German is probably the most widely spoken second language among older people. Russian was taught very extensively under communist rule, so most people born before c. 1975 speak at least some Russian (and often pretty well). However the connection with the communist era and the Soviet led invasion in 1968 (as well as today's Russian-speaking criminal gangs) has given this language some negative connotations. It is also not very useful with younger people, as it is not, despite the common misconception, mutually intelligible with Czech (beyond some similar words and simple sentences). Other languages, like French or Spanish, are also taught in some schools, but you should not count on it. People may also understand some basic words or simple sentences in other Slavic languages (Polish, Serbo-Croatian, etc).
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Many Czechs speak a second and often a third language. English is the most widely known, especially among younger people. German is probably the most widely spoken second language among older people. Russian was taught very extensively under communist rule, so most people born before 1975 speak or understand at least some Russian (and often pretty well). However, the connection with the communist era and the Soviet-led invasion of 1968 (as well as with contemporary Russian mafia gangs) has given the language some negative connotations. It is also not very useful with younger people, as it is not, despite the common misconception, mutually intelligible with Czech beyond some similar words and sentences. Other languages, like French or Spanish, are also taught in some schools, but you should not count on them being widely understood. People may also understand some basic words or simple sentences in other Slavic languages, including Polish, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian, or Slovenian.
  
The Czech and Slovak languages are very difficult for English-speakers to grasp, as they, like their sisters, can be tongue-twisting languages to learn (especially Czech) and take time and practice to master, especially if you're not really familiar with the other Slavic languages, including Russian. However, if you can learn the alphabet (and the corresponding letters with accents), then pronunciation is easy as it is always the same - Czechs and Slovaks pronounce every letter of a word, with the stress falling on the first syllable. The combination of consonants in some words may seem mind-bogglingly hard, but it is worth the effort!
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Czech can be difficult for English-speakers to grasp, as it's not an easy language to learn and takes time and practice to master, especially if you're unfamiliar with other Slavic languages. However, if you can learn the alphabet and its corresponding letters with accents, then pronunciation is easy as Czech is a highly phonetic language, with the stress falling on the first syllable. The concentration of consonants in many words could seem mind-bogglingly hard to pronounce at first, but it is worth the effort! Czechs highly appreciate foreigners who try to learn their language, even if it is only a few phrases or simple words.
  
The Czech language has many local dialects, especially in Moravia. Some dialects are so different that they can be sometimes misunderstood even by a native Czech speaker from a different region. However all Czech people understand the standard Czech (as spoken in TV, written in newspapers and taught in schools) and should be able to speak it (but some are too proud to stop using their local dialect). Some of them are even unable to speak standard Czech but write it correctly.
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Czech has many local dialects, especially in Moravia. Some dialects are so different that they can be sometimes misunderstood even by a native Czech speaker from a different region. However, all Czech people understand standard Czech (as spoken in TV, heard on radio, written in newspapers, and taught in schools) and should be able to speak it (but some are too proud to stop using their local dialect). Some of them are even unable to speak standard Czech but can write it correctly.
  
Czechs have different writing style, and  the Slovak language is softer. The vocabulary is similar, with occasional words not understood. The younger generation born after the dissolvent of Czechoslovakia are growing apart and have problems to understand each other.
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Compared to Czech, [[Slovak phrasebook|Slovak]] has softer pronunciation and uses different accents and letters. While their grammar and vocabulary retain many similarities, there are occasional words and tenses that have different meanings. To the bemoaning of older generations, many young Czechs and Slovaks born after the 1993 dissolution of Czechoslovakia have difficulties understanding each other.
  
''See also'': [[Czech phrasebook]], [[Slovak phrasebook]]
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In cities like Prague and [[Karlovy Vary]], [[Russian phrasebook|Russian]] is also sometimes overheard, due to a fairly significant Russian diaspora living in the country. More recent arrivals by Ukrainian immigrants have also brought [[Ukrainian phrasebook|their language]], and it can frequently be heard, also largely in the cities. [[Polish phrasebook|Polish]] is sometimes heard in the Zaolzie border region in [[North Moravia]], particularly around [[Karvina]] and Český Těšín, where bilingual street and road signs are common. One of the country's most prolific immigrant groups, the Vietnamese, own many small grocery stores and corner shops (''potraviny'') across the country, as well as many Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese restaurants. This group commonly speaks [[Vietnamese phrasebook|Vietnamese]] to each other in their stores or on the street, although many also speak heavily-accented Czech. Younger Vietnamese have completely integrated into Czech society, and are often bi or trilingual with Czech and English. 
  
 
==Buy==
 
==Buy==
The currency of the Czech republic is the '''koruna''' (crown), plural '''koruny''' or '''korun.''' The currency code CZK is often used internationally, but the local symbol is '''Kč''' (for ''Koruna česká''). 1 koruna is made up of 100 '''haléř (haléřů)''', abbreviated to '''hal.''', but coins are only issued in whole koruna values from October 2008 on.
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[[Image:CZK Banknotes 2014.png|thumb|Czech koruna banknotes.]]
 
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The currency of the Czech Republic is the '''koruna''' (crown), plural '''koruny''' or '''korun'''. The currency code '''CZK''' is often used internationally, but the local symbol is '''Kč''' (for ''koruna česká'').  
The exchange rate is approximately 25Kč = €1, 30Kč = £1 GBP, 20Kč = $1 (US), or 16Kč = $1 (Canadian). As of 5 April 2012, €1 = 24,66Kč (Google).
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Coins are issued in 1Kč, 2Kč, 5Kč (all stainless steel), 10Kč (copper-colored), 20Kč (brass-colored) and 50 Kč (copper-colored ring, brass-colored center). Notes are issued in <del>50Kč (pink)</del> - no longer used, 100Kč (aqua), 200Kč (orange), 500Kč (red), 1000Kč (purple), 2000Kč (olive green) and 5000Kč (green-purple). See some banknote samples [http://www.cnb.cz/en/czech_legal_tender/banknotes/index.html]. Be aware that all 20Kč banknotes, haléř coins, and older-style 1000Kč and 5000Kč banknotes from 1993 are NOT a legal tender.
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Coins are issued in 1 Kč, 2 Kč, 5 Kč (all stainless steel), 10 Kč (copper-colored), 20 Kč (brass-colored) and 50 Kč (copper-colored ring, brass-colored center). Notes are issued in 100 Kč (aqua), 200 Kč (orange), 500 Kč (red), 1000 Kč (purple), 2000 Kč (olive green) and 5000 Kč (green-purple). See some banknote samples [http://www.cnb.cz/en/czech_legal_tender/banknotes/index.html]. Be aware that all 50 Kč and 20 Kč banknotes, older haléř coins, and older-style 1000 Kč and 5000 Kč banknotes before 1993 are no longer legal tender.
  
Some major stores (mainly bigger chains) will accept Euros, and it's also fairly common for accommodation providers to quote the price in Euros. At shopping areas along the Austrian border and petrol stations in the whole country change is given in Euros, but supermarkets and similar stores in downtown Prague (and probably other cities) return only , even though they accept .
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Some major stores (mainly bigger chains) will accept euros, and it's also fairly common for accommodation providers to also quote in euros. In shopping areas along the Austrian border and petrol stations in the whole country, change can be given in euros, but supermarkets and similar stores in downtown Prague (and other cities) will return only koruna, even though they may accept euros.
  
'''Never''' exchange money on the street. Also, if you're in Prague, don't exchange it in the banks. The "real" exchange rate you should be looking for can be found here [http://www.exchange.cz/index2.php]. There is no "black market" with better rates, but there is a good chance you'll end up with a roll of worthless paper. Be very careful when you are exchanging money at a small exchange kiosk. They try to use tricks in order to give you a bad exchange rate. Ask for the total amount you will get and recompute it by yourself. Do not trust "0% commission" in big letters signs (often there is an "only when selling CZK" amendment in small letters, and buying CZK still includes a commision). On this [http://kurzy.fin.cz/kurzy/kurzy.asp?A=P] website you can get good overview of reliable exchange places and rates.
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Money exchange offices (''směnárna'') are commonly found across the country, mostly in larger towns and cities. However, '''never exchange money on the street''', as it is illegal and usually a scam (and you may easily end up with counterfeit or foreign banknotes). It is possible to exchange money in banks, although commission charges are often attached. Be very careful when you are exchanging money at small exchange kiosks. Some of them try to use tricks in order to give you a bad exchange rate (eg. the displayed very good exchange rates are valid for transactions over 50,000CZK / 2000€ only). Ask for the total amount you will get and recompute it by yourself. Beware that once you hand over your money, it is legally a binding offer and it is very hard to cancel the transaction if you don't have strong arguments that they cheated. Do not trust "0% commission" in big letters signs either, as often there is an "only when selling CZK" amendment in small letters, and buying CZK still includes a commision. [http://www.exchange.cz/ Exchange] and [http://www.xe.com/ XE.com] offer up to date exchange rates for nearly all currencies.
  
Generally, exchange offices on the airport, rail stations and main tourist streets do not offer a good rate. Local people exchange money in exchange offices in less frequented areas, such as around the "Politických vězňů", "Opletalova" or "Kaprova" streets. In some cases, one can get a better rate by using ATMs instead of changing cash.
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Generally, exchange offices at the airport, rail stations and main tourist streets do not offer good rates. Local people exchange money in exchange offices in less frequented areas away from prominent tourist areas. In some cases, one can get a better rate by using ATMs (''bankomat'') instead of changing cash.
  
Major stores throughout the country accept Visa and EC/MC, as do all the tourist stores in Prague.
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Major stores and petrol stations throughout the country accept chip+PIN or contactless Visa and EC/MC, as well as most shops and restaurants throughout the country. Stripe cards are usually fine to use but their acceptance is declining.
  
Prague is really very cheap. Compared with other European major cities such as Paris, Rome, London, Munich, Barcelona, Venice, etc. it is the best city in appreciation of historical monuments, great original architecture, culture and art. It is almost half the cost as in the above cities. More about Prague prices here: [http://to-prague.eu/prague-prices]
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Compared with other [[Western Europe|Western European]] countries, the Czech Republic is often considered as an affordable location that does not destroy your account balance.
  
 
==See==
 
==See==
* [[Prague]], the capital with its incredible historic center (and famous monuments such as the Astronomical Clock, Charles Bridge, and Prague Castle). Member of the UNESCO World Heritage list.
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Thanks to its prime location in the center of Europe, the end of communism, and its entrance into the European Union, the Czech Republic has rapidly grown in popularity with international tourists, especially the capital [[Prague]], which has become one of Europe's most visited cities. Many tourists tend to be Prague-centric and stay only in or around the capital, leaving many other sites across the country undiscovered. By all means, discover the rest of the republic, which has a variety of other picturesque cities and towns to discover, as well as rich breathtaking landscapes of villages, forests, mountains, and rivers that are waiting to be explored.
* [[Olomouc]], a vibrant university town with the second largest historic center after Prague. Member of the UNESCO World Heritage list.
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* [[Český Krumlov]] - beautiful city with castle. Member of UNESCO.
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* The '''Macocha Caves''' [http://www.moravskykras.net/en/macocha-abyss.html], north of Brno, are definitely worth a visit.  You can take a guided tour into the caves, which will take you through a myriad of winding tunnels, with close up views of stalactites and stalagmites.  The tour ends with a boat ride on an underground river.
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===Cities===
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[[Image:Masarykovo namesti.jpg|thumb|Masaryk Square in [[Ostrava]].]]
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As the country's primate city, '''[[Prague]]''' naturally dominates most visitors' itineraries, and for good reason. A mix of the Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Brutalist, and Socialist, the capital is arguably one of Europe's most photogenic cities. Visitors should enjoy the '''Old Town''' and gawk at its medieval buildings, stroll across the '''Charles Bridge''', and make their way through the ''' Malá Strana''' up to the dominating '''Prague Castle''' for fantastic views of the city. Outside of the capital, visitors can easily explore '''[[Kutná Hora]]''', home to impressive churches like '''St. Barbara's''', and the morbidly fascinating '''Sedlec Ossuary'''. In the northwest of the country is '''[[Karlovy Vary]]''', a stately and imperial spa town on the banks of the Ohře and Teplá rivers, which conjures feelings of a narrow [[Paris]] or [[Vienna]] in miniature. The city's annual [http://www.kviff.com/en film festival], held normally at the beginning of July, draws in actors, directors, papparazzi, fans and film enthusiasts alike.  
  
* The '''Battle of Austerlitz''' - Slavkovské bojiště is one of the most important events in the history of Europe in the 19th century.
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The city of '''[[Pilsen]]''', home to its famous style of beer, is a blue-collar city, although its city centre is a mix of old and new, pleasant and unpretentious. Pilsen's Gothic '''St. Bartholomew Cathedral''' presents fantastic views of the entire city and surrounding countryside. Following the Vltava south is the beautiful town of '''[[Český Krumlov]]''', whose impressive '''Castle''' dominates the Gothic and Renaissance river valley town below. Largely overlooked by tourists, nearby '''[[České Budějovice]]''' presents an enjoyable old town with its '''Ottokar II Square''' a centrepoint, surrounded by buildings from the last 600 years. Fiercely proud '''[[Brno]]''', the country's second largest city, often culturally and economically competes with Prague in a rivalry spanning centuries. Home to many students and with an active nightlife, Brno presents a compact and explorable old city centre, overlooked by both its impressive '''Špilberk Castle''' and the Gothic '''St. Peter and Paul Cathedral'''. Despite being metropolitan, Brno possesses a more relaxed atmosphere than Prague does, and is known throughout the republic for its high quality of life.  
  
* Technical museum in Brno (nice and modern)
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'''[[Olomouc]]''', the historical capital of Moravia, remains as one of the Czech Republic's best kept secrets, site of one of the '''largest old towns outside of Prague''' and the '''Holy Trinity Column''', a [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/859 UNESCO World Heritage Site] in its own right. The city's medieval '''astronomical clock''', destroyed by the Germans in World War II, was remade as a Socialist Realist clock during communism; instead of parading saints and religious allegories are peasants, scientists and workers. Olomouc's impressive '''medieval walls''' mixed with parkland are also highly pleasant. The city of '''[[Ostrava]]''' in Czech Silesia, often characterized as working-class, to the point, and industrial, is home to '''Lower Vítkovice''', a massive former steel mill that now functions as a popular museum. The city also hosts the '''Colours Festival''', one of the country's largest music festivals.
  
* Lakes under Palava (mountains). This lakes are actually river dams but good for sailing and fishing (you must have fishing licence) it's full of big fishs.
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===Natural attractions===
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[[Image:Kralicky-Sneznik-03.jpg|thumb|Foothills outside of Králický Sněžník in the eastern Sudetes in [[North Moravia]].]]
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The Czech Republic is ringed by a series of mountain ranges, creating the country's distinctive borders that haven't changed much in nearly a thousand years. Mountainous ranges include the '''Bohemian Forest''' to the west, and the '''Sudetes''' to the north and east, which the Krkonoše, Jeseníky, and Soví mountain ranges are a part of.
 +
Within the country are 4 national parks, each containing rich natural beauty. [[Krkonoše National Park]] is one of the most famous and popular. Within Krkonoše close to the state border is '''Sněžka''', the republic's highest peak at 1,602 m (5,255 ft), where Czech and Polish hikers ascend from opposite ends of the mountain to meet at its summit. To the west near the German border is [[Šumava National Park]], encompassing a large area of the Bohemian Forest. Often calculated as one of the coldest areas of the country, Šumava is home to gentle mountains, raised peat bogs, glacial lakes, and the remnants of primeval forests. With the area's German inhabitants expelled in 1945, as well as being part of the Czechoslovak-West German border exclusion zone during the Cold War, Šumava has had little human interference. The park shares a common border with the German [[Bavarian Forest National Park]], and forms together a UNESCO-protected biosphere. In the republic's south, nestled against the Austrian border is [[Podyjí National Park]], a forested land running along the deep Dyje River valley.
 +
 +
Near Brno is the '''Macocha Abyss''', a massive sinkhole in the Moravian Karst, home to a narrow river gorge, an underground river and a large cave system.
 +
Unusual rock formations are also a major attraction in different parts of the country. The impressive '''Rock Theatre''' near [[Broumov]] is one such place to see these formations. Another is [[České Švýcarsko National Park]], home to the Pravčická brána, the largest natural arch in Europe.
  
* Mikulčice archaeological site, site of the former capital of the Great Moravian Empire (c. 900 AD).
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===Castles & other rural monuments===
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[[Image:057 Zámek červená Lhota.Okres JIndřichův Hradec.Česko..jpg|thumb|Červená Lhota in [[South Bohemia]].]]
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The Czech Republic is simply a treasure trove of castles, palaces, monasteries, and other places of historical significance. A complete listing of castles and palaces in this section is simply impossible. '''[[Karlštejn|Karlštejn Castle]]''', just outside of Prague, is a huge pull for curious tourists, attracted by its Gothic architecture perched above the banks of the Vltava River. The '''[[Lednice-Valtice]]''' palaces and gardens near the Slovak and Austrian borders are the massive former residences of the princes of Liechtenstein, and is today a combined [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/763 UNESCO World Heritage Site]. '''Lednice''' is known for its especially massive English gardens, while  '''Valtice''',  for its fanciful faux-Roman architecture. Not far from these palaces in the town of Slavkov u Brna is the '''Austerlitz Battlefield''', where Napoleon decidedly crushed the Austrian and Russian armies in 1805. To the west in [[South Bohemia]] near the town of Jindřichův Hradec is the '''Červená Lhota''' château, an iconic Renaissance palace starkly painted red, standing in the middle of a pond and linked only by a stone bridge. '''Hluboká Castle''', not far from [[České Budějovice]], is another massive palace, dating from the Middle Ages but heavily redesigned in the 19th century. To the very north of the country are the impressive ruins of '''Trosky Castle''', whose Gothic ruins give dramatic vistas to the [[Bohemian Paradise]]. '''Kašperk Castle''', located near the Bohemian Forest, is another Gothic legacy of Emperor Charles IV's reign.  
  
 
==Do==
 
==Do==
 
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[[Image:Podzim na Kašperku.jpg|thumb|Kašperk Castle overlooking the Bohemian Forest.]]
 
===Hiking===
 
===Hiking===
Czech Republic has an excellent and sophisticated system of trail blazing, marked trails are about everywhere. Choose an area, buy a hiking map for the area (best brand is "Klub českých turistů", 1:50000 military based maps covering the whole country, available in most large bookstores) and go.
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The Czech Republic has an excellent and sophisticated system of trail blazing, with marked trails located just about everywhere in the countryside. Choose an area, buy a hiking map for the area (the best brand is by the Czech Tourist Club's (''Klub českých turistů'') 1:50000 military-based maps, covering the whole country, available in most large bookstores.
Marked trails can also be seen on online maps [http://www.mapy.cz/#z=11&l=16&c=Z-H&x=13.828109&y=49.908682].
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===Swimming===
 
===Swimming===
Many places in the Czech Republic are great for swimming, and there are many designated public swimming areas (called koupaliště). A list of places suitable for swimming is available here: [http://www.plavcik.cz/].  However, be aware that in hot weather the quality of the water in some places can fall below EU standard regulations.
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Many places in the Czech Republic are great for swimming, and there are many designated public swimming areas (''koupaliště''). A list of places suitable for swimming is available here: [http://www.plavcik.cz/ Plavcik.cz].  However, be aware that in hot weather, the quality of the water in some places can fall below EU standard regulations.
  
 
===Nudism/[[Naturism]]===
 
===Nudism/[[Naturism]]===
Although the Czech Republic is a land-locked country, it does have a lot of nudist/naturist beaches near lakes. A full list is available here: [http://www.naturista.cz/lokality/fcfkk.htm]. Full nudity on other beaches is legal, but rare, and usually only happens in non-crowded places.
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Czech culture is rather impartial to topless sunbathing and nudism in general. Although the country is landlocked, there are many nudist and naturist beaches near lakes. A full list is available at [http://www.naturista.cz/lokality/fcfkk.htm at Naturista.cz]. Full nudity on other beaches is legal, but rare, and usually only happens in non-crowded places.
  
==Eat==
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==Learn==
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The Czech Republic has a strong history of higher learning, and remains relatively inexpensive to learn in compared to other nations. The nation's most prestigious centre for public education, '''[http://www.cuni.cz/UKENG-1.html Charles University in Prague]''', is a member of the '''Coimbra Group''' and the '''Europaeum'''. Founded in 1348, it is among one of the world's oldest universities. Other well-regarded universities in the country include '''[http://www.muni.cz/ Masaryk University]''' in [[Brno]], '''[http://www.upol.cz/en/ Palacký University]''' in [[Olomouc]], and the '''[https://www.cvut.cz/en Czech Technical University]''' in [[Prague]].
  
'''Tipping''' is a standard 10%, and is not normally added to the billDon't be confused by the percentage figures listed at the bottom of the bill - by Czech law, a receipt must show the VAT paid (20% in most cases) - the VAT is already included in the final amount, and you should add 10% to this. It is normal practice to give the waiter the tip '''before''' you leave the table. Tip is ''not'' obligatory - if you weren't satisfied with services offered, don't bother tipping.
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There are a number of private universities in operation around the country, although their numbers are small and have still yet to reach universal acceptance.
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==Work==
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[[Image:Znojmo - panorama od jihu obr1.jpg|thumb|The South Moravian town of [[Znojmo]].]]
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EU citizens can work in the Czech Republic without a work permit. Citizens from non-EU states will need a work visa or a business license. The easiest way to live and work in the Czech Republic as an English speaking person is to teach English. Various institutions offer English teaching certificates across the country. The [http://www.teflcoursereview.com/courses/location/czech-republic/ TEFL Course Review] displays a good list of where you can obtain a TEFL certificate around the country.
  
In a vast majority of better restaurants located in major cities you can pay by credit card (EC/MC, VISA), but don't be surprised if a few will not accept them. Make sure to check the door for respective card logos when entering the restaurant or ask the waiter before ordering. Czechs sometimes use special meal tickets (''stravenky'') to pay in some restaurants - these are tax-preferred and subsidised by employers. You won't get these tickets unless you get a job in the Czech Republic, just don't be surprised when you see them.
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Finding a job at a school should not be difficult as knowledge of English is in high demand. Depending on the school and the amount of work they offer you, people can earn between 35,000 to 20,000CZK, with work and salaries usually highest in [[Prague]], [[Brno]], and [[Pilsen]], and decreasing once you go into smaller cities and towns. This is more than enough to live comfortably with, depending on your living situation or lifestyle.
  
