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Cuba

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Earth : North America : Caribbean : Cuba
Revision as of 03:47, 8 August 2003 by CIAWorldFactbook2002 (Talk | contribs)

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Flag
Cu-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalHavana
GovernmentCommunist state
CurrencyCuban peso (CUP)
Areatotal: 110,860 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 110,860 sq km
Population11,224,321 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageSpanish
Religionnominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule has held the country together since then. Cuba's Communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. The country is now slowly recovering from a severe economic recession in 1990, following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies, worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Havana portrays its difficulties as the result of the US embargo in place since 1961. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, or falsified visas - is a continuing problem. Some 2,600 Cubans attempted the crossing of the Straits of Florida in 2001; the US Coast Guard apprehended only about 35% of the individuals.


Geography

Cu-map.gif
Map of Cuba
Location 
Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
Geographic coordinates 
21 30 N, 80 00 W
Map references 
Central America and the Caribbean
Area 
total: 110,860 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 110,860 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries 
total: 29 km
border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba
Coastline 
3,735 km
Maritime claims 
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate 
tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
Terrain 
mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m
Natural resources 
cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land
Land use 
arable land: 33.04%
other: 59.35% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 7.61%
Irrigated land 
870 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
Environment - current issues 
air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note 
largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles

People

Population 
11,224,321 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 20.6% (male 1,188,125; female 1,125,743)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 3,902,162; female 3,880,531)
65 years and over: 10.1% (male 520,849; female 606,911) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
0.35% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
12.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
7.35 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
7.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 76.6 years
female: 79.15 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.2 years
Total fertility rate 
1.6 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.03% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
120 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban
Ethnic groups 
mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Religions 
nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented
Languages 
Spanish
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
male: 96.2%
female: 95.3% (1995 est.)
total population: 95.7%
People - note 
illicit migration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; some 3,000 Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2001; the US Coast Guard interdicted about 25% of these migrants; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US; some 2,400 Cubans arrived overland via the southwest border and direct flights to Miami in 2000

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
Government type 
Communist state
Capital 
Havana
Administrative divisions 
14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
Independence 
20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 10 December (1898); note - 10 December 1898 is the date of independence from Spain, 20 May 1902 is the date of independence from US administration
Constitution 
24 February 1976, amended July 1992
Legal system 
based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 6 March 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz reelected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly; note - there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National Assembly
head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Legislative branch 
unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (609 seats, elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 January 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: percent of vote - PCC 97.6%; seats - PCC 609
Judicial branch 
People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)
Political parties and leaders 
only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
none; note - Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Dagoberto RODRIGUEZ Barrera (since August 2001); address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518
Diplomatic representation from the US 
none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer James C. CASON; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland
Flag description 
five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center; design influenced by the US flag

Economy

Economy - overview 
The government continues to balance the need for economic loosening against a concern for firm political control. It has undertaken limited reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity, increase enterprise efficiency, and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services, but is unlikely to implement extensive changes. A major feature of the economy is the dichotomy between relatively efficient export enclaves and inefficient domestic sectors. The average Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the severe economic depression of the early 1990s, which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. High oil prices, recessions in key export markets, and damage from Hurricane Michelle hampered growth in 2001. Cuba paid high prices for oil imports in the face of slumping prices in the key sugar and nickel industries and suffered a slowdown in tourist arrivals following September 11. The government aimed for 3% growth in 2002, but growth was held back by hurricanes, depressed tourism, and faltering world economic conditions, including low world sugar prices and a shortage of external financing.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $25.9 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
0% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $2,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 8%
industry: 35%
services: 58%
Population below poverty line 
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
7.1% (2002 est.)
Labor force 
4.3 million
note: state sector 78%, non-state sector 22% (1999) (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture 24%, industry 25%, services 51% (1999) (1999)
Unemployment rate 
4.1% (2001 est.)
Budget 
revenues: $14.9 billion
expenditures: $15.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.) (2000 est.)
Industries 
sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction, services, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, biotechnology
Industrial production growth rate 
0.2% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production 
14.87 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 95%
hydro: 0%
other: 5% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
13.829 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock
Exports 
$1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities 
sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee
Exports - partners 
Netherlands 22.4%, Russia 13.3%, Canada 13.3%, Spain 7.3%, China 6.2% (2001)
Imports 
$4.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities 
petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners 
Spain 12.7%, France 6.5%, Canada 5.7%, China 5.3%, Italy 5.0% (2001)
Debt - external 
$12.3 billion (convertible currency, 2000 est.); another $15 billion -$20 billion owed to Russia (2001) (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient 
$68.2 million (1997 est.)
Currency 
Cuban peso (CUP)
Currency code 
CUP
Exchange rates 
Cuban pesos per US dollar - 1.0000 (nonconvertible, official rate, for international transactions, pegged to the US dollar); convertible peso sold for domestic use at a rate of 1.00 US dollar per 27 pesos by the Government of Cuba (January 2002)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
473,031 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
2,994 (1997)
Telephone system 
general assessment: NA
domestic: principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la Juventud; 2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old, US-built; the other newer, built during the period of Soviet support); both analog and digital mobile cellular service established
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 169, FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 
3.9 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
58 (1997)
Televisions 
2.64 million (1997)
Internet country code 
.cu
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
5 (2001)
Internet users 
120,000 (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 4,807 km
standard gauge: 4,807 km 1.435-m gauge, in public use (147 km electrified)
note: in addition to the 4,807 km of standard-gauge track in public use, 7,162 km of track is in private use by sugar plantations; about 90% of the private use track is standard gauge and the rest is narrow gauge (2000 est.)
Highways 
total: 60,858 km
paved: 29,820 km (including 638 km of expressway)
unpaved: 31,038 km (1997)
Waterways 
240 km
Ports and harbors 
Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba
Merchant marine 
total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,187 GRT/63,416 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 6, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3 (2002 est.)
Airports 
172 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 78
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 36 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 94
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 64 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) including Ground Forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); note - the Border Guard Troops (TGF) are controlled by the Interior Ministry
Military manpower - military age 
17 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 3,102,312
females age 15-49: 3,036,549 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 1,915,586
females age 15-49: 1,869,867 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 86,632
females: 79,562 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
roughly 4% (FY95 est.)
Military - note 
Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Illicit drugs 
territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for cocaine and heroin bound for the US and Europe; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

Variants

Actions

Destination Docents

In other languages