===Traditional local food===
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In order to work in the Czech Republic, you must either obtain a work visa or a trade certificate (''živnostenský list''). A work visa, usually sponsored by your company, allows you to work for one business and normally requires a university degree. A trade certificate, however, does not require a degree, but does requires an initial bank account balance in excess of 110,000CZK ($5,100 roughly), a valid ID or passport, a recent criminal record from your home country, and a small fee to purchase. After obtaining it, a ''živnostenský list'' allows you to work as a freelancer, doing whatever you wish. In order to apply for a trade license, you must go to a city office (''městský úřad''), where there will typically be a trade license office (''živnostenský odbor''). In order to research where the closest one will be to you, [http://www.statnisprava.cz/rstsp/ciselniky.nsf/i/d0056 Statnisprava.cz] has a list of all locations of where to obtain a trade certficate. 
Traditional Czech food is hearty and suitable after a hard day in the fields. It is heavy and quite fatty, and is excellent in the winter. In the recent time there was a tendency towards more light food with more vegetables, now the traditional heavy and fatty Czech food is usually not eaten everyday and some people avoid it entirely. However nothing goes as well with the excellent Czech beer as some of the best examples of the traditional Czech cuisine, like pork, duck, or goose with knedlíky (dumplings) and sauerkraut.
+
  
A traditional main meal of a day (usually lunch) consists of two or three dishes. The first dish is hot soup (polévka). The second dish is the most important part, very often based on some meat and side-dish (both served on the same plate). The third, optional part is either something sweet (and coffee) or small vegetable salad or something similar.
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Other work in the tourism industry is possible. Hostels, hotels, restaurants, city tours, and others are always looking for English-speaking staff.
  
Czech cuisine knows many different kinds of '''soup (polévka)'''. The most common are '''bramboračka''' - potato soup (sometimes with forest mushrooms), '''hovězí vývar''' - clear beef soup (sometimes '''s játrovými knedlíčky''' - with liver dumplings), '''gulášovka''' - thick goulash soup, '''zelňačka''' - thick and sour cabbage soup, '''česnečka''' (strong garlic soup, very healthy and tasty, but do not eat this before kissing),  '''kulajda''' - thick soup with forest mushrooms and milk, '''hrášková polévka''' made of young green peas,  '''čočková polévka''' made of lentils, '''fazolačka''' made of beans, '''rajská polévka''' - tomato soup, and many others. A special case not to everyone's tastes is '''dršťková polévka''' (tripe soup). '''Rybí polévka''' - thick fish soup made of carps (including its head, some innards, roe and sperm) is the traditional soup of the Christmas Dinner.  
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Prague is probably the best place to foreigners to look for a job because of the number of multinational and English-speaking companies located there. Brno is also a good location to research.
  
Some soups are eaten with bread, sometimes small croutons are put inside the soup just before eating. Soup can be also eaten as the only dish, especially for a smaller dinner.
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The most popular websites to search for a job are [http://www.jobs.cz Jobs.cz] and [http://www.prace.cz Prace.cz]. Interesting job offers are also on [http://www.kdejeprace.cz/ KdeJePrace.cz]. These websites are generally free to use.
  
The second dish (main course, hlavní jídlo) of a meal is (in the traditional cuisine) often the famous heavy and fatty part, very often based on '''pork''', but also '''beef''', '''chicken''', '''duck''', or other meat. Important part of most main courses is side-dish (the whole dish including the side-dish is served on one plate) - usually boiled or baked potatoes, fries, rice, pasta or the most typical side-dish of the Czech cuisine - '''knedlíky'''.
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There are many flexible office solutions in Prague and other large cities that enable you to rent short term office space, with [http://www.regus.cz Regus.cz] a good place to research. There are also coworking spaces in every large city, with [http://navolnenoze.cz/blog/coworkingy/ Navolnenoze.cz] providing a database for coworking spaces.
  
Knedlíky  (usually translated as ''dumplings'') come in many different kinds. Most kinds are used as side-dish, however some kinds with filling are used as dish by itself. The most common type, always used as side-dish, are '''houskové knedlíky''' (''bread dumplings''). These are boiled in a shape of a cylinder, which is then cut into round slices about 8 cm in diameter remotely resembling white bread. Houskové knedlíky are served with Czech classics such as '''guláš''', similar to Hungarian goulash but with a thinner sauce and less spicy; '''Svíčková na smetaně''', beef sirloin with a creamy root vegetable (carrot, celeriac, parsnip) sauce, served with a tablespoon of cranberry sauce, a slice of orange and whipped cream; '''Vepřová pečeně se zelím a knedlíkem locally named as Vepřo-knedlo-zelo''', the combination of roast pork, knedlíky and sauerkraut. The latter combines very well with the world-famous Czech beer, the major brands being Pilsner Urquell, Gambrinus, Budvar, Staropramen, Velkopopovický Kozel and Krušovice. If you are lucky enough to enter a pub serving Svijany, you should definitely order it, as it is believed to be one of the most delicious brands worldwide.
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==Eat==
 +
'''Tipping''' is a standard 10%, and is not normally added to the bill. Don't be confused by the percentage figures listed at the bottom of the bill, by Czech law, a receipt must show the VAT paid (21% in most cases) and the VAT is already included in the final amount, and you should add about 10% to this (or more if you were really satisfied). It is normal practice to give the waiter the tip '''before''' you leave the table. Tip is ''not'' obligatory so if you weren't satisfied with services offered, don't bother tipping.
  
Another common kind is '''bramborové knedlíky''' (''potato dumplings''), the slices are smaller, more yellow in color, and are also always served as a side-dish. A typical combination is roasted meet (pork or lamb for example) with spinach and bramborové knedlíky or duck with sauerkraut and bramborové knedlíky (or combination of bramborové and houskové knedlíky). Less common are '''chlupaté knedlíky''' ('''hairy dumplings''', but there are no hairs, don't panic), which are not sliced but boiled in shape of balls. They are also usually served with roasted meat and either sauerkraut or spinach.
+
In a vast majority of better restaurants located in major cities, you can pay by credit card (EC/MC, VISA) but don't be surprised if a few will not accept them. Make sure to check the door for respective card logos when entering the restaurant or ask the waiter before ordering. Beware that as in the rest of Europe, displaying the card logo means the restaurant accepts chip+PIN cards but still may refuse stripe-only cards.
  
Other Czech dishes include '''pečená kachna''', roast duck again served with bread or potato dumplings, and red and white sauerkraut; '''moravský vrabec''', known as 'Moravian Sparrow', but which is in fact pork cooked in garlic and onions; '''smažený kapr''', fried carp breaded and served with a very rich potato salad and eaten on Christmas Eve; '''pečené vepřové koleno''', roast pork knee, served with mustard and fresh horseradish; '''bramborák''', garlicky potato pancakes; '''smažený sýr''', breaded deep-fried edam (the most popular cheese in the Czech Republic) served with boiled potatoes or french fries and tartar sauce; '''párek v rohlíku''', long, thin hot dogs with crusty rolls and mustard or ketchup.  If you must, you can always get '''hranolky''' - french fries.  And of course, the ubiquitous <b>zelí</b> (raw cabbage), which is served with absolutely everything.  Game is also very good, and includes dishes such as  '''kančí''', wild boar, '''bažant''', pheasant and '''jelení''' or '''daňčí''', both types of venison.  These are almost always served either with dumplings and red and white cabbage, or as guláš.  
+
Czechs sometimes use special meal tickets (''stravenky'') to pay in some restaurants, these are subsided by and tax-deductible for employers. You won't get these tickets unless you get a job in the Czech Republic, just don't be surprised when you see them.
  
Don't expect a wide selection of '''zelenina''', vegetables, unless in the countryside - peppers, tomatoes and cabbage are the most commonly-seen side dishes, often served as a small garnish.
+
===Traditional local food===
 +
[[Image:Praha 2005-09-25 svíčková na smetaně-00.jpg|thumb|''Svíčková na smetaně'' (beef sirloin with cream) is one of the country's most well-known meals.]]
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Traditional Czech food is hearty and suitable after a hard day in the fields. It is heavy and quite fatty, and is excellent in the winter. In the recent time there was a tendency towards more light food with more vegetables, now the traditional heavy and fatty Czech food is usually not eaten everyday and some locals avoid it entirely. However nothing goes as well with an excellent Czech beer as some of the best examples of traditional Czech cuisine, like pork, duck, or goose with dumplings and sauerkraut.
  
Visitors may be surprised when they find "American potatoes" in the menu. These are actually potato wedges, usually spiced.
+
A traditional main meal of a day (usually lunch) consists of two or three dishes. The first dish is hot soup. The second dish is the most important part, very often based on some meat and side-dish (both served on the same plate). The third, optional part is either something sweet (and coffee) or small vegetable salad or something similar.
  
===Meals You Usually Do Not Get in a Restaurant===
+
Czech cuisine knows many different kinds of soup (''polévka''). The most common are '''bramboračka''' (potato soup, sometimes with forest mushrooms), '''hovězí vývar''' (a clear beef soup, sometimes with liver dumplings—''játrovými knedlíčky''), '''gulášovka''' (thick goulash soup), '''zelňačka''' (thick and sour cabbage soup), '''česnečka''' (strong garlic soup, very healthy and tasty, but do not eat this before kissing),  '''kulajda''' (thick soup with forest mushrooms and milk), '''hrášková polévka''' (made of young green peas),  '''čočková polévka''' (made of lentils), '''fazolačka''' (made of beans), '''rajská polévka''' (tomato soup), and many others. A special case not to everyone's tastes is '''dršťková polévka''' (tripe soup). '''Rybí polévka''' - thick fish soup made of carps (including its head, some innards, roe and sperm) is the traditional soup of Christmas.
  
Generally, probably the best place to really try the Czech cuisine is to be invited for such a meal to somebody's home. However, it is not so easy, because people today tend to prepare simpler and more international foods. Traditional Czech cuisine is often reserved to Sundays or some holidays or prepared by old grandma when her children visit her. This is not a rule, but it is a common situation. In common restaurants, even the better ones, the traditional Czech food usually does not match what the old grandma serves. This does not mean that the food is bad or not tasty, but it is missing something that the home preparation can provide. In luxurious restaurants specialized in Czech cuisine, the food can be excellent, but the luxurious style and creative improvements by the chef often do not match the style of the traditional folk cuisine. Again, this is not a hard rule. Sometimes you can compliment the food in a restaurant "As if my grandma prepared it."
+
Some soups are eaten with bread, sometimes small croutons are put inside the soup just before eating. Soup can be also eaten as the only dish, especially for a smaller dinner.
  
There are some dishes that are usually not served in any restaurants or pubs, are usually made at home and are worth trying if you have the opportunity. '''Brambory na loupačku''' ("potatoes to be peeled") is a cheap and simple meal usually made in the countryside. Whole unpeeled potatoes are boiled in a big pot and put in the pot itself or a bowl on the table. You just take a hot potato from the pot, peel it yourself, put some salt, butter, and/or curd (tvaroh) on it and eat it. Drink it down with lot of cold milk. For such a simply meal it can be incredibly tasty, especially when eaten in the countryside after a day spent outside and chatting over it.
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The second dish (main course, ''hlavní jídlo'') of a meal is (in the traditional cuisine) often the famous heavy and fatty part, very often based on '''pork''' but also '''beef''', '''chicken''', '''duck''', or other meat. The important part of most main courses is the side-dish (the whole dish including the side-dish is served on one plate) which are usually boiled or baked potatoes, fries, rice, pasta or the most typical side-dish of the Czech cuisine—'''knedlíky'''.
 +
[[Image:VeproKnedloZelo-00.jpg|thumb|''Vepřo-knedlo-zelo'' (roast pork, dumplings and sauerkraut).]]
 +
''Knedlíky''  (usually translated as ''dumplings'') come in many different kinds. Most kinds are used as a side-dish, however some kinds with filling are used as a dish in itself. The most common type, always used as side-dish, is '''houskové knedlíky''' (bread dumplings). These are boiled in a shape of a cylinder which is then cut into round slices about 8 cm in diameter remotely resembling white bread. Houskové knedlíky are served with Czech classics such as '''guláš''', similar to Hungarian goulash but with a thinner sauce and less spicy; '''Svíčková na smetaně''', beef sirloin with a creamy root vegetable (carrot, celeriac, parsnip) sauce, served with a tablespoon of cranberry sauce, a slice of orange and whipped cream; '''Vepřová pečeně se zelím a knedlíkem''' (colloquially '''Vepřo-knedlo-zelo'''), the combination of roast pork, dumplings and sauerkraut. The latter combines very well with the world-famous Czech beer, the major brands being Pilsner Urquell, Gambrinus, Budvar (known as ''Czechvar'' in the US), Staropramen, Velkopopovický Kozel and Krušovice. If you are lucky enough to enter a pub serving Svijany, you should definitely order it as it is believed to be one of the most delicious brands worldwide.
  
Picking mushrooms in forests is a very popular activity in the Czech Republic. Probably not surprisingly, collected mushrooms are eaten then. In restaurants, usually only cultivated mushrooms are used. If forest mushrooms are served in a restaurant, then usually only as a minor addition to a meal. Homemade mushroom meals are a completely different story. A classic example is '''Smaženice''' (the name is based on the verb 'smažit' - to fry), also known as míchanice (to mix) - forest mushrooms, the more kinds the better, are sliced to small pieces, mixed and stewed (with some fat, onion, and caraway). Later, eggs are added to the mixture. Smaženice is served with bread. '''Smažené bedly''' are whole caps of parasol mushrooms coated in breadcrumbs and fried. '''Černý kuba''' (literally ''black jimmy'') is  a traditional Christmas fasting meal made from dried mushrooms and peeled barley. '''Houbová omáčka''' (mushroom sauce), served with meat and bread dumplings is also popular. Fresh or dried mushrooms make also a nice addition to '''bramboračka s houbami''' (potato soup with mushrooms). '''Kulajda''' is a soup from mushrooms and cream. Soups and sauces are the most likely forest mushroom meals to find in a restaurant, because they contain relatively small amount of mushrooms.
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Other common dumplings are '''bramborové knedlíky''' (potato dumplings). The slices are smaller, more yellow in color, and are also always served as a side-dish. Typical combinations with potato dumplings are roasted meat (pork or lamb for example) with spinach, or duck with sauerkraut (with a combination of ''bramborové'' and ''houskové knedlíky''). Less common are '''chlupaté knedlíky''' (literally hairy dumplings but there is no hair on it, don't panic) which are not sliced but boiled in the shape of balls. They are also usually served with roasted meat and either sauerkraut or spinach.
  
If you want to pick mushrooms by yourself, be careful. There are hundreds of species, some of them very tasty, some merely edible, but some poisonous or even deadly. There is also a species used as a hallucinogenic drug. A tasty and edible species may look very similar to a deadly species. If you do not know mushrooms very well, you should be accompanied by an experienced mushroom-picker.
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Other Czech dishes include '''pečená kachna''', roast duck again served with bread or potato dumplings, and red and white sauerkraut; '''moravský vrabec''' (lit. Moravian sparrow) which is in fact pork cooked in garlic and onions; '''smažený kapr''', fried carp breaded and served with a very rich potato salad and eaten on Christmas Eve; '''pečené vepřové koleno''', roast pork knee, served with mustard and fresh horseradish; '''bramborák''', garlicky potato pancakes; '''smažený sýr''', breaded deep-fried Eidam (Edammer; the most popular cheese in the Czech Republic) served with boiled potatoes or french fries and tartar sauce; '''párek v rohlíku''', long, thin hot dogs with crusty rolls and mustard or ketchup. If you must, you can always get '''hranolky''' - french fries.  And of course, the ubiquitous '''zelí''' (raw cabbage or sauerkraut) which is served with absolutely everything.  Game is also very good, and includes dishes such as '''kančí''', wild boar, '''bažant''', pheasant, and '''srnčí''', '''jelení''' or '''daňčí''', all species of deer. These are almost always served either with dumplings and red and white cabbage, or as guláš.
  
=== Beer Snacks ===
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Don't expect a wide selection of '''zelenina''', vegetables, unless in the countryside - peppers, tomatoes and cabbage are the most commonly-seen side dishes, often served as a small garnish.
  
Also try traditional beer snacks, often the only food served in some pubs (hospoda, pivnice), and designed to be washed down by a good beer:
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Visitors may be surprised when they find American potatoes on the menu. These are actually potato wedges, usually spiced.
  
* '''Utopenec''' - (means 'drowned man' in Czech) a pickled sausage with onion, garlic and other vegetables and spices.
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===Meals atypical for restaurants===
* '''Zavináč''' - (rollmop) a slice of pickled fish, most often herring or mackerel, rolled-up and filled with various pickled vegetables (sauerkraut, onion, sometimes carrot or pepper).
+
Generally, the best place try Czech cuisine is to be invited for such a meal at someone's house. However, it is not so easy because contemporary Czechs tend to prepare simpler and more international foods. Traditional Czech cuisine is often reserved for Sundays, holidays, or prepared by grandma (''babička'') when her children visit. This isn't a rule but a common situation. In normal restaurants—even the better ones—traditional Czech staples can't match what grandma serves. This doesn't mean that the food is bad or not tasty, but it is missing something that home preparation can provide. In luxurious restaurants specialized with Czech cuisine, food can be excellent, but the luxurious style and creative improvements by the chef often only mimics traditional folk cuisine. Again, this is not a hard rule. Sometimes you can compliment the food in a restaurant that is  "like what my grandma makes."
* '''Tlačenka s cibulí''' - (brawn with onion) a slice of haggis-like meat pudding, sprinkled with vinegar and garnished with fresh onion slices. Beware, can be rather acidic due to vinegar.
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* '''Nakládaný Hermelín''' - pickled Brie-like cheese, often marinated with garlic and chilli.
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* '''Pivní sýr''' - beer cheese - a soft cheese, with a strong, Cheddar-like flavour. You should add a splash of beer to the cheese, and then mash it all together, and serve it on traditional Czech bread - '''Šumava''' (the name of a region in South Bohemia) is the most common bread, a very tasty dense loaf made from rye and carroway seeds.
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* '''Tvarůžky''' or '''Syrečky''' - traditional cheese with a very strong aroma, and very much an aquired taste. Often served deep-fried, but can be eaten alone, just with some chopped onion, mustard and bread. Sometimes also marinated in beer ('syrečky v pivu'). This cheese naturaly contains almost no fat (less than 1%). Also can be served as '''Pivní Pes''' (Beer dog) - a plate of cheese on butter bread, with slice of onion, hot pepper and mustard.
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* '''Romadur''' - traditional cheese with strong aroma. Aroma is similar to Tvarůžky, but Romadur is different type of cheese.
+
* '''Matesy s cibulí''' - (soused herring) cold fish served with onions.
+
  
If you want a warm, bigger, and more complicated meal which goes excellently with beer, get some of the typical Czech meals based on fatty meat (pork, duck, or goose) with sauerkraut and knedlíky (dumplings). Another excellent option is a whole pork knee with horseradish and bread ('''ovarové koleno s křenem''').
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There are some dishes that are usually not served in any restaurants or pubs, but are made at home and worth trying if you have the opportunity. '''Brambory na loupačku''' (potatoes to be peeled) is a cheap and simple meal usually made in the countryside. Whole unpeeled potatoes are boiled in a big pot and put in the pot itself or a bowl on the table. You just take a hot potato from the pot, peel it yourself, put some salt, butter, and/or curd (''tvaroh'') on it and eat it. Drink it down with lots of cold milk. For such a simple meal, it can be incredibly tasty, especially when eaten in the countryside after a day spent outside.
  
===Sweets===
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Mushroom-picking in forests is a very popular activity among Czechs. Unsurprisingly, collected mushrooms are eaten afterwards. In restaurants, usually only cultivated mushrooms are used. If forest mushrooms are served in a restaurant, it is usually only as a minor addition to a meal. Homemade mushroom meals are a completely different story. A classic example is '''smaženice''' (fried dish), also known as '''míchanice''' (mixed dish)—forest mushrooms, the more kinds the better, are sliced into small pieces, mixed and stewed with some fat, onion, and caraway. Later, eggs are added to the mixture. Smaženice is served with bread. '''Smažené bedly''' are whole caps of parasol mushrooms coated in breadcrumbs and cumin and fried. '''Černý kuba''' (black Jimmy) is a traditional Christmas fasting meal made from dried mushrooms and peeled barley. '''Houbová omáčka''' (mushroom sauce), served with meat and bread dumplings is also popular. Fresh or dried mushrooms make also a nice addition to '''bramboračka s houbami''' (potato soup with mushrooms). '''Kulajda''' is a soup from mushrooms and cream. Soups and sauces are the most likely forest mushroom meals to find in a restaurant, because they contain a relatively small amount of mushrooms.
Czechs like sweets but consumer patterns are different compared to France, USA or the UK. As everywhere some traditional treats have become a mass-market production for tourists, others are pretty difficult to find.
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==== On the street ====
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If you want to pick mushrooms by yourself, be careful. There are hundreds of species, some of them tasty, some merely edible, but some poisonous or even deadly. You can also find psilocybin, which are hallucinogenic (although it is very hard to guess a safe dosage and therefore dangerous). A tasty and edible species may look very similar to bitter or deadly species. If you do not know mushrooms very well, you should be accompanied by an experienced mushroom-picker.
  
* '''Lázeňské oplatky''' - spa wafers from Mariánské Lázně and Karlovy Vary (major spa towns in Western Bohemia, better known by their German names of Marienbad and Karlsbad) are meant to be eaten while "taking the waters" at a spa, but they're good on their own, too. Other major spas are Karlova Studánka (favourite destination of Václav Havel - former Czechoslovakian president), Františkovy Lázně, Jánské Lázně, Karviná, and Luhačovice. You will find them most easily not only in spa resorts but also in Prague. Have them either out of the box on your own or heated and iced with sugar, cinnamon, etc..
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===Snacks===
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Also try a traditional snack, often the only food served in some pubs (''hospoda'', ''pivnice''), or can be found in bread shops (''pekárna''). Many can be washed down with a good beer:
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[[Image:Chlebicky.JPG|thumb|''Obložené chlebíčky'', a popular snack.]]
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* '''Utopenec''' ("drowned man") — a pickled sausage with onion, garlic and other vegetables and spices.
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* '''Zavináč''' (rollmop; also used as name of the at-sign in Czech) - a slice of pickled fish, most often herring or mackerel, rolled-up and filled with various pickled vegetables (sauerkraut, onion, sometimes carrot or pepper).
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* '''Tlačenka s cibulí''' (brawn with onion) — a slice of haggis-like meat pudding, sprinkled with vinegar and garnished with fresh onion slices. Beware, can be rather acidic due to vinegar.
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* '''Nakládaný Hermelín''' (pickled camembert) — pickled camembert-like cheese, often marinated with garlic and chilli.
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* '''Pivní sýr''' (beer cheese) — a soft cheese with a strong, Cheddar-like flavour.  You should add a splash of beer to the cheese, and then mash it all together and serve it on traditional Czech bread. ''Šumava''-style bread is the most common, a very tasty dense loaf made from rye and caraway seeds.
 +
* '''Tvarůžky''' (small curd pieces) or '''syrečky''' (small cheese pieces) — traditional cheese with a very strong aroma, and very much an acquired taste. Often served deep-fried but if you can handle the smell, it can be eaten alone, just with some chopped onion, mustard and bread. Sometimes also marinated in beer ('''syrečky v pivu'''). This cheese naturally contains almost no fat (less than 1%). Also can be served as '''pivní pes''' (lit. beer dog) - a plate of cheese on butter bread, with slice of onion, hot pepper and mustard.
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* '''Romadur''' — traditional cheese with strong aroma. Aroma is similar to tvarůžky but Romadur is a different type of cheese.
 +
* '''Matesy s cibulí''' (soused herring) — cold fish served with onions.
 +
* '''Obložené chlebíčky''' (garnished breads) — an open sandwich usually served as a snack or appetizer, with ham, salami of sausage, a sliced hard-boiled egg, cheeses, cream cheese, a cucumber,  tomato, fish paste, or lettuce. This is highly popular to get from bakeries or bread shops.  
  
* '''Trdlo or trdelník''' - is available in dedicated sell-points in the streets of Prague. It is a mediaeval style sweet roll made from eggs and flour.
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If you want a warm, bigger, and more complicated meal which goes excellently with beer, get some of the typical Czech meals based on fatty meat (pork, duck, or goose) with sauerkraut and knedlíky (dumplings). Another excellent option is a whole pork knee with horseradish and bread ('''ovarové koleno s křenem''' or simply '''ovar''').
  
==== In restaurants ====
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===Sweets===
* '''Jablkový závin''' or '''štrůdl''', apple strudel, often served warm with whipped cream.
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[[Image:Makovy frgal.jpg|thumb|A typical ''koláče'', found in many pastry shops.]]
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Czechs make no secret that they have a serious sweet tooth, yet pastry patterns are different compared to France, the US or the UK. As everywhere, some traditional treats have become a mass-market production for tourists, while others are difficult to find.
  
* '''Medovník''' - a newcomer having quickly spread in most restaurants. A brown high cake made of gingerbread, honey and walnuts.
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====On the street====
 +
* '''Lázeňské oplatky''' (spa wafers) — wafers from [[Mariánské Lázně]] and [[Karlovy Vary]]  are meant to be eaten while "taking the waters" at a spa, but they're also entirely good on their own. Have them either out of the box, on your own, or heated and iced with sugar, cinnamon, etc..
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* '''Trdlo''' (pestle; this is in fact the roller, not the sweet) or '''trdelník''' — available in dedicated sell-points in most major cities. It is a Central European Medieval-style sweet roll made from eggs and flour.
  
* '''Ovocné knedlíky''' - fruit stuffed dumplings served either as main course or a filling dessert. The smaller ones ('tvarohové') come with plum, apple or apricot filling, the bigger ones ('kynuté') come with strawberries, blueberries, povidla (plum jam) or toher fruits. Knedlíky are served with melted butter, iced with tvaroh (curd cheese) and sugar, and topped with whipped cream.
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====In restaurants====
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* '''Jablkový závin'''  or '''štrůdl''' — an apple roll pastry related to the Austrian ''strudel'', served warm with whipped cream.
 +
* '''Medovník''' — a newcomer having quickly spread in most restaurants. A brown high cake made of gingerbread, honey and walnuts.
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* '''Ovocné knedlíky''' (fruit dumplings) — fruit-stuffed dumplings served either as main course or a filling dessert. The smaller ones (''tvarohové'' curd) come with plum, apple or apricot filling; the bigger ones (''kynuté'', yeast) come with strawberries, blueberries, ''povidla'' (plum jam) or other fruits. These dumplings are served with melted butter, iced with curd and sugar, and topped with whipped cream.
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* '''Palačinka''' — a distant cousin of French ''crêpes'', these pancakes are usually thicker and served with a wide choice of fillings, including chocolate, ice cream, fruit and whipped cream.
  
* '''Palačinka''' - not much in common with French crepes, these pancakes are usually thicker and served with a wide choice of fillings including chocolate, ice-cream, fruit and whipped cream.
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====Cukrárna====
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Try also the wide variety of rich cream cakes usually found in a '''Kavárna''' (cafe) or a '''Cukrárna''' (sweet shop).  Czech cakes are similar to their Viennese cousins due to the shared history of both countries under the Austro-Hungarian empire.  Sample also '''Vídeňská káva''' (Viennese coffee), coffee served with a mountain of whipped cream.
 +
* '''Rakvička''' ("little coffin") — a light crispy biscuit with cream.
 +
* '''Větrník''' ("windmill") — a round French ''éclair''-style cream cake.
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* '''Punčák''' ("the rum-punch-filled one") — a rum soaked yellow/pink sugar-glazed cake.
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* '''Laskonka''' — a coconut and cream-based sandwich cake.
  
==== Cukrárna ====
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====Home made====
Try also the wide variety of rich cream cakes usually found in a '''Kavárna''' (a cafe), or a '''Cukrárna''' (a shop which sells all things sweet together with ice cream and drinks, found throughout the Czech Republic and often the only place open in small towns and villages on Sundays). Czech cakes are similar to their Viennese cousins due to the shared history of both countries under the Austro-Hungarian empire.  Sample also '''Vídeňská káva''' (Viennese coffee), coffee served with a mountain of whipped cream.
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* '''Bábovka''' a traditional cake, similar to marble cake, fairly dry, and usually served dusted with icing sugar. Known as ''gugelhupf'' in neighboring [[Austria]].
* '''Rakvička''' (literally ''a little coffin'') is a light crispy biscuit with cream,
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* '''Buchty''' — traditional buns filled with tvaroh (curd cheese), mák (poppy seeds), or povidla (plum jam)
* '''Větrník''' is a round French éclair style cream cake,
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* '''Koláče''' — a rather popular flat tart topped with various sweet fillings like ''tvaroh'', ''povidla'', poppy seeds, fruit jams, chopped apples and nuts. Their size ranges from bite-sized (''svatební koláčky'', "little wedding cakes") to pizza-sized (''chodský koláč'' or ''frgál''), often containing several fillings combined into an elaborate pattern .
* '''Punčák''' is a rum soaked yellow/pink biscuit sugar-glazed cake,
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* '''Laskonka''' is a coconut and cream based sandwich cake, and many more!
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==== Home made ====
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===Vegetarian food===
* '''Bábovka''' - a traditional cake, similar to marble cake, fairly dry, and usually served dusted with icing sugar.
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[[Image:Czech fried cheese.jpg|thumb|Fried cheese (''smažený sýr'') is a staple for many restaurants.]]
* '''Buchty''' - traditional buns filled with tvaroh (curd cheese), mák (poppy seeds), or povidla (plum jam)
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Finding a vegetarian meal in the Czech Republic is not as difficult now as it once was, especially in the larger cities. In tourist areas at least, such as Prague, Brno, or any city with a major university, most restaurant menus contain a vegetarian section (''bezmasá jídla'' or ''vegetariánská jídla'') with two or three options. People may have their own interpretation of what constitutes as ''vegetarian'', and it is not uncommon to find dishes such as broccoli bacon or prawns listed under ''vegetarian meals''.
* '''Koláče''' - rather popular flat tarts topped with various sweet fillings like tvaroh, povidla, mák, fruit jams, chopped apples and nuts. Their size ranges from bite-sized ('svatební koláčky') to pizza-sized, which often contain several fillings combined into an elaborate pattern ('Chodský koláč' or 'frgál').
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=== Vegetarian food ===
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In traditional restaurants, the choice in vegetarian food is usually limited to fried cheese (''smažený sýr''), although sometimes containing ham or salami, dumplings (knedlíky), omelette, potatoes (boiled, baked, fried or as 'potato pancakes') and sometimes a Greek salad or cooked vegetables. Be advised that vegetables practically always have to be ordered separately, even if they appear to be part of the dish: e.g. the vegetables listed in a menu option called "potato pancakes with vegetables" are most likely a garniture consisting of a few leaves of lettuce and a slice of tomato.
Finding a vegetarian meal in the Czech Republic is not as difficult now as it once was. In tourist areas at least, such as Prague and the Bohemian Paradise, most restaurant menus contain a vegetarian meals category (''bezmasá jídla'' or ''vegetariánská jídla'') with 2-3 options. People may have their own interpretation of 'vegetarian' though, and it is not uncommon to find dishes such as "broccoli bacon" or prawns listed under "vegetarian meals".
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In traditional restaurants the choice in vegetarian food is usually limited to fried cheese, dumplings (knedlíky), omelette, potatoes (boiled, baked, fried or as 'potato pancakes') and sometimes a Greek salad or cooked vegetables. Be advised that vegetables practically always have to be ordered separately, even if they appear to be part of the dish: e.g. the vegetables listed in a menu option called "potato pancakes with vegetables" are most likely a garniture consisting of a few leaves of lettuce and a slice of tomato.
+
  
Bigger towns have foreign cuisine restaurants, mostly Italian and Chinese, which can serve you meat-free dishes such as vegetarian pasta.
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Bigger towns have foreign cuisine restaurants, mostly Italian, Vietnamese, and Chinese, which can serve you meat-free dishes such as vegetarian pasta.
  
 
==Drink==
 
==Drink==
 
===Beer===
 
===Beer===
The Czech Republic is the country where modern beer (''pivo'' in Czech) was invented (in [[Plzeň]]). Czechs are the heaviest beer drinkers in the world, drinking about 160 litres of it per capita per year. Going to a cosy Czech pub for dinner and a few beers is a must!  
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When Germans or Belgians will boast their beers as being the best, Czechs often roll their eyes and will proudly respond that it was in ''their'' country where modern beer (''pivo'') was invented. Czechs are the heaviest beer drinkers on Earth, consuming about 160 litres per capita a year. Going to a cosy Czech pub for dinner and a few beers is a must! Some well-known brands include:
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[[Image:Prague Praha 2014 Holmstad Czech beer - Tsjekkisk øl - 4.JPG|thumb|Some of the Czech Republic's most famous beers.]]
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* '''Pilsner Urquell (Plzeňský Prazdroj)''' — perhaps the country's most famous export, made in [[Pilsen]]. A pilsner type blond lager that has inspired beers across the world.
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* '''Budějovický Budvar (Budweiser Budvar)''' — not to be confused with the American Budweiser, Budějovický Budvar (or Czechvar in North America) originates from [[České Budějovice]] and its brewery is still nationalized by the Czech government.
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* '''Staropramen''' — translating as "old spring," made in [[Prague]].
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* '''Gambrinus''' — lager beer also made at the Pilsner Urquell brewery in [[Pilsen]].
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* '''Velkopopovický Kozel''' (''Coe-ZELL'') — known for its iconic goat emblem (that so-happens to be its Czech translation), made in [[Central Bohemia]].
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* '''Bernard'''  — an old, traditional beer from the [[Bohemian-Moravian Highlands]], known for being non-pasteurized.
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* '''Radegast''' — a beer originating from [[North Moravia]].
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* '''Svijany''' (''SVE-yawn-ne'') — a highly-popular independent beer from brewed in a tiny village of the same name in [[North Bohemia]].
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* '''Starobrno''' — translated as "Old Brno," a beer that is popularly found in [[Brno]].
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* '''Krušovice''' (''Crew-sho-VEE-sa'') — a historical beer brewed since the 1500s for the Austrian emperors, in the village of the same name in [[Central Bohemia]].
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* '''Dobřanská Hvězda''' (''DOB-zruhn-SKAH Hv-YEZ-duh'') — an independent beer in [[West Bohemia]].
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Although many Czechs tend to be very selective about their beer brands, tourists usually don't find a significant difference. Remember, real Czech beer is only served on tap; bottled beer is a completely different experience. High-quality beer can almost certainly be found in a ''hospoda'' or ''hostinec'', very basic pubs which serve only beer and light snacks. Take a seat and order your drinks when the waiter comes to you. But beware, the handling of the beer is even more important than its brand. A bad bartender can completely ruin even excellent beer. The best bet is to ask local beer connoisseurs about a good pub or just join them.
  
The best-known export brands are '''[[:Wikipedia:Pilsner Urquell|Pilsner Urquell]]''' (Plzeňský Prazdroj), '''[[:Wikipedia:Budweiser Budvar|Budweiser Budvar]]''' (Budějovický Budvar) and '''[[:Wikipedia:Staropramen|Staropramen]]''' (freely translateable as "Oldspring"). Other major brands which are popular domestically include '''Gambrinus''', '''Kozel''' (goat), '''Bernard''' (a small traditional brewery, with very high quality beer), '''Radegast''', and '''Starobrno''' (made in [[Brno]], the capital of [[Moravia]]). Other fantastic beers worth tasting are '''Svijany''' and '''Dobřanská Hvězda'''. Although many Czechs tend to be very selective about beer brands, tourists usually don't find a significant difference. And remember, real Czech beer is only served on tap &ndash; bottled beer is a completely different experience. High-quality beer can almost certainly be found in a ''hospoda'' or ''hostinec'', very basic pubs which serve only beer and light snacks. Take a seat and order your drinks when the waiter comes to you - going to the bar to order your drinks is a British custom! But beware, the handling of the beer is even more important than its brand. A bad bartender can completely ruin even excellent beer. Best bet is to ask local beer connoiseurs about a good pub or just join them.
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Beers are sometimes listed by their original sugar content, which is measured in degrees Plato (P/°). The difference is generally apparent in the final alcohol content. Normal beer is about 10° (such as Gambrinus and Staropramen, which results in 4% ABV), lager 12° (such as Pilsner Urquell, results in about 4.75% ABV). The latter is stronger and more expensive, so you should specify which one you want when you order.
  
Beers are sometimes listed by their original sugar content, which is measured in degrees Plato (P/°). The difference is generally apparent in the final alcohol content. Normal beer is about 10° (such as Gambrinus and Staropramen, which results in 4% ABV), lager 12° (such as Pilsner Urquell, which results in about 4.75% ABV). The latter is stronger and more expensive, so you should specify which one you want when you order.
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Czech lager is nothing like the fizzy lagers found in many other countries. Instead, it has a very strong, hoppy, almost bitter flavour, and goes very well with heavy dishes like duck or pork and dumplings or strong cheeses. It always has a thick head on the top when it is served, but do not be afraid to drink "through" it, it is fun and it slowly disappears anyway, nevertheless do not drink the beer too slowly as the fresh cold taste (especially in hot summers) quickly fades &ndash; the "true" Czech connoisseurs do not even finish this "tepid goat," as they call it.
  
Czech lager is nothing like the fizzy lagers found in many other countries.  Instead, it has a very strong, hoppy, almost bitter flavour, and goes very well with heavy dishes like duck or pork and dumplings or strong cheeses. It always has a thick head on the top when it is served, but do not be afraid to drink "through" it, it is fun and it slowly disappears anyway, nevertheless do not drink the beer too slowly as the fresh cold taste (especially in hot summers) quickly fades &ndash; the "true" Czech connoisseurs do not even finish this "tepid goat," as they call it.
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Don't be surprised if the waiter, especially in typical pub, puts the next beer before you, but you have not ordered it and also you have not finished your previous beer. It is purely and simply because you shouldn't sit in a pub with empty glass. If you don't want another beer, say ''ne, děkuji'' to the waiter, or ''zaplatim prosím'' if you want to pay and leave.
  
 
===Wine===
 
===Wine===
Wine (''víno'' in Czech) is another popular drink, particularly wine from Moravia in the south-eastern part of the country where the climate is more suited to vineyards. White wines tend to be the best as the growing conditions are more favourable for them. For white wines, try '''Veltlínské zelené''' (Green Veltliner), '''Muškát moravský''' (Moravian Muscatel), '''Ryzlink rýnský''' (Rhine Riesling) or '''Tramín''' (Traminer), or red wines such as '''Frankovka''' (Blaufrankisch), '''Modrý Portugal''' (Blue Portugal, named after the grape, not the country), or '''Svatovavřinecké''' (Saint Lawrence). Also try ice wine (''ledové víno'') made when the grapes are harvested after they have frozen on the vines, or straw wine (''slámové víno'') made by leaving the grapes to ripen on straw) &ndash; these wines are more expensive and are similar to dessert wines.  '''Bohemia Sekt''' is also popular with Czechs, and is an inexpensive sweet, fizzy wine, similar to Lambrusco, and drunk at celebrations. The best places for wine are either a wine bar (''vinárna''), or a wine shop (''vinotéka'') which sometimes has a small bar area too.
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What might come as a surprise to beer-loving outsiders, wine (''víno'') is also highly popular in the Czech Republic, particularly in [[South Moravia]], where the climate is suited for vineyards. White wines tend to be the best, as the growing conditions are more favourable for them. For white wines, try '''Veltlínské zelené''' (Green Veltliner), '''Muškát moravský''' (Moravian Muscatel), '''Ryzlink rýnský''' (Rhine Riesling) or '''Tramín''' (Traminer), or red wines such as '''Frankovka''' (Blaufrankisch), '''Modrý Portugal''' (Blue Portugal, named after the grape, not the country), or '''Svatovavřinecké''' (Saint Lawrence). Also try ice wine (''ledové víno'') made when the grapes are harvested after they have frozen on the vines, or straw wine (''slámové víno'') made by leaving the grapes to ripen on straw) &ndash; these wines are more expensive and are similar to dessert wines.  '''Bohemia Sekt''' is also popular with Czechs, and is an inexpensive sweet, fizzy wine, similar to Lambrusco, and drunk at celebrations. The best places for wine are either a wine bar (''vinárna''), or a wine shop (''vinotéka'') which sometimes has a small bar area too.
  
 
===Spirits===
 
===Spirits===
For spirits, try '''Becherovka''' (herb liqueur, similar to Jagermeister, tastes of a mixtures of cloves and cinnamon, and drunk as a digestive), '''slivovice''' (plum brandy, very popular as a pick-me-up), '''hruškovice''' (pear brandy, less fiery than Slivovice), and so on. Spirits are made out of almost every kind of fruit (Plums, Peaches, Cherries, Sloes, etc.). Czech unique '''tuzemský rum''' (made from sugar beet, not from sugar cane as the Cuban rum, sold under brands like '''Tuzemák''' to conform with EU market rules). Be careful as all are about 40% alcohol.
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[[Image:Slivovice R. JELÍNEK.jpg|thumb|''Slivovice'' is a common spirit (and often made at home), especially in rural Moravia.]]
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For spirits, try '''Becherovka''' (herb liqueur, similar to Jagermeister, tastes of a mixtures of cloves and cinnamon, and drunk as a digestive), '''slivovice''' (plum brandy, very popular in Moravia and can be used as a pick-me-up), '''hruškovice''' (pear brandy, less fiery than slivovice), and so on. Many of these brandies are made out of almost every kind of fruit (plums, peaches, cherries, etc.), and are often made at home in the countryside. The unique '''tuzemský rum''' (made from sugar beet, not from sugar cane as Cuban rum is, sold under brands like '''Tuzemák''' to conform with EU market rules). Be careful as all are about 40% alcohol.
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===Non-alcoholic===
 
===Non-alcoholic===
For non-alcoholic drinks, mineral waters are popular, but tend to have a strong mineral taste. Try '''Mattoni''', or '''Magnesia''', both of which taste like normal water and still claim to be good for your health. If you want bubbles, ask for ''perlivá''. If you want it non-carbonated, ask for ''neperlivá''. Sometimes you can see ''jemně perlivá'' &ndash; it is "lightly bubbled" water.  '''Kofola''', a coke-like drink is also very popular, and some Czechs say it is the best thing the communists gave them. Many restaurants don't make any difference between "sparkling water" and "sparkling mineral water".  
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For non-alcoholic drinks, mineral waters are popular, but tend to have a strong mineral taste. Try '''Mattoni''', or '''Magnesia''', both of which taste like normal water and still claim to be good for your health. If you want sparkling water, ask for ''perlivá''. If you want it non-carbonated, ask for ''neperlivá''. Light sparkling water (but not overwhelming is called ''jemně perlivá''.  '''Kofola''', a coke-like drink, is also very popular, with many Czechs agreeing it is the best thing to originate from the communist era. Many restaurants don't make any difference between "sparkling water" and "sparkling mineral water".  
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===Others===
 
===Others===
Restaurants and pubs do not offer water for free. Not surprisingly, as beer is the national drink, it is usually the cheapest drink you can buy, with prices ranging from 15&ndash;60 Kč (0,50&ndash;2 EUR) per half litre, depending on the attractiveness of the pub to tourists. Drinks are brought to your table, and often each drink is marked on a small slip of paper which is kept on the table in front of you, so you can keep count of what you have had. When you are ready to leave, ask the waiter for the bill &ndash; he or she will calculate the bill according to the number of marks on the paper.  It is common to share tables in busy pubs and Czech people will ask ''Je tu volno?'' (Is this seat free?), before they sit down.
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Restaurants and pubs do not offer water for free. Unsurprisingly, as beer is the national drink, it is usually the cheapest thing on the menu, with prices ranging from 15 to 60CZK (0.50&ndash;2€) per half litre, depending on the attractiveness or location the pub. Pubs closer to well-known tourist centre often have more expensive beer. Drinks are brought to your table, and often each drink is marked on a small slip of paper which is kept on the table in front of you, so you can keep count of what you have had. When you are ready to leave, ask the waiter for the bill &ndash; he or she will calculate the bill according to the number of marks on the paper.  It is common to share tables in busy pubs, with most Czechs asking ''Je tu volno?'' ("Is this seat free?") before sitting down.
  
Try also '''svařák''', hot mulled wine served in all pubs, and outdoors at Christmas markets, '''grog''', hot rum and water served with a slice of lemon - add sugar to taste, and '''medovina''', mead, again usually served hot, and particularly good for warming up at a cold winter market. Finally, if you are heading into Moravia, try '''burčák''', a speciality found only around the end of the summer, or early autumn. It is extremely young wine, usually white, and is the cloudy, still fermenting stage in wine production when the wine is very sweet, and very smooth to drink. It continues to ferment in the stomach, so the alcohol content at the time of drinking it is unknown, but it is usually high, creeps up on you, and it is very moreish. Czechs say that it should only be drunk fresh from the vineyard, and many small private wine makers are passionate about it, waiting up into the night for the moment when the wine reaches the ''"burčák"'' stage. You can see it at wine festivals around the country, and sometimes in markets or wine bars too.
+
Try also '''svařák''', a hot mulled wine served in all pubs and outdoors at Christmas markets, and is the Slavic cousin to the German ''glühwein''. '''Grog''', hot rum and water served with a slice of lemon (add sugar to taste), and '''medovina''' (mead) are both usually served hot and are particularly good for warming up at a cold winter market. Finally, if you are heading into Moravia, try '''burčák''', a speciality found only around the end of the summer or early autumn. It is extremely young wine, usually white, and is in a cloudy, still fermenting stage of production when the wine is very sweet and smooth to drink. It continues to ferment in the stomach, so the alcoholic content at the time of serving is unknown, but it's usually high and can creep up on its drinkers due to its sweetness hiding its potency. Czechs say that it should only be drunk fresh from the vineyard, and many small private wine makers are passionate about it, waiting up into the night for the moment when the wine reaches the ''"burčák"'' stage. Visitors will often spot it being sold at wine festivals (''vinobrani'') around the country, as well as sometimes in markets or wine bars (''vinoteka'').
  
 
==Stay safe==
 
==Stay safe==
* '''Taxi drivers''': warning - negotiate the price before you use taxi or use a reputable company (e.g. in Prague AAA taxi, Profi Taxi, City Taxi). Prague taxi drivers are known for taking you the longest possible way to earn more money. Prague City Council has introduced new regulations which will see all legitimate taxis painted yellow. Public transportation is also very cheap, fast and reliable.  In Prague, the metro runs up to midnight, and night trams run throughout the night, all of them converging at a central tram stop, Lazarská.
+
[[Image:Škoda Octavia II - Policie České republiky blocking a street in Prague.JPG|thumb|A typical Policie car and officer.]]
* '''Pickpockets''': Watch your pockets, especially if there is a crowd (sights, subway, trams, in particular numbers 9, 10 and 22)  Watch out for large groups of people jostling you. Beware of a particular pickpocket gangs operating in Prague: they are mainly male, although sometimes there are women too; all are extremely overweight and rely on their sheer size and number to disorientate tourists. They tend to operate on the 9, 10 and 22 trams, as well as the central metro stations, usually just as people are getting on and off, or on the escalators. Don't pull out your tickets unless you are specifically asked to do so. And keep your wallet and money securely locked and separate from each other at all timee. Don't challenge them as they can become aggressive, but keep your eyes open. Prosecutions for pickpocketing are rare as legally the police have to catch the pickpocket in the middle of a crime.
+
Law enforcement is carried out by the [http://www.policie.cz/clanek/Police-of-the-Czech-Republic.aspx Policie České republiky]. Many of the larger cities and towns have city or municipal police, although their powers are strictly restricted to mainly misdemeanors and traffic violations. Police officers are largely respected, and will be mainly helpful to tourists in need.
* '''Prostitution''': Prostitution is not illegal in the Czech Republic. However, officially prostitution does not exist as a legal business. Prostitutes do not pay taxes and prostitution is not regulated by the state. The health risk may be very high, especially in cheap brothels or on the street. There also have been cases of prostitutes offering a drink with sleeping pills to their customers and stealing everything from them. Pay attention to the age of the prostitute, paying a person under 18 years for sex is a criminal offense (otherwise the age of consent is 15).
+
 
* '''Marijuana''': Marijuana is basically illegal in the Czech Republic, but it is quite popular especially among young people. In case the police catch you smoking or possessing marijuana, you want to be very polite with them. The reason is that by the current law, possessing only a "larger than small" amount of marijuana is punishable. A "larger than small" amount of marijuana is defined as more than 15 g..
+
The European '''unified emergency number 112''' functions in the Czech Republic and will work for all land or mobile lines. The "old" emergency numbers are still in use, which include:
* Other than that, the Czech Republic is a very safe country.
+
 
 +
* Ambulance: 155
 +
* Firefighters: 150 ('''Hasičský záchranný sbor''')
 +
* Police: 158 ('''Policie''')
 +
* Municipal Police: 156 ('''Městská policie''')
 +
 
 +
Violent crime and assaults in the Czech Republic are highly rare, and visitors will likely encounter no issues on their journey. The country is remarkably safe and free of personal crime. However, there are several nuisances that travellers should be aware of:
 +
 
 +
;Taxi drivers
 +
:Negotiate the price before you use taxi or use a reputable company (e.g. in Prague AAA taxi, Profi Taxi, City Taxi). Prague taxi drivers are notorious known for taking the longest possible way to earn more money or to use so-called “turbos” which speeds the meter up (the control is usually hidden under the gear stick gaiter). The Prague City Council has introduced new regulations which will see all legitimate taxis painted yellow. Public transportation in most major cities is often reliable and inexpensive, many of them with night services.
 +
 
 +
;Pickpockets
 +
:Watch your pockets, especially if there is a crowd, particularly in [[Prague]]. Watch out for large groups of people jostling you. Beware of a particular pickpocket gangs operating in Prague: they are mainly male, although sometimes there are women too; all are extremely overweight and rely on their sheer size and number to disorientate tourists. They tend to operate on the 9, 10 and 22 trams as well as the central metro stations, usually just as people are getting on and off, or on the escalators. Don't pull out your tickets unless you are specifically asked to do so. Keep your wallet and money securely locked and separate from each other at all time. Don't challenge them as they can become aggressive but keep your eyes open. Prosecutions for pickpocketing are rare as the police usually have to catch the pickpocket in the middle of a crime, otherwise the gang members just blame each other and it is impossible to prove who did it.
 +
 
 +
;Prostitution
 +
:Prostitution is not a legal business but not illegal either. This means prostitutes do not pay taxes and prostitution is not regulated by the state. Therefore the health risk may be very high, especially in cheap brothels (often spotted with red lights on their windows) or on the street. There also have been cases of prostitutes offering a drink with sleeping pills to their customers and then stealing everything. Pay attention to the age of the prostitute, as paying a person under 18 years for sex is a criminal offense (otherwise the age of consent is 15).
 +
 
 +
;Marijuana
 +
:Marijuana is illegal in the Czech Republic but it is quite popular, especially among young people. In case the police catches you smoking or possessing marijuana, be very polite with them. The reason is that by the current law, punishable is only possession of a “larger than small” amount of marijuana (defined as 15 g) but if you are rude, they may detain and interrogate you, asking for your source.
  
 
==Stay healthy==
 
==Stay healthy==
Grocery stores do not sell what Americans consider '''over-the-counter drugs''', such as aspirin. You will need to go to a pharmacy ('''lékárna'''), which is usually open between 8AM and 7PM, Mondays to Fridays. There are 24-hour pharmacies in the bigger cities, and you should find an address for the closest one to you listed in the window of the nearest pharmacy to you. If you are in Prague, the most central 24-hour one is in Prague 2 - on the corner of Belgická and Rumunská streets - they dispense both prescription and non-prescription drugs from a small window on Rumunská out of hours - ring the bell if there is no-one there.
+
Grocery stores do not sell what many Americans consider '''over-the-counter drugs''', such as aspirin. You will need to go to a pharmacy (''lékárna''), which is usually open between 8AM and 7PM, Mondays to Fridays. There are 24-hour pharmacies in the bigger cities, and you should find an address for the closest one to you listed in the window of the nearest pharmacy to you. If you are in Prague, the most central 24-hour one is in Prague 2, on the corner of Belgická and Rumunská streets. These pharmacies dispense both prescription and non-prescription drugs from a small window on Rumunská out of hour. Ring the bell if there is no-one there.
  
'''Tap water''' is good, especially in Prague although in small towns, the chlorine can be quite strong.
+
'''Tap water''' is good and perfectly safe across the country, although in some small towns, the chlorine can be quite strong.
  
A reputable hospital in Prague is '''Nemocnice na Homolce''', Address: Roentgenova 37/2, Prague 5 (tel 257 272 350). There is a foreigners' clinic (Cizinecké oddělení) there with English-speaking receptionists who can make appointments for you. Most doctors speak some English, and the level of care is of a very high standard.
+
A reputable hospital in Prague is '''Nemocnice na Homolce'''. There is a foreigner's clinic (''cizinecké oddělení''') with English-speaking receptionists who can make appointments for you. Most doctors speak some English, and the level of care is of a very high standard.
  
 
Central Europe and parts of the Czech Republic have '''ticks''' (''Ixodes ricinus'') which can carry Encephalitis or Lyme Borreliosis. Ticks hide in grass and bushes, so try to stay on trails and inspect exposed areas of skin after a hike. Vaccination against Encephalitis is available and recommended. If you want to bushwhack, make sure you have the vaccination and wear long trousers. A good insect repellent (which contains DEET), might be helpful, too.
 
Central Europe and parts of the Czech Republic have '''ticks''' (''Ixodes ricinus'') which can carry Encephalitis or Lyme Borreliosis. Ticks hide in grass and bushes, so try to stay on trails and inspect exposed areas of skin after a hike. Vaccination against Encephalitis is available and recommended. If you want to bushwhack, make sure you have the vaccination and wear long trousers. A good insect repellent (which contains DEET), might be helpful, too.
Line 542: Line 593:
  
 
==Respect==
 
==Respect==
 +
[[Image:Hanacky kroj.jpg|thumb|Moravians in traditional costumes.]]
 +
The Czech Republic, along with its neighbours [[Slovakia]], [[Austria]], [[Poland]] and [[Germany]], is part of [[Central Europe]]. Throughout [[Western Europe]] and in [[North America]], the country is often incorrectly referred to as an [[Eastern Europe|Eastern European]] state, and many Czechs are sensitive about this; many will even pre-empt the ignorance of some foreigners by asking, "what part of Europe would you say the Czech Republic is in?" Get on their good side by answering "Central Europe," not Eastern!
  
The Czech Republic, along with its neighbours Slovakia, Austria, Poland and Hungary, is part of Central Europe. Often in Western Europe and North America it is incorrectly referred to as an "Eastern-European" country, and most Czechs are very sensitive about this- many will even pre-empt the ignorance of some foreigners by asking "What part of Europe would you say the Czech Republic is in?" Get on their good side by answering "Central Europe", not Eastern!
+
English-speaking Czechs remain divided with shortening the name of their country as ''Czechia'', with some not bothered with it, while others feel the name is intensely ugly and unnatural. The name still has yet to universally be accepted or agreed upon.   
  
Czechs don't appreciate when foreigners incorrectly assume that their country was part of the Soviet Union or the Russian Empire – both definitely false – although it was part of the Soviet Bloc and, until 1918, an Austro-Hungarian territory. Commenting about how "everything is quite cheap here" comes across as condescending about the country's economic status.   
+
Czechs don't appreciate foreigners who incorrectly assume their country was historically part of the Soviet Union or the Russian Empire—both entirely false—although it was part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, and was until 1918 a part of Austro-Hungarian Empire. Commenting about how "everything is quite cheap here" could sound condescending about the country's economic status.   
  
If you are knowledgable about the Czechoslovakian communist regime following the second world war, bear in mind that this is still a sensitive issue for many and that it is easy to upset people in discussions on the subject.
+
If you are knowledgeable about the Czechoslovak communist regime following World War II, bear in mind that this is still a sensitive issue for many. A majority of Czechs born after 1960 and 1970 have few romantic views of communism due to the experience of Normalization, and although many complain about the state of the Czech Republic's affairs today, there is little nostalgia with younger generations to return to the old times. However, unlike neighboring former Eastern Bloc states like [[Poland]], [[Hungary]], or the [[Baltic states|Baltics]], where communism is near universally reviled, a relatively strong number of elderly Czechs still retain fond memories of the socialist order, partially explaining the continual popularity of the KSČM, the country's successor communist party, which has continually maintained 10 to 15% of parliament throughout various elections since 1990. Dogmatically Marxist yet fiercely conservative and viewed as a protest party, the KSČM and its members hold largely anti-democratic and anti-Western views, although few of its members speak English, and it is doubtful you will have any contact with them.  
  
Czechs are one of the most atheist people in the world. This is true especially in large Bohemian cities. Don't assume that anyone you do not know believes in God or has a passion for Christianity. Respect that and your religion will also be respected.
+
Centuries of religious skepticism, forced catholicization, and the most recent experience of communism have made Czechs some the most atheistic people in the world, and will often not hesitate to say that they don't believe in any God. This is true especially in large Bohemian cities. Don't assume that anyone you do not know believes in God or has a passion for Christianity. Many Czechs find Mormon missionaries, Jehovah's Witnesses, and street preaching in general as a disrespectful and foreign presence in the country. Respect people's disbelief in religion and your religion will also be respected. Despite the country's largely atheist views, nearly 10% of the Czech Republic remains Catholic (although their numbers are falling), with another 1%  Protestant. There are also small Jewish, Buddhist and Islamic minorities, mostly located in Prague. Despite religious disbelief being a majority, holidays such as Easter, Jan Hus Day, St. Cyril and Methodius Day, and Christmas are still widely celebrated, although most Czechs confess they do so for strictly cultural reasons and not for religious ones.  
  
Always say hello (''Dobrý den'') and goodbye (''Na shledanou'') when you enter and leave a small shop, restaurant or pub as it is polite.
+
Always say hello (''dobrý den'') and goodbye (''na shledanou'', half-formally ''nashle'') when you enter and leave a small shop, restaurant or pub as it is polite.
  
While dining at a restaurant with a host's family it is customary for THEM to pick up the bill, the opposite of most Western standards. However don't assume they will - but also don't be surprised if they do.
+
While dining at a restaurant with a host family, it is customary for THEM to pick up the bill, the opposite of most Western standards. However don't assume they will, but also don't be surprised if they do.
 +
[[Image:Tabor CZ aerial old town from north B1.jpg|thumb|The historic town of [[Tábor]].]]
 +
When entering a Czech household, always remove your shoes unless said otherwise. Czechs usually wear slippers or sandals when inside a house and never their outdoor shoes. Depending on how traditional the host family are, they may insist you change immediately into house shoes as a hygiene precaution, though this is rare. At the very least they will offer you some to keep your feet warm.
  
When entering a Czech household, always remove your shoes. Czechs usually wear slippers or sandals when inside a house and never their outdoor shoes. Depending on how traditional the host family are, they may insist you change immediately into house shoes as a hygiene precaution, though this is rare. At the very least they will offer you some to keep your feet warm.
+
It is advised not to mention Czech towns and places with their former German names, when asking for directions (e.g. referring to ''Karlsbad'' instead of Karlovy Vary etc.) or while chatting with the locals. Czechs will be offended and they will regard it as ignorance and a lack of respect towards themselves. Many older Czechs are particularly sensitive about the latter while the younger usually won't know the name. As a rule of thumb, try preferring the Czech names. You should avoid using the word "Sudeten" or "Sudetenland," especially when visiting that region, unless a Czech person will say it first.
 
+
Never mention the Czech towns and places with their former German names, when asking for directions (e.g. referring to Karlsbad instead of Karlovy Vary etc.) or while chatting with the locals. Czechs will be offended and they will regard it as ignorance and a lack of respect towards themselves.
+
  
 
===Moravia===
 
===Moravia===
 
+
The vast majority of Moravians will take no offence to being called Czechs, and consider themselves to be both. If you are attempting to speak Czech, beware of the complexities and slight differences between the terms ''Čechy'' (Bohemia) and ''Česko'' (Czechia). Much like a Welshman would raise an eyebrow over his country being called England, using the term ''Čechy'' to refer to the entire Czech Republic may not be appreciated by a Moravian (or Silesians). Since there are no mainstream separatist movements in Moravia, and there is definitely no ethnic conflict, it is infinitely more likely you'll be showered with kisses and plied with alcohol for simply making an attempt to speak Czech.
The vast majority of Moravians will take no offence to being called Czechs, and consider themselves to be both. If you are attempting to speak Czech, beware of the complexities and slight differences between the terms ''Čechy'' (Bohemia) and ''Česko'' (Czechia). Much like a Welshman would raise an eyebrow over his country being called England, using the term ''Čechy'' (Bohemia) to refer to the entire Czech Republic may not be appreciated by a Moravian. Since there are no mainstream separatist movements in Moravia, and there is definitely no ethnic conflict, it is infinitely more likely you'll be showered with kisses and plied with alcohol for simply making an attempt to speak Czech.
+
  
 
==Contact==
 
==Contact==
 +
There are three main mobile phone operators using the '''GSM standard'''; their coverage is very good (except in some remote, mostly uninhabited areas). If you find using roaming with your own operator too expensive or you want to have a Czech phone number, you can buy an '''anonymous prepaid card''' from any of the three main operators. However, the pricing schemes are usually quite complicated and some investigation may be necessary to find the ideal solution (even with the prepaid cards, operators offer various schemes including various additional 'packages'). GPRS and EDGE is widely supported, 3G networks support is in every bigger city (provided by O2, Vodafone and T-mobile). The fourth operator (U:fon) uses some custom standards and you have to buy special hardware from them. Also there are lots of virtual providers (Mobil.cz, Blesk Mobile, Kaktus, Tesco supermarket)
  
There are three main mobile phone operators using the '''GSM standard''', their coverage is very good (except in some remote, mostly uninhabited areas). If you find using roaming with your own operator too expensive or you want to have a Czech phone number, you can buy an '''anonymous prepaid card''' from any of the three main operators. However, the pricing schemes are usually quite complicated and some investigation may be necessary to find the ideal solution (even with the prepaid cards, operators offer various schemes including various additional 'packages'). GPRS and EDGE is widely supported, 3G networks support is in its beginnings (O2, Vodafone and T-mobile, mostly in Prague). The fourth operator (U:fon) uses some custom standards and you have to buy special hardware from them.
+
There are still some '''telephone boxes''' available, but they are gradually vanishing since the advent of mobile phones. Some still accept coins, but most of them require a special prepaid telephone card.
 
+
There are still some '''telephone boxes''' available, but they are gradually vanishing since the advent of mobile phones. Some still accept coins, but most of them require special prepaid telephone card.
+
  
You can call '''emergency numbers''' from any phone for free (even without any card). The universal emergency number ''112'' is functional and you can use it, however you will reach only a telephone operator who will need to contact the real emergency service for you. To save precious time, it is best to call directly the service you need: 150 for firefighters, 155 for medical emergency, and 158 for state police.
+
'''Wi-Fi''' (often pronounced as ''wee-fee'') is widely available in many restaurants and most cafés, especially in larger cities. In particular, all branches of Starbucks, McDonald's, KFC, Costa Coffee offer free access. For other restaurants and cafes, you may need to ask your waiter for the password. There are also some hotspots available on the streets, and some city quarters and trams (for example in Prague) offer free Wi-Fi coverage for everyone. However such coverage is usually very slow and unreliable and you may need to create an account (using a web browser and the page it is automatically redirected to) to be able to use it. In most larger cities, there are some internet cafés available, although their numbers are dwindling with the advent of public wi-fi, tablets, and the smartphone.
  
'''Wifi''' is available in many restaurants and most cafés, especially in larger cities. In particular, all branches of Starbucks, KFC, Gloria Jeans Coffee and Costa Coffee offer free access. You may need to ask a waiter for the passphrase. There are also some hotspots available on the streets and some city quarters (for example in Prague) offer free wifi coverage for everyone. However such coverage is usually very slow and unreliable and you may need to create an account (using a web browser and the page it is automatically redirected to) to be able to use it. In most larger cities, there are also several '''internet cafés''' available.
+
==Cope==
 +
===News===
 +
The Czech Republic has a strong and highly-independent media scene, with a number of television channels, newspapers, and magazines catering to the masses. Unfortunately it is nearly entirely inaccessible for non-Czech speakers. However, visitors who wish to know what's happening in the country with current events and cultural happenings can stay abreast with a few useful sources.
  
 +
* '''[http://www.radio.cz/en Radio Praha]''' — English language arm of public radio broadcaster Český rozhlas. Offers news, interviews and commentary for national and European news, as well as listings for cultural events. Also broadcast in Spanish, French, German, and Russian.
 +
* '''[http://praguemonitor.com/ Prague Daily Monitor]''' — daily updated news website, translating stories, reviews, and commentary from Czech media outlets.
 +
* '''[http://www.expats.cz/ Expats.cz]''' — a popular website maintained by the country's expatriate community, with news, cultural events listings, and a job board. 
 +
 
{{isPartOf|Central_Europe}}
 
{{isPartOf|Central_Europe}}
 
{{outline}}
 
{{outline}}

Latest revision as of 16:27, 23 September 2016

Přemysl Otakar II Square in České Budějovice
Location
Czech Republic in its region.svg
Flag
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Quick Facts
Capital Prague
Government parliamentary democracy
Currency Koruna (CZK)
Area total: 78,866 km²
Population 10,553,443 (2015 est.)
Language Czech
Religion undeclared 45.2%
atheist 34.2%
Roman Catholic 10.3%
Protestant 0.9%
other 2.7%
unspecified 6.7%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Country code 420
Internet TLD .cz
Time Zone UTC + 1 (winter time) UTC+2 (summer time)

The Czech Republic (or informally Czechia) is a small landlocked country in Central Europe, situated southeast of Germany and bordering Austria to the south, Poland to the north and Slovakia to the southeast.

Understand[edit]

The Czech Republic is not a geographically large country, but it has a rich and eventful history. From time immemorial, Czechs, Germans, Jews and Slovaks, as well as Italian stonemasons and stucco workers, French tradesmen and deserters from Napoleon’s army, have all lived and worked here, all influencing one another. For centuries they jointly cultivated their land, creating works that still command respect and admiration today. It is thanks to their inventiveness and skill that this small country is graced with hundreds of ancient castles, monasteries and stately mansions, and even entire towns that give the impression of being comprehensive artifacts. The Czech Republic contains a vast amount of architectural treasure, as well as beautiful forests and mountains to match.

History[edit]

The contemporary Czech lands were originally inhabited by the Boii, a Celtic tribe for the first four centuries of the common era. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Celts gave way to Germanic tribes. Another four centuries later, Slavs arrived from the east, and by the 9th century, had established the Great Moravian Empire, stretching from modern-day Germany to Ukraine. After the fall of Great Moravia, the Lands of the Bohemian Crown was formed, whose borders for most of its history remain nearly identical to contemporary Czech borders. From the 11th to the 14th century, massive German colonization, known in German as the Ostsiedlung, occurred in the then-underpopulated borders of the kingdom.

Under the reign of Emperor Charles IV in the second half of the 14th century, the Bohemian Kingdom became the center of the Holy Roman Empire, with Prague as its capital, ushering in the kingdom's golden era. Under his enlightened and largely peaceful reign, royal investment into Czech institutions, culture, education, and infrastructure received royal patronage. Among some of those gifted with Charles IV's personal and financial support were Prague's Charles Bridge, Charles University, its New Town, St. Vitus Cathedral, Karlštejn Castle, and the foundation of the city of Karlovy Vary. Bohemia's golden era came to an end with Charles' death in 1378.

Following Charles' death, the kingdom slowly slid into religious anarchy. The rise of Jan Hus and his Hussite followers in the 1410s violently rejected the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church, sparking a series of Hussite Wars that lasted until the 1430s, placing Bohemian proto-Protestant peasants and lords against Catholic armies. The rise of the Habsburgs to the south led to the Bohemian Kingdom becoming absorbed into the Austrian Empire beginning in the 1520s. In 1618, the Bohemian Kingdom revolted against their Catholic Habsburg overlords, sparking the tumultuous Thirty Years' War. Defeated and humiliated at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, the Czechs endured a strong Habsburg imperial occupation and forced catholicization for decades to come. Despite the occupation, the Czech lands prospered under Austria, with Baroque palaces and buildings spreading across the kingdom throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The Czech lands became one of the first industrialize by the 19th century, rising to one of the most economically advanced parts of the empire. At the same time, the Czech National Revival spurred Czech nationalist and pan-Slavic feelings among the populace, which resulted in a backlash against Austrian germanization.

Prague Castle and the Charles Bridge.
Shortly before the end of World War I and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the closely-related Slavic nations of Czechs and Slovaks declared their independence, merging together to form the new state of Czechoslovakia on 28 October 1918. With Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, a highly-esteemed philosopher and sociologist (who remains well-regarded to the current day) as head of state, the First Republic—as it became known—managed to remain as the only democracy in Central Europe throughout the 1920s and '30s and acted as an island of stability, facing off threats from a revanchist Poland to the north, politically unstable Austria and Weimar Germany to the south and west, and an irredentist Hungary to the southeast. The First Republic culturally and economically flourished during this period, and is often considered as another golden era by many modern Czechs. However, the state's strong centralization resulted in a poor relationship with its Sudeten German population, who accounted for 20% of the overall population—more than the state's total amount of Slovaks—as well as with its smaller Hungarian and Polish minorities. Combined with the rise of fascism and ethnic nationalism, this situation was exploited by Hitler, Hungary's Horthy and Poland's Śmigły-Rydz as a pretext to annex large swaths of Czechoslovakia in 1938 during the Sudetenland Crisis, effectively ending the First Republic. A year later in March 1939, Nazi Germany occupied the entirety of the Czech lands and declared it a protectorate of the Third Reich, while Slovakia was forced to secede as a puppet state. This resulted in a brutal occupation that lasted until 1945, marked by mass arrests, torture, and the genocide of much of Czechoslovakia's Jewish and Romani population.

After World War II, the newly-reunited Czechoslovakia expelled nearly the entirety of its German population, as well as tens of thousands of Hungarians by force with the Beneš Decrees, an event that remains controversial to this day. The country emerged from the war more or less intact as it avoided the fate of the massive air bombardments and pitched battles that reduced its neighbouring states to ruins. However, the country fell within the Soviet sphere of influence, with the Czechoslovak Communist Party staging a coup in February 1948, toppling its democratic government.

At the beginning of the Stalinist 1950s, massive and numerous Soviet-inspired show trials, purging “subversive conspiratorial elements” took place; the most commonly known was the death sentence of anti-fascist social democrat Milada Horáková. Following Stalin's death and the subsequent de-Stalinization of the country, more moderate forces gradually took control of the Communist Party, which included party leader Alexander Dubček, who wished to liberalize Czechoslovakia and create “socialism with a human face.” In a brief period known as the Prague Spring (Pražské jaro), travel, media and speech restrictions were greatly loosened, and the country would be federalized. By August 1968, a Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion force militarily deposed Czechoslovakia's liberal leadership and ended its new freedoms. Mass anti-Soviet demonstrations in the following year ushered in the Normalization era (Normalizace), a period of harsh repression and conservatism. In November 1989, in the wake of elections in Poland and the collapse of the Berlin Wall nearby in Germany, the totalitarian lid could no longer be held. Growing popular discontent and the brutal actions of the state police spilled over into mass demonstrations that helped topple the communists peacefully, in an event known as the Velvet Revolution. A democratic federal government was quickly installed.

At the stroke of midnight on 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved upon an agreement between Czech bureaucrats and Slovak nationalists in an event known as the Velvet Divorce, becoming the new states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Joining NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004, the contemporary Czech Republic is a stable democratic parliamentary republic.

The Czech flag is the same one formerly used by Czechoslovakia, originally adopted in 1920.

Holidays[edit]

Spas and apartments in Karlovy Vary.
  • Easter (Velikonoce), Easter Monday: It is customary for guys to (slightly) spank girls and women with a wicker stick with colourful ribbons at the end (pomlázka) to grant them fertility and good health, and in return girls and women will give the men coloured eggs, candy or drinks. In areas close to the Slovak border in Moravia, it also common to douse women with cold water. Obviously tourists are often (but not always) exempt.
  • Witch Burning (Pálení čarodějnic) or Night of Witches (Čarodějnice), 30 April. On the last April evening, bonfires are lit around the country. "Witch" effigies, as a symbol of evil, are made and burned in the fire. This is the reinterpretation of the old pagan festival Beltane, influenced by the Catholic inquisition. As some Czechs prefer witches over the inquisitors, in many fires no witches are burnt, and the feast is celebrated in a more original pagan way - witches are those who should celebrate the night, not be burnt. It doesn't stop jokes like "Honey, hide or you will be burnt tonight!". This is a cultural holiday, and not a public one.
  • May Day (Svátek práce), 1 May: Celebration of workers rights and struggles. Once an enormous affair during communism, since the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, May Day is now largely a quiet day of rest and barbeques, with only some small political gatherings by social democrats or unrepentant communists. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
  • Victory Day (Den vítězství), 8 May: Commemoration of the defeat of Nazi Germany. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
  • Last Ringing (Poslední zvonění), late April to mid May: Traditional celebration of the end of the last year at high school, usually a week or more before maturita (the final exam) takes place. Students get a free day and usually do silly things in costumes, sometimes going into the streets to collect money from people passing by, sometimes threatening them with water, writing on their faces with lipstick, or spraying them with perfume. The collected money is used for party after the exams.
  • St. Cyril and St. Methodius Day (Den slovanských věrozvěstů Cyrila a Metoděje), 5 July: Celebration of the Christian saints' arrival in the Slavic lands of Great Moravia. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
  • Jan Hus Day (Den upálení mistra Jana Husa), 6 July: Celebration of pre-Martin Luther Protestant religious agitator Jan Hus. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
The Czech Silesian city of Opava during Christmas.
  • Czechoslovak Independence Day (Den vzniku samostatného československého státu), 28 October: Commemoration of Czechoslovakia's independence declaration from the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, marked usually by political speeches and flag displays. A public holiday with many businesses closed.
  • Day of Struggle for Freedom and Democracy (Den boje za svobodu a demokracii), 17 November: Commemoration of the start of the 1989 Velvet Revolution and the collapse of the Czechoslovak communist state, marked normally by political speeches and marches. A public holiday with most businesses closed.
  • Feast of St. Mikuláš (St. Nicolaus, Santa Claus), 5 December: St. Mikuláš roams about with his consorts, an angel and a devil across the country. Mikuláš gives small presents and candy to children to reward good behaviour, while the devil chastises children for wrongdoings over the course of the year and gives them potatoes, coal (or sometimes spankings) as a punishment. Old Town Square in Prague is a great place to watch the festivities. Strictly a cultural holiday.
  • Christmas (Vánoce), 24-25 December: Czechs begin celebrating this holiday on Christmas Eve and continue to celebrate until the 26th (the Feast of Stephen). Presents are placed under a Christmas tree by Ježíšek (Baby Jesus), as little children believe, and taken after dinner on Christmas Eve. Potato salad with carp is the traditional Christmas meal, and for this reason one can see live carp being sold out of huge tanks throughout the streets of Czech cities and towns just before Christmas.

Historic regions[edit]

Bohemia[edit]

Although the modern adjective bohemian refers to Bohemia, its usage was based on a broad stereotype and also a poor grasp of geography, so don't expect the Bohemians you meet to be nomadic or anti-conventional artistic/literary bohemians, or to see anything out of Puccini's "La Bohème". And no, Bohemian Rhapsody (its lyrics sprinkled with Italian and Arabic) is not a local anthem!

The words Bohemia and Bohemian originate from the Boii Celtic tribe. The term Bohemian had ended up meaning more or less Czech by the end of the 19th century with the awakening of pan-Slavic nationalism. However, it was also used to refer to any inhabitant of Bohemia, including the vast number of Sudeten Germans that used to inhabit the region until 1945. Bohemia (Čechy) today strictly refers to the larger western half of the country, and is its political, economic and population centre.

Moravia and Czech Silesia[edit]

Olomouc, the historic capital of Moravia.

Moravia, along with Bohemia, was among the first regions of continental Europe to undergo the Industrial Revolution; however it did not experience mass urbanisation as in Bohemia. The region is therefore still home to gorgeous vineyards, orchards, fields full of "organic" produce, and filled with scenic mountain vistas and little villages. The region's strategic location at the Moravian Gate (a pass through the imposing mountain ranges of Central Europe) has led to a confluence of a great amount of history. Even the regional capital, Brno, is renowned for its small town charm. There is an extremely extensive rail system, and the region contains historic factories such as Zbrojovka (weapons) in Brno and Baťa in Zlín (shoes). Culturally, Moravians prefer a slower pace of life than Bohemians, with some Moravians confessing to have stronger cultural affinities with Slovakia than with Bohemia.

The dialects of Czech spoken in Moravia are slightly different from those spoken in Bohemia, particularly in Prague. Moravians pride themselves on their dialect and learning a few stereotypical regionalisms will go down well with the locals (for example, for the word "tram," say šalina instead of the Bohemian tramvaj).

Czech Silesia to the very east is often regarded as the heavy industrial center of the republic, known extensively for its coal mines and steel mills, with Ostrava as its largest city and cultural center, and Opava as its historical capital. The region is known for its extensive cross-border cultural connections with Polish Silesia, whose industrial economy and historical experience is similar. There is also a fairly significant Polish minority near the border, although they are fully integrated into mainstream Czech society.

Silesian dialects in Czech are also different from those found elsewhere in country, often characterized as being short, gruff, and to the point.

Regions[edit]

The Czech Republic has 14 political regions (kraj) which can be grouped together into eight general regions:

Regions of Czech Republic
Central Bohemia (Prague, Kutná Hora, Karlštejn)
The metropolitan centre of the Czech Republic with its capital city, known for its river valleys, extinct volcanic mounds, and green pastures.
West Bohemia (Pilsen, Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, Františkovy Lázně)
A forested and mountainous region, home of the pilsner beer, numerous spas towns, and the Bohemian Forest (Šumava).
North Bohemia (Liberec, Ústí nad Labem, Děčín, Bohemian Paradise)
A mountainous and coal mining region with a strong industrial past, and the location of the Ore Mountains (Krušné hory) and parts of the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše). Site to numerous winter resorts.
East Bohemia (Hradec Králové, Pardubice, Litomyšl, Špindlerův Mlýn)
Main location of the highly-popular Giant Mountains (Krkonoše) and the Czech Republic's highest peak, Sněžka.
South Bohemia (České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Třeboň)
Hilly, forested landscapes and the source of the Vltava River. A highly popular area for rafters in the summer.
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (Telč, Třebíč, Žďár nad Sázavou)
A very green and uneven region, considered the geographic heart of the republic
North Moravia (Ostrava, Olomouc, Opava, Litovel)
A highly industrial region which includes Czech Silesia, although dotted with beautiful hills and mountains.
South Moravia (Brno, Znojmo, Zlín, Lednice-Valtice)
Well-known for its rural, slow pace of life, warm summers, rolling vineyards, and its potent plum brandy (slivovice).

Cities[edit]

The Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul is a prominent site in Brno, the country's second largest city.
  • Prague (Praha) — the country's capital and largest city, and one of Europe's premier tourist destinations. Its large and beautiful historical core is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Brno — the largest city in Moravia and the republic's second city, with several excellent museums, an accessible old town, a stunning cathedral, and the annual Grand Prix.
  • České Budějovice – known also as Budweis, an attractive city in South Bohemia with an impressive old town square.
  • Český Krumlov — a stunning medieval and Renaissance town in South Bohemia, home to the country's second largest palace, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Karlovy Vary — a historic spa resort and the republic's largest, especially popular with German and Russian tourists, and the site of the country's most prestigious film festival.
  • Kutná Hora — a historical medieval town in Central Bohemia, home to St. Barbara's Church, old silver mines, and the Sedlec Ossuary, decorated with tens of thousands of human remains. Its attractions are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Olomouc — a riverside university town with a thousand-year history, and the second largest historical centre in the Czech Republic after Prague.
  • Ostrava — a vibrant and sometimes gritty blue collar city with a strong subculture, and a long history of coal mining and steel production.
  • Opava — the former capital of Silesia.
  • Pilsen (Plzeň) — home of the original Pilsner Urquell beer and the Škoda Works, and the largest city in West Bohemia.
  • Telč — a perfectly preserved Renaissance town centre surrounded by shallow man-made lakes. The town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Other destinations[edit]

Trosky Castle near the Bohemian Paradise.
  • Bohemian Paradise (Český Ráj) — a region of towering rock formations and isolated castles located north-east of Prague. The gateway city of Jičín is an interesting destination in its own right, but Turnov is closer to most of the castles and rock formations. The twin towers of the ruined Trosky Castle are a symbol of the area and can be climbed for the views.
  • Dvůr Králové nad Labem — a small town 20 km west of Trutnov in East Bohemia with a large outdoor zoo and safari park.
  • Františkovy Lázně — a traditional spa town in West Bohemia.
  • Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou — a small town 50 km south of Jihlava, home to Jaroměřice Castle, known as the Moravian Versailles, and the Church of St. Margaret
  • Karlštejn Castle and St. John Monastery — an exquisite medieval castle dating to Charles IV, as well as an off the beaten track monastery.
  • Krkonoše (Giant Mountains) — the highest mountains in the Czech Republic along the Polish border, home to the most popular Czech skiing resorts, such as Špindlerův Mlýn, however considered overpriced by locals.
Litomyšl monastery gardens
  • Litomyšl — a beautiful small town in East Bohemia. The renaissance main square and castle are among the country's prettiest, and the town has been home to many important and influential artists, including composer Bedřich Smetana, sculptor Olbram Zoubek and painter Josef Váchal. There are two international opera festivals at the castle each year. The castle is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Luhačovice — one of the best known Moravian spa towns.
  • Mariánské Lázně — a popular spa town in West Bohemia.
  • Moravský Kras — an extensive karst area between Brno and Olomouc with the deepest abyss in the country. In its Punkevní Caves, there is an opportunity to take a boat ride along an underground river.
  • Mutěnice Wine Region — located in South Moravia, this region contains some of the best vineyards in the Czech Republic and remains off the well beaten tourist path for most tourists.
  • Nové Město na Moravě — a cross country skiing resort, and home of the Tour de Ski race.
  • Terezín — a red-brick 18th baroque fortress 70 km north of Prague in Central Bohemia beside the Ohře river, used during WWII as a Jewish ghetto, transit center, and concentration camp.
  • Znojmo — a medieval town close to the Austrian border in South Moravia, site of the Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine, containing the oldest frescoes in the republic.
  • Chomutov — an industrial city with a historical center, a zoo specializing in Eurasian fauna and Kamencové Lake, the only alum lake in the world.

Get in[edit]

Maximum length of stay on a visa exemption

  • As a Schengen state, in general, non-EEA citizens who qualify for a visa exemption can only stay for a maximum of 90 days in a 180 day period within the Schengen zone (including the Czech Republic) as a whole.
  • However, for non-EU/EFTA citizens whose home country/territory had an existing bilateral visa exemption agreement with the Czech Republic before it fully implemented the Schengen acquis, the maximum length of stay on a visa exemption as stipulated in the bilateral agreement continues to apply, rather than Schengen regulations. In effect, this means that for these non-EU/EFTA citizens, they can spend up to 90 days in the Czech Republic visa-free and are not limited by the Schengen limit of 90 days in a 180 day period.
  • Non-EU/EFTA citizens whose home country/territory had an existing bilateral visa exemption agreement with the Czech Republic before joining the EU are: Andorra, Argentina, Brazil, Brunei, Costa Rica, Chile, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Japan, Macao SAR, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, San Marino, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Uruguay, the Vatican and Venezuela - but not Australia, Canada or the United States.
  • More information about these bilateral visa exemption agreements is available with the Ministry of the Interior (under the 'Conditions for a short-term stay' section) as well as this article. This document also provides a comprehensive list of visa waiver agreements with the Czech Republic (some countries have unilateral, rather than bilateral visa agreements).

Visa requirements[edit]

Travel document requirements[edit]

For EU, EEA and Swiss nationals, passports and national identity cards only need to be valid for the period of their stay in the Czech Republic. For all other nationals, passports/travel documents must be valid for a period of at least 90 days beyond the expected length of stay in the Czech Republic or the Schengen Area.

EU nationals whose stay in the Czech Republic will exceed 30 days are required to register within 30 days of their arrival in the Czech Republic with the Foreign Police; other foreigners must register within 3 working days. In case you stay in a hotel or a similar institution, the accommodation provider should arrange this registration for you.

Children inscribed in their parents´ passports are allowed to travel with their parents up to the age of 15. Once the child has reached the age of 15, a separate passport is necessary.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs offers more information on what constitutes as a valid and acceptable travel document for the purpose of entering the Czech Republic.

By plane[edit]

All of Europe's major airlines fly to the Czech Republic. The country's flag carrier is ČSA Czech Airlines, a SkyTeam member. Many of Europe's low cost airlines also fly to the country, including EasyJet, WizzAir, Ryanair, Germanwings, Norwegian, Jet2.com, SprintAir, SmartWings, and Air Berlin.

Apart from direct air connections from many European cities, ČSA and Korean Air operate direct Asian flights to and from Seoul, while Emirates and Flydubai operate from Dubai, Delta with a New York route, Air Canada Rouge operates from Toronto, Aeroflot to Moscow, Hainan Airlines from Beijing, and China Eastern Airlines with Shanghai, just to name several major routes.

Prague’s Vaclav Havel Airport (PRG), located about 10km west of the city centre, is the largest and busiest airport in the republic, as well as its most common entrance by airplane. Havel Airport is also the hub of ČSA. Other commericial international airports in the Czech Republic include Brno (BRQ), Ostrava (OSR), Pardubice (PED), and Karlovy Vary (KLV). Many of the republic's smaller airports outside of Prague are served by discount or seasonal charter airlines to a variety of destinations around Europe.

By train[edit]

International train service runs from most points in Europe to Prague, with some offering direct connections. In general, there are direct rail connections (without train changes) with Germany, Austria, Poland, Hungary, Belarus, and Russia.

By car[edit]

The D5 motorway links Prague and Pilsen to the German autobahn network in Bavaria.

Drivers can enter the Czech Republic through a multitude of roads from its neighbouring states. Since the Czech Republic entered into the Schengen Agreement, all checkpoints on its border crossings have been removed, although the border police does from time to time flag down cars or buses for random searches. Due to its Central European location, all of the Czech Republic's neighbors provide good road access to the country.

By bus[edit]

Being in the centre of Europe, the Czech Republic is often a destination for a variety of bus services. Among some of the best-known and reliable international bus companies providing service to the country include:

From Germany[edit]

German rail carrier Deutsche Bahn operates EC trains every two hours from Berlin or Hamburg to Prague and Brno. Direct overnight sleeper car serves Cologne, Frankfurt and Karlsruhe. If bought in advance, tickets can begin at €19–€39 for seat and €60 for a couchette. Deutsche Bahn also operates express non-stop buses every two hours between Mannheim, Nuremberg and Prague, fully integrated with the German railway tariff. If you have an InterRail or Eurail pass, consider that these buses require a compulsory reservation.

There are four daily trains from Munich to Prague (with a followup from Nuremberg), but they are slower than the abovementioned bus, because of the slow and curvy (although picturesque) railway between the Bavarian-West Bohemian border. The cheapest way to use this line is with a Bayern-Böhmen-Ticket, valid up to Pilsen, combined with a Czech domestic online ticket.

Similarly, there is a cheap local train (not EC or EN) connection between Dresden and Prague with a possible change of trains at Bad Schandau and Děčín, by taking advantage of the Sachsen-Böhmen-Ticket or the Elbe-Labe-Ticket.

In the vicinity of the Czech-German-Polish three-way border, you may profit from the unified fare of the ZVON transport system.

By car, the German and Czech road networks are well connected, with autobahn A17 connecting to Czech motorway D8 (Ústí nad Labem, Prague), and A6 in Bavaria connecting to D5 (Pilsen, Prague).

From Poland[edit]

Bilingual train station signs in Czech and Polish at the border in Český Těšín.

Polish rail carrier PKP Intercity operates EIC and TLK trains from Warsaw to Prague, as well as to Ostrava, continuing to Vienna. There are also direct sleeper cars from Warsaw and Kraków. Promotion tickets for these trains costs €19–€29, if bought at least three day in advance, however PKP Intercity does not sell these tickets online, meaning travellers will need to visit the ticket counter to purchase. The regular one-way price from Warsaw to Prague is €70 (return €105), while from Kraków to Prague is normally around €43 (return €73). Both PKP Intercity and České dráhy accept Interrail tickets.

There are only direct night trains from Kraków to Prague; in all other journeys between the two cities, passengers must change trains in Katowice. For those looking for a more direct journey from Kraków, RegioJet, LEO Express and České dráhy all offer bus services that can connect to the Czech rail network.

Apart from these long-distance trains there are a few local trains offering cross border connections, including direct connections from Kłodzko to Ústí nad Orlicí, Międzylesie to Lichkov, and Szklarska Poręba to Liberec. For these local trains (not IC or EC), it is possible to buy a special cross-border ticket (Polish: bilet przechodowy) which is valid between Czech and Polish (or vice versa) border stations and costs only 15CZK or 2PLN. You can buy it from the conductor on the train (or completely ignore it if the conductor does not emerge before you reach the other border station, which does happen) and combine it with domestic tickets of the two countries. In the vicinity of the Czech-German-Polish three-way border, you may profit from the unified fare of the ZVON transport system.

Polish regional rail operator Przewozy Regionalne also offers Czechy + and Czechy + Max tickets from Polish border rail stations to the rest of the Czech rail nework. Travel must be completed within 24 hours of the ticket's validity, with prices ranging from 19 to 49PLN.

For many Polish and Czech towns sharing a common border, it is often possible to walk or take a bus between the two. Some notable examples include Cieszyn separated from its Czech counterpart Český Těšín by only a short bridge, Kudowa-Zdrój separated 7 km from its Czech sister city of Náchod, Mieroszów from Meziměstí (6 km), and the Polish and Czech winter resorts of Szklarska Poręba and Harrachov separated by 14 km of mountains and pristine forest. In each case, each border town has good transportation links with their respective nations.

Polish motorway A1 transitions into Czech motorway D1, connecting Katowice and much of the Silesian Metropolis with Ostrava, Olomouc, and Brno.

From Slovakia[edit]

The three-way border between the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Austria.

As the former other half of Czechoslovakia, trains between the Czech Republic and Slovakia are frequent and reliable. EC trains operated by České dráhy and Slovak carrier ZSSK run every two hours from Bratislava to Prague and Brno, as well as from Žilina, Zvolen, and Košice to Prague, Olomouc, Pardubice, and Ostrava. All these cities also have a direct overnight sleeper car connection to Prague.

A regular one-way ticket to Prague can cost €27 from Bratislava and €42 from Košice. There is a return discount of (roughly) 30% called CityStar. ZSSK also offers discounted online tickets in advance, with the day train from Bratislava to Prague costing €15, Košice to Prague €18, and the night train including a couchette reservation from Košice to Prague €27.

Private rail operators RegioJet and LEO Express also provide daily connections from Košice to the Czech Republic via Žilina as well, with discounted online tickets starting at €9 and €12.

Additionally, both countries are linked together by a number of roads, with Slovak and Czech motorway D2 linking Bratislava to Brno

From Austria[edit]

České dráhy's Railjet trains from Vienna to Prague and Brno operate every two hours. Austrian rail carrier ÖBB also frequently operates trains from Linz to České Budějovice and Prague, with two direct connections and three more connections with a change of trains in České Budějovice. If booked well in advance, ÖBB offers prices beginning at €9 for Vienna to Brno, and €19 for Vienna to Prague, although when closer to the day of departure, tickets can become significantly expensive. Aside from rail connections, both countries are well-linked by roads, although there are presently no motorways between the two.

Cheap ticket combinations[edit]

The full-price of international tickets can be quite expensive, so if no commercial discount fits your needs, you can combine domestic tickets to save money.

  • Buy a German/Austrian/Slovak/Polish domestic ticket to the Czech border point and then ask the Czech conductor for a Czech domestic ticket starting at the border point (the surcharge for buying the ticket in the train is 40CZK). Remember there is a significant group discount starting with 2 passengers.

The border point names are:

  • from Berlin: Schöna Gr.
  • from Vienna: Břeclav Gr.
  • from Linz: Summerau Gr.
  • from Bratislava: Kúty Gr.
  • from Nuremberg: Furth im Wald Gr. (trains via Schwandorf) or Cheb Gr. (trains via Cheb)
  • from Munich: Furth im Wald Gr.
  • from Košice: Horní Lideč Gr. (trains via Vsetín) or Čadca Gr. (trains via Ostrava)
  • from Warsaw and Kraków: Zebrzydowice Gr.
  • from Wrocław: Lichkov Gr.

The Gr. means a border point to distinguish them from stations with the same name.

Get around[edit]

By plane[edit]

There are domestic flights between Prague and Ostrava, operated by ČSA Czech Airlines. However, these flights can be expensive considering the distance, and are seldom used by locals, although it is surely the fastest way to cross the country.

By train[edit]

One of ČD's modern Railjets.

The Czech Republic has a highly dense railway network, most of it operated by national rail carrier České dráhy (ČD). České dráhy's services are widespread across the country, with major hubs in Prague, Brno, Pilsen, Pardubice, České Budějovice, and Ostrava. In both Prague and Ostrava, the company also operates a fleet of urban Esko (S-Bahn) trains, connecting these cities' various train stations with their outside suburbs.

Since the 2000s, ČD has lost its exclusive monopoly on passenger rail travel, and is now open to competition. Private passenger company RegioJet operates distinctive yellow-coloured high-speed trains on the Prague-Ostrava line, with stops in Pardubice and Olomouc in between, with some rail services continuing onwards into Slovakia. Another private rail company, LEO Express, also operates on the same Prague-Ostrava line, with limited rail and bus services continuing into Slovakia and Poland.

České dráhy's trains tend to widely vary with age and quality. The carrier operates high-speed Pendolinos between Františkovy Lázně near the German border, Prague, and Ostrava, as well modern Railjets between Prague, Brno and Vienna. Other rolling stock, however, varies from the modern to the rusty 1970s. Trains going to remote locations, such as provincial towns or villages away from the main rail corridors, tend to be old and travel time can be time consuming. RegioJet and LEO Express, however, operate with modern trains and carriages, offering affordable food and drinks, and free wi-fi, yet their domestic routes are presently limited only between Prague and Ostrava.

When choosing which rail carrier to use, bear in mind that there is no universal train ticket, as České dráhy, RegioJet, and LEO Express are three entirely separate companies, with separate ticket offices and tickets to purchase, meaning you can only use a specific ticket with the company it was purchased from.

Train categories[edit]

The following train categories are recognized and shown in timetables such as Idos and with this real-time departure and arrival database:

RegioJet, a popular private train service.
  • Osobní (Os) – slow local (and usually old) trains, stopping everywhere, operated by ČD.
  • Spěšný (Sp) – faster than osobni and normally more modern, usually skipping little villages, operated by ČD.
  • Rychlík (R) – fast trains, stop in major towns, commonly used trains for longer distances, operated by ČD.
  • Rychlík vyšší kvality (Rx) – fast trains like rychlík, with use of newer and more comfortable carriages, operated by ČD.
  • Expres (Ex) – faster and use of newer and more comfortable carriages than rychlík, operated by ČD.
  • Intercity (IC) – fast trains at European standards.
  • LEO Express (LE)LEO Express trains, with compulsory seat reservation.
  • Eurocity (EC) – international fast trains at European standards, stopping in major cities only, operated by ČD.
  • Railjet (rj) – international fast trains to Austria, stopping in major cities only, operated by ČD.
  • Regiojet (RJ)RegioJet's trains, with compulsory seat reservation.
  • Supercity (SC) – Pendolino trains operated by ČD, with compulsory seat reservation

Train tickets[edit]

Compared to Western European standards, Czech rail travel is cheap, highly affordable, and largely reliable. Tickets from all three of the republic's rail companies can be purchased online, and can be printed either at home or shown on tablets and smartphones to the conductor once aboard. Tickets can also often be bought in person at the station from window agents. RegioJet and LEO Express ticket agents near universally speak English, while České dráhy's agents outside of the main cities often cannot. In order to avoid any potential language confusion, travellers can write the destination name and the desired time of their journey, which will be universally understood by the ČD agent. Smaller ČD stations or stops without an active agent window or office will usually have conductors on their passing trains to purchase tickets from once you board.

Frequent users of České dráhy can register online to join its Loyalty Programme, earning points for every trip taken under their name. With more points accumulated, users can receive significant discounts off of future rail travel, as well as discounts for attractions or for other activities listed online. Similarly, users of LEO Express can also join its Smile Club to collect kilometers as points for future travel discounts. RegioJet offers registration for discounted travel, although it does not have a rewards programme.

If you are buying in person, travellers on ČD going on a roundtrip journey can receive a 5% discount, and when travelling in a group (even two travellers are considered as a "group"), the first person pays full price, while the second gets a 25% discount, and others get a 50% discount. Therefore ask for group discount (skupinová sleva) and/or return discount (zpáteční sleva) to the agent.

LEO Express is another private rail company and popular alternative to ČD.

For journeys between larger cities with ČD, you can buy a discounted First Minute Czech Republic ticket, which is generally at the same price or even cheaper than buses. The earlier you buy it, the cheaper it is. The ticket isn't bound to any particular train, only to a specific day and route, and is available to buy online (it is bound to your name and Passport/ID number) and print it yourself (or present it on your smartphone or tablet, or tell the conductor the 6-digit ticket number). You can buy these tickets also directly at station counters too, but at least one day in advance. A group discount does not apply with these tickets.

On weekends, instead of the standard Czech domestic ticket, ČD offers an online Group Weekend Ticket for 679CZK for a nationwide ticket, or between 229-279CZK depending on which specific region you are traveling in (valid up to 2 adults and 3 children for one weekend day).

Frequent ČD travellers can purchase an In-karta Card, offering 25%, 50%, or 100% discounts. For the IN 25, the most common card (with a 25% discount), prices start from 150-190CZK (3 months), 250-400CZK (1 year) or 490-990CZK (3 years). Its price [ays for itself quickly. Fill in an application form at the ticket counter and provide a photograph, and you will receive a temporary paper card immediately to start using the discount. After three weeks, a plastic chip card will arrive by post.

České dráhy also offers First Minute Europe tickets for international travel, which are often much cheaper than tickets purchased at a train station. However, there are limitations: only major destinations are subject to this discount, tickets cannot be used to travel to the Czech Republic, but only for one-way or return trips starting in the Czech Republic. They must be printed beforehand and stamped by a Czech conductor, purchased at least 3 days in advance, and bound to the specific train and passenger name.

The complete list of discounts can be found on the company's travel discount page. Idos also hosts a domestic fare calculator for prices between cities.

Taking bikes or pets[edit]

Basic ČD tickets for a bike costs between 25 to 75CZK depending on the distance. You load and unload your bike by yourself onto the train. Trains with such possibilities are marked with a bike symbol in the timetable, as well as on carriages suitable for bike transport. Some trains with a square-framed bike/suitcase symbol in the timetable require compulsory reservation for bikes for 20CZK. Some long-distance trains (with a suitcase symbol in the timetable) have a luggage car, where the train staff will care for your bike for an extra charge of 10CZK, payable on the train. For more on bike transport, visit the company's bike policy page.

Unfortunately, bicycles are not permitted aboard RegioJet nor LEO Express trains.

Pets travelling with ČD are allowed in cages or hard bottom bags, and can travel for free. Bigger dogs must have a muzzle and be on a leash. The basic price ranges from 15 to 50CZK depending on the distance. For more information on dog transport, visit the company's dog and small animal policy page.

Dogs are allowed on LEO Express trains for free, and must be in cages or hard bottom bags (with the exception of guide or assistance dogs). Only small dogs in hard bottomed bags are allowed aboard RegioJet, with large dogs largely forbidden.

By bus[edit]

RegioJet is one of the country's most recognized bus transport brands.

The Czech Republic is blessed with a highly complex and integrated bus network, providing service to all corners of the republic, from its largest cities to often tiny villages. Many locals prefer using buses over trains due to cost, comfort, and reliability. Perhaps the best-known bus carrier is RegioJet. Formerly known as Student Agency for many years, RegioJet's yellow buses are easy to spot on many roads and highways throughout the country, and are known for their comfort, entertainment options, wi-fi, and free coffee, water and tea for travellers.

A number of smaller bus companies also operate throughout the Czech Republic. Local travel between smaller towns or surrounding villages is usually operated by companies named ČSAD (district name), a remnant of the state-run Československá Autobusová Doprava from communist times. On local buses, simply tell the driver where you're going, or hold up a sign if you can't pronounce the location. Be aware that most bus drivers cannot speak English. Afterwards, you will receive a paper ticket from a small machine showing the price and destination, and will pay the driver the fare printed. An excellent database to search for all connections is through Idos, a highly comprehensive timetable for bus connections. Online bus tickets for these smaller companies can often be purchased via Idos.

By car[edit]

A motorway-level road sign.
A first class road sign.
A second class-level road sign.

There are nearly 1,200 km (745 mi) of motorways in the Czech Republic, with most of the major cities connected together through a spiderweb-like ring of roads originating from Prague. However, much is still missing from the map, blocked by government mismanagement and corruption, though there are plans to connect the entire country with high-speed motorways by 2030. Until then, drivers can sometimes expect detours on smaller roads with high vehicle capacity and many areas of construction.

Motorways are demarcated by red and white signs with only a number on it. Below motorways are first class roads, with blue and white signs and a one or two-digit number. Many first-class roads are two or sometimes four-laned, and are generally considered to connect medium-sized municipalities together. Next are second class roads, also blue and white, with a three-digit number. These roads are smaller and located in the countryside, though still provide a degree of traffic between locations. Finally are the third class roads, with four-digits, which are countryside roads and for strictly rural traffic. The condition of many smaller state and local roads is continually improving, yet to be economical and fast, use the motorways as much as possible, although if you want to get to more remote parts of the republic you cannot avoid second or third class roads whose conditionals could be subpar.

In order to drive on motorways, you will need to purchase a vignette. These cost 310CZK (12‎€) for ten days, 440CZK (16.50€) for a month, and 1500CZK (56.50€) for a year. Vignettes can be purchased at petrol stations or vignette offices close to the border, or in Česká pošta offices around the country. If you do not have a vignette on your car when driving on motorways, the fine can be very steep (5000CZK minimum). Vehicles over 3.5 tonnes in weight must use an on-board unit (premid) to pay tolls based on distance; this is required also on primary roads (marked with M in a circle). Drivers can also easily obtain pre-paid premids at most petrol stations.

The use of headlights or day-time lights is mandatory at all times (day-time lights are allowed between dawn and dusk and in good visibility only). Failure to comply with this may result in a fine of up to 2000CZK. If other cars are flashing their high beam at you, it might be a friendly warning that your headlights are off.

Speed limits in the Czech Republic are 130 km/h (81 mph) on motorways, 90 km/h (56 mph) on rural first class roads and 50 km/h (31 mph) through towns. Petrol is inexpensive compared to the rest of Europe), yet remains expensive compared to North America due to taxes. Speeding is common but so are speed traps and speeding cameras, especially if you do not know the area. Many drivers use the Waze mobile app to warn fellow motorists about speed traps, hazards on road etc., so if you purchased a local SIM card with aa good data plan (or if you have good roaming data plan on your own), try it out.

Unlike most of the motorway network, the D1 motorway between Prague and Brno is in a bad shape. Although reconstruction is slowly underway, there are still long sections of misaligned concrete blocks which cause a bumpy ride. Combined with heavy traffic, reckless driving styles, rapidly changing weather due to the higher elevation (as the motorway crosses the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands) and virtually no detour routes, it makes the D1 notorious for mind-bogglingly long traffic, little patience, and car crashes. Drive carefully; the 130 km/h speed limit is in many places too fast for this route, especially if you don't know the terrain well.


The Czech Republic is a zero tolerance country. It is illegal to drive any vehicle (including bicycles and kick scooters) under the influence of any amount of alcohol, and violations over .03% are heavily punished. However up to .02 % is usually tolerated as it can be naturally occurring. Traffic fines for small offences can be paid on the spot. Large offences (drunk driving, more than 40 (town)/50 (rural) km/h over limit, etc.) require an administrative hearing and you may be required to pay a large deposit and/or your driving license can be suspended. In criminal offences which would result in a trial (eg. heavily drunk or drugged driving, car chase, etc.), your car can be seized. Some police cars (mostly on highways) accept payment by cards yet most don't.

By bicycle[edit]

The Czech Republic is an excellent place for cycling. There are lots of pleasant country roads, cycling marked paths and picturesque villages along these paths (always with a pub). It's easy to find the way, with trains and some buses having bicycle racks in the baggage section for when you get tired. Try cycling in South Moravia (close to the Austrian border) where you can find dozens of well-marked paths that will lead you through beautiful countryside full of vineyards, wine cellars and colourful villages.

The border mountain ranges (Krkonoše, Šumava, Jeseníky etc.) are growing in popularity among mountain-bikers. There are usually no fences along the trails but always keep to the roads or marked cycling paths here as these mountains are national parks or reserves and you can be fined if you cycle "off the beaten track".

Beware that drunk cycling is illegal and, although quite common, the police do routine checks (especially on paved cycling paths). See By car for more information.

On foot[edit]

In addition to urban walking, there are a great number of hiking paths and scenery-rich trails going through the Czech Republic's forests and natural areas, and the Czech Tourist Club has mapped and marked these trails so walkers can easily locate and navigate thousands of kilometres of scenic paths, perhaps one of the best maintained system of marking in Europe. You can buy maps of their paths on their website, or in most bookstores, tobacco shops, or museums (green maps, marked with the organization's symbol and the words EDICE TURISTICKÝCH MAP KČT 1:50000 at the top. These maps are based on military maps and are very accurate. It's also possible to go by train to a small village at the edge of a forest and find the onsite map of the surrounding area, and four possible paths will be visible, marked in red, yellow, green, and blue on tourist maps. These coloured directing signs are posted on trees, displaying three short horizontal bars, the outer two are white and the innermost the colour of the path you're on, pointing the direction of any of the coloured paths. This symbol at times will appear as an arrow, indicating a turn. Bus and train stops will also be indicated on signs. Visitors can register as a member of the Czech Tourist Club, where you can camp for as low as 50 Kč a night in their cottages around the Czech Republic.

By hitchhiking[edit]

Hitchhiking is common among young people, and some drivers stop even in places where they shouldn't. Hitchhiking is strictly illegal on motorways, with the exception of service areas and at on ramps. Normally, first and second class roads are the best places to hitchhike.

Take care to use very a clear gesture with the thumb pointing upwards. A gesture looking like you are pointing to the ground may be mistaken for prostitution.

Try a letter-sized (A4) piece of paper with the destination (or one of former license plate codes) written on it so it is clearly visible where you would like to go. See some other Tips for hitchhiking.

By thumb with pet[edit]

It is possible to hitch-hike with smaller dog, although "waiting time" will be longer. Expect another dog in the car.

Talk[edit]

Main Square of Telč.

The main language spoken is Czech, a Slavic language spoken by over 10 million. The Slovak language can also frequently be heard, especially in large cities, as there is a sizable Slovak minority, and both languages are mostly mutually intelligible to each other. Czech people are very proud of their language, and thus, even in Prague, you will not find many signs written in English outside of the main tourist areas. Many older people, especially outside the large cities, are unable to converse in English, so it's good to learn some Czech words or phrases before your arrival. However, most young people speak at least some English, as it has been taught in most schools since 1990.

Many Czechs speak a second and often a third language. English is the most widely known, especially among younger people. German is probably the most widely spoken second language among older people. Russian was taught very extensively under communist rule, so most people born before 1975 speak or understand at least some Russian (and often pretty well). However, the connection with the communist era and the Soviet-led invasion of 1968 (as well as with contemporary Russian mafia gangs) has given the language some negative connotations. It is also not very useful with younger people, as it is not, despite the common misconception, mutually intelligible with Czech beyond some similar words and sentences. Other languages, like French or Spanish, are also taught in some schools, but you should not count on them being widely understood. People may also understand some basic words or simple sentences in other Slavic languages, including Polish, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian, or Slovenian.

Czech can be difficult for English-speakers to grasp, as it's not an easy language to learn and takes time and practice to master, especially if you're unfamiliar with other Slavic languages. However, if you can learn the alphabet and its corresponding letters with accents, then pronunciation is easy as Czech is a highly phonetic language, with the stress falling on the first syllable. The concentration of consonants in many words could seem mind-bogglingly hard to pronounce at first, but it is worth the effort! Czechs highly appreciate foreigners who try to learn their language, even if it is only a few phrases or simple words.

Czech has many local dialects, especially in Moravia. Some dialects are so different that they can be sometimes misunderstood even by a native Czech speaker from a different region. However, all Czech people understand standard Czech (as spoken in TV, heard on radio, written in newspapers, and taught in schools) and should be able to speak it (but some are too proud to stop using their local dialect). Some of them are even unable to speak standard Czech but can write it correctly.

Compared to Czech, Slovak has softer pronunciation and uses different accents and letters. While their grammar and vocabulary retain many similarities, there are occasional words and tenses that have different meanings. To the bemoaning of older generations, many young Czechs and Slovaks born after the 1993 dissolution of Czechoslovakia have difficulties understanding each other.

In cities like Prague and Karlovy Vary, Russian is also sometimes overheard, due to a fairly significant Russian diaspora living in the country. More recent arrivals by Ukrainian immigrants have also brought their language, and it can frequently be heard, also largely in the cities. Polish is sometimes heard in the Zaolzie border region in North Moravia, particularly around Karvina and Český Těšín, where bilingual street and road signs are common. One of the country's most prolific immigrant groups, the Vietnamese, own many small grocery stores and corner shops (potraviny) across the country, as well as many Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese restaurants. This group commonly speaks Vietnamese to each other in their stores or on the street, although many also speak heavily-accented Czech. Younger Vietnamese have completely integrated into Czech society, and are often bi or trilingual with Czech and English.

Buy[edit][add listing]

Czech koruna banknotes.

The currency of the Czech Republic is the koruna (crown), plural koruny or korun. The currency code CZK is often used internationally, but the local symbol is (for koruna česká).

Coins are issued in 1 Kč, 2 Kč, 5 Kč (all stainless steel), 10 Kč (copper-colored), 20 Kč (brass-colored) and 50 Kč (copper-colored ring, brass-colored center). Notes are issued in 100 Kč (aqua), 200 Kč (orange), 500 Kč (red), 1000 Kč (purple), 2000 Kč (olive green) and 5000 Kč (green-purple). See some banknote samples [1]. Be aware that all 50 Kč and 20 Kč banknotes, older haléř coins, and older-style 1000 Kč and 5000 Kč banknotes before 1993 are no longer legal tender.

Some major stores (mainly bigger chains) will accept euros, and it's also fairly common for accommodation providers to also quote in euros. In shopping areas along the Austrian border and petrol stations in the whole country, change can be given in euros, but supermarkets and similar stores in downtown Prague (and other cities) will return only koruna, even though they may accept euros.

Money exchange offices (směnárna) are commonly found across the country, mostly in larger towns and cities. However, never exchange money on the street, as it is illegal and usually a scam (and you may easily end up with counterfeit or foreign banknotes). It is possible to exchange money in banks, although commission charges are often attached. Be very careful when you are exchanging money at small exchange kiosks. Some of them try to use tricks in order to give you a bad exchange rate (eg. the displayed very good exchange rates are valid for transactions over 50,000CZK / 2000€ only). Ask for the total amount you will get and recompute it by yourself. Beware that once you hand over your money, it is legally a binding offer and it is very hard to cancel the transaction if you don't have strong arguments that they cheated. Do not trust "0% commission" in big letters signs either, as often there is an "only when selling CZK" amendment in small letters, and buying CZK still includes a commision. Exchange and XE.com offer up to date exchange rates for nearly all currencies.

Generally, exchange offices at the airport, rail stations and main tourist streets do not offer good rates. Local people exchange money in exchange offices in less frequented areas away from prominent tourist areas. In some cases, one can get a better rate by using ATMs (bankomat) instead of changing cash.

Major stores and petrol stations throughout the country accept chip+PIN or contactless Visa and EC/MC, as well as most shops and restaurants throughout the country. Stripe cards are usually fine to use but their acceptance is declining.

Compared with other Western European countries, the Czech Republic is often considered as an affordable location that does not destroy your account balance.

See[edit][add listing]

Thanks to its prime location in the center of Europe, the end of communism, and its entrance into the European Union, the Czech Republic has rapidly grown in popularity with international tourists, especially the capital Prague, which has become one of Europe's most visited cities. Many tourists tend to be Prague-centric and stay only in or around the capital, leaving many other sites across the country undiscovered. By all means, discover the rest of the republic, which has a variety of other picturesque cities and towns to discover, as well as rich breathtaking landscapes of villages, forests, mountains, and rivers that are waiting to be explored.

Cities[edit]

Masaryk Square in Ostrava.

As the country's primate city, Prague naturally dominates most visitors' itineraries, and for good reason. A mix of the Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Brutalist, and Socialist, the capital is arguably one of Europe's most photogenic cities. Visitors should enjoy the Old Town and gawk at its medieval buildings, stroll across the Charles Bridge, and make their way through the Malá Strana up to the dominating Prague Castle for fantastic views of the city. Outside of the capital, visitors can easily explore Kutná Hora, home to impressive churches like St. Barbara's, and the morbidly fascinating Sedlec Ossuary. In the northwest of the country is Karlovy Vary, a stately and imperial spa town on the banks of the Ohře and Teplá rivers, which conjures feelings of a narrow Paris or Vienna in miniature. The city's annual film festival, held normally at the beginning of July, draws in actors, directors, papparazzi, fans and film enthusiasts alike.

The city of Pilsen, home to its famous style of beer, is a blue-collar city, although its city centre is a mix of old and new, pleasant and unpretentious. Pilsen's Gothic St. Bartholomew Cathedral presents fantastic views of the entire city and surrounding countryside. Following the Vltava south is the beautiful town of Český Krumlov, whose impressive Castle dominates the Gothic and Renaissance river valley town below. Largely overlooked by tourists, nearby České Budějovice presents an enjoyable old town with its Ottokar II Square a centrepoint, surrounded by buildings from the last 600 years. Fiercely proud Brno, the country's second largest city, often culturally and economically competes with Prague in a rivalry spanning centuries. Home to many students and with an active nightlife, Brno presents a compact and explorable old city centre, overlooked by both its impressive Špilberk Castle and the Gothic St. Peter and Paul Cathedral. Despite being metropolitan, Brno possesses a more relaxed atmosphere than Prague does, and is known throughout the republic for its high quality of life.

Olomouc, the historical capital of Moravia, remains as one of the Czech Republic's best kept secrets, site of one of the largest old towns outside of Prague and the Holy Trinity Column, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in its own right. The city's medieval astronomical clock, destroyed by the Germans in World War II, was remade as a Socialist Realist clock during communism; instead of parading saints and religious allegories are peasants, scientists and workers. Olomouc's impressive medieval walls mixed with parkland are also highly pleasant. The city of Ostrava in Czech Silesia, often characterized as working-class, to the point, and industrial, is home to Lower Vítkovice, a massive former steel mill that now functions as a popular museum. The city also hosts the Colours Festival, one of the country's largest music festivals.

Natural attractions[edit]

Foothills outside of Králický Sněžník in the eastern Sudetes in North Moravia.

The Czech Republic is ringed by a series of mountain ranges, creating the country's distinctive borders that haven't changed much in nearly a thousand years. Mountainous ranges include the Bohemian Forest to the west, and the Sudetes to the north and east, which the Krkonoše, Jeseníky, and Soví mountain ranges are a part of. Within the country are 4 national parks, each containing rich natural beauty. Krkonoše National Park is one of the most famous and popular. Within Krkonoše close to the state border is Sněžka, the republic's highest peak at 1,602 m (5,255 ft), where Czech and Polish hikers ascend from opposite ends of the mountain to meet at its summit. To the west near the German border is Šumava National Park, encompassing a large area of the Bohemian Forest. Often calculated as one of the coldest areas of the country, Šumava is home to gentle mountains, raised peat bogs, glacial lakes, and the remnants of primeval forests. With the area's German inhabitants expelled in 1945, as well as being part of the Czechoslovak-West German border exclusion zone during the Cold War, Šumava has had little human interference. The park shares a common border with the German Bavarian Forest National Park, and forms together a UNESCO-protected biosphere. In the republic's south, nestled against the Austrian border is Podyjí National Park, a forested land running along the deep Dyje River valley.

Near Brno is the Macocha Abyss, a massive sinkhole in the Moravian Karst, home to a narrow river gorge, an underground river and a large cave system. Unusual rock formations are also a major attraction in different parts of the country. The impressive Rock Theatre near Broumov is one such place to see these formations. Another is České Švýcarsko National Park, home to the Pravčická brána, the largest natural arch in Europe.

Castles & other rural monuments[edit]

Červená Lhota in South Bohemia.

The Czech Republic is simply a treasure trove of castles, palaces, monasteries, and other places of historical significance. A complete listing of castles and palaces in this section is simply impossible. Karlštejn Castle, just outside of Prague, is a huge pull for curious tourists, attracted by its Gothic architecture perched above the banks of the Vltava River. The Lednice-Valtice palaces and gardens near the Slovak and Austrian borders are the massive former residences of the princes of Liechtenstein, and is today a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site. Lednice is known for its especially massive English gardens, while Valtice, for its fanciful faux-Roman architecture. Not far from these palaces in the town of Slavkov u Brna is the Austerlitz Battlefield, where Napoleon decidedly crushed the Austrian and Russian armies in 1805. To the west in South Bohemia near the town of Jindřichův Hradec is the Červená Lhota château, an iconic Renaissance palace starkly painted red, standing in the middle of a pond and linked only by a stone bridge. Hluboká Castle, not far from České Budějovice, is another massive palace, dating from the Middle Ages but heavily redesigned in the 19th century. To the very north of the country are the impressive ruins of Trosky Castle, whose Gothic ruins give dramatic vistas to the Bohemian Paradise. Kašperk Castle, located near the Bohemian Forest, is another Gothic legacy of Emperor Charles IV's reign.

Do[edit][add listing]

Kašperk Castle overlooking the Bohemian Forest.

Hiking[edit]

The Czech Republic has an excellent and sophisticated system of trail blazing, with marked trails located just about everywhere in the countryside. Choose an area, buy a hiking map for the area (the best brand is by the Czech Tourist Club's (Klub českých turistů) 1:50000 military-based maps, covering the whole country, available in most large bookstores.

Swimming[edit]

Many places in the Czech Republic are great for swimming, and there are many designated public swimming areas (koupaliště). A list of places suitable for swimming is available here: Plavcik.cz. However, be aware that in hot weather, the quality of the water in some places can fall below EU standard regulations.

Nudism/Naturism[edit]

Czech culture is rather impartial to topless sunbathing and nudism in general. Although the country is landlocked, there are many nudist and naturist beaches near lakes. A full list is available at at Naturista.cz. Full nudity on other beaches is legal, but rare, and usually only happens in non-crowded places.

Learn[edit]

The Czech Republic has a strong history of higher learning, and remains relatively inexpensive to learn in compared to other nations. The nation's most prestigious centre for public education, Charles University in Prague, is a member of the Coimbra Group and the Europaeum. Founded in 1348, it is among one of the world's oldest universities. Other well-regarded universities in the country include Masaryk University in Brno, Palacký University in Olomouc, and the Czech Technical University in Prague.

There are a number of private universities in operation around the country, although their numbers are small and have still yet to reach universal acceptance.

Work[edit]

The South Moravian town of Znojmo.

EU citizens can work in the Czech Republic without a work permit. Citizens from non-EU states will need a work visa or a business license. The easiest way to live and work in the Czech Republic as an English speaking person is to teach English. Various institutions offer English teaching certificates across the country. The TEFL Course Review displays a good list of where you can obtain a TEFL certificate around the country.

Finding a job at a school should not be difficult as knowledge of English is in high demand. Depending on the school and the amount of work they offer you, people can earn between 35,000 to 20,000CZK, with work and salaries usually highest in Prague, Brno, and Pilsen, and decreasing once you go into smaller cities and towns. This is more than enough to live comfortably with, depending on your living situation or lifestyle.

In order to work in the Czech Republic, you must either obtain a work visa or a trade certificate (živnostenský list). A work visa, usually sponsored by your company, allows you to work for one business and normally requires a university degree. A trade certificate, however, does not require a degree, but does requires an initial bank account balance in excess of 110,000CZK ($5,100 roughly), a valid ID or passport, a recent criminal record from your home country, and a small fee to purchase. After obtaining it, a živnostenský list allows you to work as a freelancer, doing whatever you wish. In order to apply for a trade license, you must go to a city office (městský úřad), where there will typically be a trade license office (živnostenský odbor). In order to research where the closest one will be to you, Statnisprava.cz has a list of all locations of where to obtain a trade certficate.

Other work in the tourism industry is possible. Hostels, hotels, restaurants, city tours, and others are always looking for English-speaking staff.

Prague is probably the best place to foreigners to look for a job because of the number of multinational and English-speaking companies located there. Brno is also a good location to research.

The most popular websites to search for a job are Jobs.cz and Prace.cz. Interesting job offers are also on KdeJePrace.cz. These websites are generally free to use.

There are many flexible office solutions in Prague and other large cities that enable you to rent short term office space, with Regus.cz a good place to research. There are also coworking spaces in every large city, with Navolnenoze.cz providing a database for coworking spaces.

Eat[edit][add listing]

Tipping is a standard 10%, and is not normally added to the bill. Don't be confused by the percentage figures listed at the bottom of the bill, by Czech law, a receipt must show the VAT paid (21% in most cases) and the VAT is already included in the final amount, and you should add about 10% to this (or more if you were really satisfied). It is normal practice to give the waiter the tip before you leave the table. Tip is not obligatory so if you weren't satisfied with services offered, don't bother tipping.

In a vast majority of better restaurants located in major cities, you can pay by credit card (EC/MC, VISA) but don't be surprised if a few will not accept them. Make sure to check the door for respective card logos when entering the restaurant or ask the waiter before ordering. Beware that as in the rest of Europe, displaying the card logo means the restaurant accepts chip+PIN cards but still may refuse stripe-only cards.

Czechs sometimes use special meal tickets (stravenky) to pay in some restaurants, these are subsided by and tax-deductible for employers. You won't get these tickets unless you get a job in the Czech Republic, just don't be surprised when you see them.

Traditional local food[edit]

Svíčková na smetaně (beef sirloin with cream) is one of the country's most well-known meals.

Traditional Czech food is hearty and suitable after a hard day in the fields. It is heavy and quite fatty, and is excellent in the winter. In the recent time there was a tendency towards more light food with more vegetables, now the traditional heavy and fatty Czech food is usually not eaten everyday and some locals avoid it entirely. However nothing goes as well with an excellent Czech beer as some of the best examples of traditional Czech cuisine, like pork, duck, or goose with dumplings and sauerkraut.

A traditional main meal of a day (usually lunch) consists of two or three dishes. The first dish is hot soup. The second dish is the most important part, very often based on some meat and side-dish (both served on the same plate). The third, optional part is either something sweet (and coffee) or small vegetable salad or something similar.

Czech cuisine knows many different kinds of soup (polévka). The most common are bramboračka (potato soup, sometimes with forest mushrooms), hovězí vývar (a clear beef soup, sometimes with liver dumplings—játrovými knedlíčky), gulášovka (thick goulash soup), zelňačka (thick and sour cabbage soup), česnečka (strong garlic soup, very healthy and tasty, but do not eat this before kissing), kulajda (thick soup with forest mushrooms and milk), hrášková polévka (made of young green peas), čočková polévka (made of lentils), fazolačka (made of beans), rajská polévka (tomato soup), and many others. A special case not to everyone's tastes is dršťková polévka (tripe soup). Rybí polévka - thick fish soup made of carps (including its head, some innards, roe and sperm) is the traditional soup of Christmas.

Some soups are eaten with bread, sometimes small croutons are put inside the soup just before eating. Soup can be also eaten as the only dish, especially for a smaller dinner.

The second dish (main course, hlavní jídlo) of a meal is (in the traditional cuisine) often the famous heavy and fatty part, very often based on pork but also beef, chicken, duck, or other meat. The important part of most main courses is the side-dish (the whole dish including the side-dish is served on one plate) which are usually boiled or baked potatoes, fries, rice, pasta or the most typical side-dish of the Czech cuisine—knedlíky.

Vepřo-knedlo-zelo (roast pork, dumplings and sauerkraut).

Knedlíky (usually translated as dumplings) come in many different kinds. Most kinds are used as a side-dish, however some kinds with filling are used as a dish in itself. The most common type, always used as side-dish, is houskové knedlíky (bread dumplings). These are boiled in a shape of a cylinder which is then cut into round slices about 8 cm in diameter remotely resembling white bread. Houskové knedlíky are served with Czech classics such as guláš, similar to Hungarian goulash but with a thinner sauce and less spicy; Svíčková na smetaně, beef sirloin with a creamy root vegetable (carrot, celeriac, parsnip) sauce, served with a tablespoon of cranberry sauce, a slice of orange and whipped cream; Vepřová pečeně se zelím a knedlíkem (colloquially Vepřo-knedlo-zelo), the combination of roast pork, dumplings and sauerkraut. The latter combines very well with the world-famous Czech beer, the major brands being Pilsner Urquell, Gambrinus, Budvar (known as Czechvar in the US), Staropramen, Velkopopovický Kozel and Krušovice. If you are lucky enough to enter a pub serving Svijany, you should definitely order it as it is believed to be one of the most delicious brands worldwide.

Other common dumplings are bramborové knedlíky (potato dumplings). The slices are smaller, more yellow in color, and are also always served as a side-dish. Typical combinations with potato dumplings are roasted meat (pork or lamb for example) with spinach, or duck with sauerkraut (with a combination of bramborové and houskové knedlíky). Less common are chlupaté knedlíky (literally hairy dumplings but there is no hair on it, don't panic) which are not sliced but boiled in the shape of balls. They are also usually served with roasted meat and either sauerkraut or spinach.

Other Czech dishes include pečená kachna, roast duck again served with bread or potato dumplings, and red and white sauerkraut; moravský vrabec (lit. Moravian sparrow) which is in fact pork cooked in garlic and onions; smažený kapr, fried carp breaded and served with a very rich potato salad and eaten on Christmas Eve; pečené vepřové koleno, roast pork knee, served with mustard and fresh horseradish; bramborák, garlicky potato pancakes; smažený sýr, breaded deep-fried Eidam (Edammer; the most popular cheese in the Czech Republic) served with boiled potatoes or french fries and tartar sauce; párek v rohlíku, long, thin hot dogs with crusty rolls and mustard or ketchup. If you must, you can always get hranolky - french fries. And of course, the ubiquitous zelí (raw cabbage or sauerkraut) which is served with absolutely everything. Game is also very good, and includes dishes such as kančí, wild boar, bažant, pheasant, and srnčí, jelení or daňčí, all species of deer. These are almost always served either with dumplings and red and white cabbage, or as guláš.

Don't expect a wide selection of zelenina, vegetables, unless in the countryside - peppers, tomatoes and cabbage are the most commonly-seen side dishes, often served as a small garnish.

Visitors may be surprised when they find American potatoes on the menu. These are actually potato wedges, usually spiced.

Meals atypical for restaurants[edit]

Generally, the best place try Czech cuisine is to be invited for such a meal at someone's house. However, it is not so easy because contemporary Czechs tend to prepare simpler and more international foods. Traditional Czech cuisine is often reserved for Sundays, holidays, or prepared by grandma (babička) when her children visit. This isn't a rule but a common situation. In normal restaurants—even the better ones—traditional Czech staples can't match what grandma serves. This doesn't mean that the food is bad or not tasty, but it is missing something that home preparation can provide. In luxurious restaurants specialized with Czech cuisine, food can be excellent, but the luxurious style and creative improvements by the chef often only mimics traditional folk cuisine. Again, this is not a hard rule. Sometimes you can compliment the food in a restaurant that is "like what my grandma makes."

There are some dishes that are usually not served in any restaurants or pubs, but are made at home and worth trying if you have the opportunity. Brambory na loupačku (potatoes to be peeled) is a cheap and simple meal usually made in the countryside. Whole unpeeled potatoes are boiled in a big pot and put in the pot itself or a bowl on the table. You just take a hot potato from the pot, peel it yourself, put some salt, butter, and/or curd (tvaroh) on it and eat it. Drink it down with lots of cold milk. For such a simple meal, it can be incredibly tasty, especially when eaten in the countryside after a day spent outside.

Mushroom-picking in forests is a very popular activity among Czechs. Unsurprisingly, collected mushrooms are eaten afterwards. In restaurants, usually only cultivated mushrooms are used. If forest mushrooms are served in a restaurant, it is usually only as a minor addition to a meal. Homemade mushroom meals are a completely different story. A classic example is smaženice (fried dish), also known as míchanice (mixed dish)—forest mushrooms, the more kinds the better, are sliced into small pieces, mixed and stewed with some fat, onion, and caraway. Later, eggs are added to the mixture. Smaženice is served with bread. Smažené bedly are whole caps of parasol mushrooms coated in breadcrumbs and cumin and fried. Černý kuba (black Jimmy) is a traditional Christmas fasting meal made from dried mushrooms and peeled barley. Houbová omáčka (mushroom sauce), served with meat and bread dumplings is also popular. Fresh or dried mushrooms make also a nice addition to bramboračka s houbami (potato soup with mushrooms). Kulajda is a soup from mushrooms and cream. Soups and sauces are the most likely forest mushroom meals to find in a restaurant, because they contain a relatively small amount of mushrooms.

If you want to pick mushrooms by yourself, be careful. There are hundreds of species, some of them tasty, some merely edible, but some poisonous or even deadly. You can also find psilocybin, which are hallucinogenic (although it is very hard to guess a safe dosage and therefore dangerous). A tasty and edible species may look very similar to bitter or deadly species. If you do not know mushrooms very well, you should be accompanied by an experienced mushroom-picker.

Snacks[edit]

Also try a traditional snack, often the only food served in some pubs (hospoda, pivnice), or can be found in bread shops (pekárna). Many can be washed down with a good beer:

Obložené chlebíčky, a popular snack.
  • Utopenec ("drowned man") — a pickled sausage with onion, garlic and other vegetables and spices.
  • Zavináč (rollmop; also used as name of the at-sign in Czech) - a slice of pickled fish, most often herring or mackerel, rolled-up and filled with various pickled vegetables (sauerkraut, onion, sometimes carrot or pepper).
  • Tlačenka s cibulí (brawn with onion) — a slice of haggis-like meat pudding, sprinkled with vinegar and garnished with fresh onion slices. Beware, can be rather acidic due to vinegar.
  • Nakládaný Hermelín (pickled camembert) — pickled camembert-like cheese, often marinated with garlic and chilli.
  • Pivní sýr (beer cheese) — a soft cheese with a strong, Cheddar-like flavour. You should add a splash of beer to the cheese, and then mash it all together and serve it on traditional Czech bread. Šumava-style bread is the most common, a very tasty dense loaf made from rye and caraway seeds.
  • Tvarůžky (small curd pieces) or syrečky (small cheese pieces) — traditional cheese with a very strong aroma, and very much an acquired taste. Often served deep-fried but if you can handle the smell, it can be eaten alone, just with some chopped onion, mustard and bread. Sometimes also marinated in beer (syrečky v pivu). This cheese naturally contains almost no fat (less than 1%). Also can be served as pivní pes (lit. beer dog) - a plate of cheese on butter bread, with slice of onion, hot pepper and mustard.
  • Romadur — traditional cheese with strong aroma. Aroma is similar to tvarůžky but Romadur is a different type of cheese.
  • Matesy s cibulí (soused herring) — cold fish served with onions.
  • Obložené chlebíčky (garnished breads) — an open sandwich usually served as a snack or appetizer, with ham, salami of sausage, a sliced hard-boiled egg, cheeses, cream cheese, a cucumber, tomato, fish paste, or lettuce. This is highly popular to get from bakeries or bread shops.

If you want a warm, bigger, and more complicated meal which goes excellently with beer, get some of the typical Czech meals based on fatty meat (pork, duck, or goose) with sauerkraut and knedlíky (dumplings). Another excellent option is a whole pork knee with horseradish and bread (ovarové koleno s křenem or simply ovar).

Sweets[edit]

A typical koláče, found in many pastry shops.

Czechs make no secret that they have a serious sweet tooth, yet pastry patterns are different compared to France, the US or the UK. As everywhere, some traditional treats have become a mass-market production for tourists, while others are difficult to find.

On the street[edit]

  • Lázeňské oplatky (spa wafers) — wafers from Mariánské Lázně and Karlovy Vary are meant to be eaten while "taking the waters" at a spa, but they're also entirely good on their own. Have them either out of the box, on your own, or heated and iced with sugar, cinnamon, etc..
  • Trdlo (pestle; this is in fact the roller, not the sweet) or trdelník — available in dedicated sell-points in most major cities. It is a Central European Medieval-style sweet roll made from eggs and flour.

In restaurants[edit]

  • Jablkový závin or štrůdl — an apple roll pastry related to the Austrian strudel, served warm with whipped cream.
  • Medovník — a newcomer having quickly spread in most restaurants. A brown high cake made of gingerbread, honey and walnuts.
  • Ovocné knedlíky (fruit dumplings) — fruit-stuffed dumplings served either as main course or a filling dessert. The smaller ones (tvarohové curd) come with plum, apple or apricot filling; the bigger ones (kynuté, yeast) come with strawberries, blueberries, povidla (plum jam) or other fruits. These dumplings are served with melted butter, iced with curd and sugar, and topped with whipped cream.
  • Palačinka — a distant cousin of French crêpes, these pancakes are usually thicker and served with a wide choice of fillings, including chocolate, ice cream, fruit and whipped cream.

Cukrárna[edit]

Try also the wide variety of rich cream cakes usually found in a Kavárna (cafe) or a Cukrárna (sweet shop). Czech cakes are similar to their Viennese cousins due to the shared history of both countries under the Austro-Hungarian empire. Sample also Vídeňská káva (Viennese coffee), coffee served with a mountain of whipped cream.

  • Rakvička ("little coffin") — a light crispy biscuit with cream.
  • Větrník ("windmill") — a round French éclair-style cream cake.
  • Punčák ("the rum-punch-filled one") — a rum soaked yellow/pink sugar-glazed cake.
  • Laskonka — a coconut and cream-based sandwich cake.

Home made[edit]

  • Bábovka — a traditional cake, similar to marble cake, fairly dry, and usually served dusted with icing sugar. Known as gugelhupf in neighboring Austria.
  • Buchty — traditional buns filled with tvaroh (curd cheese), mák (poppy seeds), or povidla (plum jam)
  • Koláče — a rather popular flat tart topped with various sweet fillings like tvaroh, povidla, poppy seeds, fruit jams, chopped apples and nuts. Their size ranges from bite-sized (svatební koláčky, "little wedding cakes") to pizza-sized (chodský koláč or frgál), often containing several fillings combined into an elaborate pattern .

Vegetarian food[edit]

Fried cheese (smažený sýr) is a staple for many restaurants.

Finding a vegetarian meal in the Czech Republic is not as difficult now as it once was, especially in the larger cities. In tourist areas at least, such as Prague, Brno, or any city with a major university, most restaurant menus contain a vegetarian section (bezmasá jídla or vegetariánská jídla) with two or three options. People may have their own interpretation of what constitutes as vegetarian, and it is not uncommon to find dishes such as broccoli bacon or prawns listed under vegetarian meals.

In traditional restaurants, the choice in vegetarian food is usually limited to fried cheese (smažený sýr), although sometimes containing ham or salami, dumplings (knedlíky), omelette, potatoes (boiled, baked, fried or as 'potato pancakes') and sometimes a Greek salad or cooked vegetables. Be advised that vegetables practically always have to be ordered separately, even if they appear to be part of the dish: e.g. the vegetables listed in a menu option called "potato pancakes with vegetables" are most likely a garniture consisting of a few leaves of lettuce and a slice of tomato.

Bigger towns have foreign cuisine restaurants, mostly Italian, Vietnamese, and Chinese, which can serve you meat-free dishes such as vegetarian pasta.

Drink[edit][add listing]

Beer[edit]

When Germans or Belgians will boast their beers as being the best, Czechs often roll their eyes and will proudly respond that it was in their country where modern beer (pivo) was invented. Czechs are the heaviest beer drinkers on Earth, consuming about 160 litres per capita a year. Going to a cosy Czech pub for dinner and a few beers is a must! Some well-known brands include:

Some of the Czech Republic's most famous beers.
  • Pilsner Urquell (Plzeňský Prazdroj) — perhaps the country's most famous export, made in Pilsen. A pilsner type blond lager that has inspired beers across the world.
  • Budějovický Budvar (Budweiser Budvar) — not to be confused with the American Budweiser, Budějovický Budvar (or Czechvar in North America) originates from České Budějovice and its brewery is still nationalized by the Czech government.
  • Staropramen — translating as "old spring," made in Prague.
  • Gambrinus — lager beer also made at the Pilsner Urquell brewery in Pilsen.
  • Velkopopovický Kozel (Coe-ZELL) — known for its iconic goat emblem (that so-happens to be its Czech translation), made in Central Bohemia.
  • Bernard — an old, traditional beer from the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, known for being non-pasteurized.
  • Radegast — a beer originating from North Moravia.
  • Svijany (SVE-yawn-ne) — a highly-popular independent beer from brewed in a tiny village of the same name in North Bohemia.
  • Starobrno — translated as "Old Brno," a beer that is popularly found in Brno.
  • Krušovice (Crew-sho-VEE-sa) — a historical beer brewed since the 1500s for the Austrian emperors, in the village of the same name in Central Bohemia.
  • Dobřanská Hvězda (DOB-zruhn-SKAH Hv-YEZ-duh) — an independent beer in West Bohemia.

Although many Czechs tend to be very selective about their beer brands, tourists usually don't find a significant difference. Remember, real Czech beer is only served on tap; bottled beer is a completely different experience. High-quality beer can almost certainly be found in a hospoda or hostinec, very basic pubs which serve only beer and light snacks. Take a seat and order your drinks when the waiter comes to you. But beware, the handling of the beer is even more important than its brand. A bad bartender can completely ruin even excellent beer. The best bet is to ask local beer connoisseurs about a good pub or just join them.

Beers are sometimes listed by their original sugar content, which is measured in degrees Plato (P/°). The difference is generally apparent in the final alcohol content. Normal beer is about 10° (such as Gambrinus and Staropramen, which results in 4% ABV), lager 12° (such as Pilsner Urquell, results in about 4.75% ABV). The latter is stronger and more expensive, so you should specify which one you want when you order.

Czech lager is nothing like the fizzy lagers found in many other countries. Instead, it has a very strong, hoppy, almost bitter flavour, and goes very well with heavy dishes like duck or pork and dumplings or strong cheeses. It always has a thick head on the top when it is served, but do not be afraid to drink "through" it, it is fun and it slowly disappears anyway, nevertheless do not drink the beer too slowly as the fresh cold taste (especially in hot summers) quickly fades – the "true" Czech connoisseurs do not even finish this "tepid goat," as they call it.

Don't be surprised if the waiter, especially in typical pub, puts the next beer before you, but you have not ordered it and also you have not finished your previous beer. It is purely and simply because you shouldn't sit in a pub with empty glass. If you don't want another beer, say ne, děkuji to the waiter, or zaplatim prosím if you want to pay and leave.

Wine[edit]

What might come as a surprise to beer-loving outsiders, wine (víno) is also highly popular in the Czech Republic, particularly in South Moravia, where the climate is suited for vineyards. White wines tend to be the best, as the growing conditions are more favourable for them. For white wines, try Veltlínské zelené (Green Veltliner), Muškát moravský (Moravian Muscatel), Ryzlink rýnský (Rhine Riesling) or Tramín (Traminer), or red wines such as Frankovka (Blaufrankisch), Modrý Portugal (Blue Portugal, named after the grape, not the country), or Svatovavřinecké (Saint Lawrence). Also try ice wine (ledové víno) made when the grapes are harvested after they have frozen on the vines, or straw wine (slámové víno) made by leaving the grapes to ripen on straw) – these wines are more expensive and are similar to dessert wines. Bohemia Sekt is also popular with Czechs, and is an inexpensive sweet, fizzy wine, similar to Lambrusco, and drunk at celebrations. The best places for wine are either a wine bar (vinárna), or a wine shop (vinotéka) which sometimes has a small bar area too.

Spirits[edit]

Slivovice is a common spirit (and often made at home), especially in rural Moravia.

For spirits, try Becherovka (herb liqueur, similar to Jagermeister, tastes of a mixtures of cloves and cinnamon, and drunk as a digestive), slivovice (plum brandy, very popular in Moravia and can be used as a pick-me-up), hruškovice (pear brandy, less fiery than slivovice), and so on. Many of these brandies are made out of almost every kind of fruit (plums, peaches, cherries, etc.), and are often made at home in the countryside. The unique tuzemský rum (made from sugar beet, not from sugar cane as Cuban rum is, sold under brands like Tuzemák to conform with EU market rules). Be careful as all are about 40% alcohol.

Non-alcoholic[edit]

For non-alcoholic drinks, mineral waters are popular, but tend to have a strong mineral taste. Try Mattoni, or Magnesia, both of which taste like normal water and still claim to be good for your health. If you want sparkling water, ask for perlivá. If you want it non-carbonated, ask for neperlivá. Light sparkling water (but not overwhelming is called jemně perlivá. Kofola, a coke-like drink, is also very popular, with many Czechs agreeing it is the best thing to originate from the communist era. Many restaurants don't make any difference between "sparkling water" and "sparkling mineral water".

Others[edit]

Restaurants and pubs do not offer water for free. Unsurprisingly, as beer is the national drink, it is usually the cheapest thing on the menu, with prices ranging from 15 to 60CZK (0.50–2€) per half litre, depending on the attractiveness or location the pub. Pubs closer to well-known tourist centre often have more expensive beer. Drinks are brought to your table, and often each drink is marked on a small slip of paper which is kept on the table in front of you, so you can keep count of what you have had. When you are ready to leave, ask the waiter for the bill – he or she will calculate the bill according to the number of marks on the paper. It is common to share tables in busy pubs, with most Czechs asking Je tu volno? ("Is this seat free?") before sitting down.

Try also svařák, a hot mulled wine served in all pubs and outdoors at Christmas markets, and is the Slavic cousin to the German glühwein. Grog, hot rum and water served with a slice of lemon (add sugar to taste), and medovina (mead) are both usually served hot and are particularly good for warming up at a cold winter market. Finally, if you are heading into Moravia, try burčák, a speciality found only around the end of the summer or early autumn. It is extremely young wine, usually white, and is in a cloudy, still fermenting stage of production when the wine is very sweet and smooth to drink. It continues to ferment in the stomach, so the alcoholic content at the time of serving is unknown, but it's usually high and can creep up on its drinkers due to its sweetness hiding its potency. Czechs say that it should only be drunk fresh from the vineyard, and many small private wine makers are passionate about it, waiting up into the night for the moment when the wine reaches the "burčák" stage. Visitors will often spot it being sold at wine festivals (vinobrani) around the country, as well as sometimes in markets or wine bars (vinoteka).

Stay safe[edit]

A typical Policie car and officer.

Law enforcement is carried out by the Policie České republiky. Many of the larger cities and towns have city or municipal police, although their powers are strictly restricted to mainly misdemeanors and traffic violations. Police officers are largely respected, and will be mainly helpful to tourists in need.

The European unified emergency number 112 functions in the Czech Republic and will work for all land or mobile lines. The "old" emergency numbers are still in use, which include:

  • Ambulance: 155
  • Firefighters: 150 (Hasičský záchranný sbor)
  • Police: 158 (Policie)
  • Municipal Police: 156 (Městská policie)

Violent crime and assaults in the Czech Republic are highly rare, and visitors will likely encounter no issues on their journey. The country is remarkably safe and free of personal crime. However, there are several nuisances that travellers should be aware of:

Taxi drivers
Negotiate the price before you use taxi or use a reputable company (e.g. in Prague AAA taxi, Profi Taxi, City Taxi). Prague taxi drivers are notorious known for taking the longest possible way to earn more money or to use so-called “turbos” which speeds the meter up (the control is usually hidden under the gear stick gaiter). The Prague City Council has introduced new regulations which will see all legitimate taxis painted yellow. Public transportation in most major cities is often reliable and inexpensive, many of them with night services.
Pickpockets
Watch your pockets, especially if there is a crowd, particularly in Prague. Watch out for large groups of people jostling you. Beware of a particular pickpocket gangs operating in Prague: they are mainly male, although sometimes there are women too; all are extremely overweight and rely on their sheer size and number to disorientate tourists. They tend to operate on the 9, 10 and 22 trams as well as the central metro stations, usually just as people are getting on and off, or on the escalators. Don't pull out your tickets unless you are specifically asked to do so. Keep your wallet and money securely locked and separate from each other at all time. Don't challenge them as they can become aggressive but keep your eyes open. Prosecutions for pickpocketing are rare as the police usually have to catch the pickpocket in the middle of a crime, otherwise the gang members just blame each other and it is impossible to prove who did it.
Prostitution
Prostitution is not a legal business but not illegal either. This means prostitutes do not pay taxes and prostitution is not regulated by the state. Therefore the health risk may be very high, especially in cheap brothels (often spotted with red lights on their windows) or on the street. There also have been cases of prostitutes offering a drink with sleeping pills to their customers and then stealing everything. Pay attention to the age of the prostitute, as paying a person under 18 years for sex is a criminal offense (otherwise the age of consent is 15).
Marijuana
Marijuana is illegal in the Czech Republic but it is quite popular, especially among young people. In case the police catches you smoking or possessing marijuana, be very polite with them. The reason is that by the current law, punishable is only possession of a “larger than small” amount of marijuana (defined as 15 g) but if you are rude, they may detain and interrogate you, asking for your source.

Stay healthy[edit]

Grocery stores do not sell what many Americans consider over-the-counter drugs, such as aspirin. You will need to go to a pharmacy (lékárna), which is usually open between 8AM and 7PM, Mondays to Fridays. There are 24-hour pharmacies in the bigger cities, and you should find an address for the closest one to you listed in the window of the nearest pharmacy to you. If you are in Prague, the most central 24-hour one is in Prague 2, on the corner of Belgická and Rumunská streets. These pharmacies dispense both prescription and non-prescription drugs from a small window on Rumunská out of hour. Ring the bell if there is no-one there.

Tap water is good and perfectly safe across the country, although in some small towns, the chlorine can be quite strong.

A reputable hospital in Prague is Nemocnice na Homolce'. There is a foreigner's clinic (cizinecké oddělení) with English-speaking receptionists who can make appointments for you. Most doctors speak some English, and the level of care is of a very high standard.

Central Europe and parts of the Czech Republic have ticks (Ixodes ricinus) which can carry Encephalitis or Lyme Borreliosis. Ticks hide in grass and bushes, so try to stay on trails and inspect exposed areas of skin after a hike. Vaccination against Encephalitis is available and recommended. If you want to bushwhack, make sure you have the vaccination and wear long trousers. A good insect repellent (which contains DEET), might be helpful, too. Ticks like to cling to any soft, warm, well-perfused areas of your body (undersides of knees and elbows, skin around ankles, groins, neck area, behind your ears etc.) and if not removed, they'll suck your blood until they grow about 1 cm big. Never try to scratch a tick off or pull it out, because damaging it can cause you a serious infection. The sooner the tick is removed, the smaller the chance of infection. Either ask a physician to remove a tick for you, or try to remove it by yourself: lubricate your finger with any greasy lotion and gently wag a tick from side to side until it wobbles free. Then flush it down the drain - never crush or burn it to avoid infection. Watch the affected spot: if you see a growing red spot developing there anytime during next several months, immediately visit your physician and tell him about that - you might have contracted Borreliosis. It is dangerous, but it can be easily treated with antibiotics during early stage. Be wary that American vaccination against Borreliosis most probably won't work against European strains (B. afzelii and B. garini). Note that ticks are sometimes present even in city parks, including Prague.

Respect[edit]

Moravians in traditional costumes.

The Czech Republic, along with its neighbours Slovakia, Austria, Poland and Germany, is part of Central Europe. Throughout Western Europe and in North America, the country is often incorrectly referred to as an Eastern European state, and many Czechs are sensitive about this; many will even pre-empt the ignorance of some foreigners by asking, "what part of Europe would you say the Czech Republic is in?" Get on their good side by answering "Central Europe," not Eastern!

English-speaking Czechs remain divided with shortening the name of their country as Czechia, with some not bothered with it, while others feel the name is intensely ugly and unnatural. The name still has yet to universally be accepted or agreed upon.

Czechs don't appreciate foreigners who incorrectly assume their country was historically part of the Soviet Union or the Russian Empire—both entirely false—although it was part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, and was until 1918 a part of Austro-Hungarian Empire. Commenting about how "everything is quite cheap here" could sound condescending about the country's economic status.

If you are knowledgeable about the Czechoslovak communist regime following World War II, bear in mind that this is still a sensitive issue for many. A majority of Czechs born after 1960 and 1970 have few romantic views of communism due to the experience of Normalization, and although many complain about the state of the Czech Republic's affairs today, there is little nostalgia with younger generations to return to the old times. However, unlike neighboring former Eastern Bloc states like Poland, Hungary, or the Baltics, where communism is near universally reviled, a relatively strong number of elderly Czechs still retain fond memories of the socialist order, partially explaining the continual popularity of the KSČM, the country's successor communist party, which has continually maintained 10 to 15% of parliament throughout various elections since 1990. Dogmatically Marxist yet fiercely conservative and viewed as a protest party, the KSČM and its members hold largely anti-democratic and anti-Western views, although few of its members speak English, and it is doubtful you will have any contact with them.

Centuries of religious skepticism, forced catholicization, and the most recent experience of communism have made Czechs some the most atheistic people in the world, and will often not hesitate to say that they don't believe in any God. This is true especially in large Bohemian cities. Don't assume that anyone you do not know believes in God or has a passion for Christianity. Many Czechs find Mormon missionaries, Jehovah's Witnesses, and street preaching in general as a disrespectful and foreign presence in the country. Respect people's disbelief in religion and your religion will also be respected. Despite the country's largely atheist views, nearly 10% of the Czech Republic remains Catholic (although their numbers are falling), with another 1% Protestant. There are also small Jewish, Buddhist and Islamic minorities, mostly located in Prague. Despite religious disbelief being a majority, holidays such as Easter, Jan Hus Day, St. Cyril and Methodius Day, and Christmas are still widely celebrated, although most Czechs confess they do so for strictly cultural reasons and not for religious ones.

Always say hello (dobrý den) and goodbye (na shledanou, half-formally nashle) when you enter and leave a small shop, restaurant or pub as it is polite.

While dining at a restaurant with a host family, it is customary for THEM to pick up the bill, the opposite of most Western standards. However don't assume they will, but also don't be surprised if they do.

The historic town of Tábor.

When entering a Czech household, always remove your shoes unless said otherwise. Czechs usually wear slippers or sandals when inside a house and never their outdoor shoes. Depending on how traditional the host family are, they may insist you change immediately into house shoes as a hygiene precaution, though this is rare. At the very least they will offer you some to keep your feet warm.

It is advised not to mention Czech towns and places with their former German names, when asking for directions (e.g. referring to Karlsbad instead of Karlovy Vary etc.) or while chatting with the locals. Czechs will be offended and they will regard it as ignorance and a lack of respect towards themselves. Many older Czechs are particularly sensitive about the latter while the younger usually won't know the name. As a rule of thumb, try preferring the Czech names. You should avoid using the word "Sudeten" or "Sudetenland," especially when visiting that region, unless a Czech person will say it first.

Moravia[edit]

The vast majority of Moravians will take no offence to being called Czechs, and consider themselves to be both. If you are attempting to speak Czech, beware of the complexities and slight differences between the terms Čechy (Bohemia) and Česko (Czechia). Much like a Welshman would raise an eyebrow over his country being called England, using the term Čechy to refer to the entire Czech Republic may not be appreciated by a Moravian (or Silesians). Since there are no mainstream separatist movements in Moravia, and there is definitely no ethnic conflict, it is infinitely more likely you'll be showered with kisses and plied with alcohol for simply making an attempt to speak Czech.

Contact[edit]

There are three main mobile phone operators using the GSM standard; their coverage is very good (except in some remote, mostly uninhabited areas). If you find using roaming with your own operator too expensive or you want to have a Czech phone number, you can buy an anonymous prepaid card from any of the three main operators. However, the pricing schemes are usually quite complicated and some investigation may be necessary to find the ideal solution (even with the prepaid cards, operators offer various schemes including various additional 'packages'). GPRS and EDGE is widely supported, 3G networks support is in every bigger city (provided by O2, Vodafone and T-mobile). The fourth operator (U:fon) uses some custom standards and you have to buy special hardware from them. Also there are lots of virtual providers (Mobil.cz, Blesk Mobile, Kaktus, Tesco supermarket)

There are still some telephone boxes available, but they are gradually vanishing since the advent of mobile phones. Some still accept coins, but most of them require a special prepaid telephone card.

Wi-Fi (often pronounced as wee-fee) is widely available in many restaurants and most cafés, especially in larger cities. In particular, all branches of Starbucks, McDonald's, KFC, Costa Coffee offer free access. For other restaurants and cafes, you may need to ask your waiter for the password. There are also some hotspots available on the streets, and some city quarters and trams (for example in Prague) offer free Wi-Fi coverage for everyone. However such coverage is usually very slow and unreliable and you may need to create an account (using a web browser and the page it is automatically redirected to) to be able to use it. In most larger cities, there are some internet cafés available, although their numbers are dwindling with the advent of public wi-fi, tablets, and the smartphone.

Cope[edit]

News[edit]

The Czech Republic has a strong and highly-independent media scene, with a number of television channels, newspapers, and magazines catering to the masses. Unfortunately it is nearly entirely inaccessible for non-Czech speakers. However, visitors who wish to know what's happening in the country with current events and cultural happenings can stay abreast with a few useful sources.

  • Radio Praha — English language arm of public radio broadcaster Český rozhlas. Offers news, interviews and commentary for national and European news, as well as listings for cultural events. Also broadcast in Spanish, French, German, and Russian.
  • Prague Daily Monitor — daily updated news website, translating stories, reviews, and commentary from Czech media outlets.
  • Expats.cz — a popular website maintained by the country's expatriate community, with news, cultural events listings, and a job board.



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