Difference between revisions of "Chittorgarh"
Revision as of 04:53, 5 June 2010
Chittorgarh is in the southern part of Rajasthan, lies on the Berach River, a tributary of the Banas, and is the administrative headquarters of Chittorgharh District. It is 112 km from Udaipur and 182 km from Ajmer served as a capital city to the Sisodia clans of Rajputs of Mewar for a long time. The district is a famous tourist destination for its massive fortress claimed to be the largest amoung all the Rajput fort and has witnessed the legendary tale of Queen Padmini's act of jauhar that fascinates most historians and travellers.
Historically, the Chittorgarh fort was built by the Maurayans in 7th century A.D. Some accounts say that the Mori dynasty was in possession of the fort when Bappa Rawal the founder of the kingdom of Mewar seized Chittorgarh (Chittor fort) and made it his capital in 734 AD. While some other accounts say Bappa Rawal received it as a part of the dowry after marriage with the last Solanki princess.
The first attack was by Alauddin Khilji in 1303 A.D., who was enamoured by the beauty of Padmini of which he had only heard. Rani Padmini preferred death to abduction and dishonour and committed jauhar (an act of self immolation by leaping into a large fire) along with all the other ladies of the fort. All the men left the fort in saffron robes to fight the enemy unto death. Chittorgarh was captured in 1303 A.D. by Alauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi who led a huge army. Elderly people then had the responsibility to raise the children. It was recaptured in 1326 A.D. by the young Hammir Singh, a scion of the same Gehlot clan. The dynasty (and clan) fathered by him came to be known by the name Sisodia after the village where he was born.
By the 16th century, Mewar had become the leading Rajput state. Rana Sanga of Mewar led the combined Rajput forces against the Mughal emperor Babur in 1527 A.D., but was defeated at the Battle of Khanua. Later in 1535 A.D., Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat besieged the fort causing immense carnage. It is said that again just like in the case of Jauhar led by Padmini in 1303 A.D., all 32,000 men then living in the fort donned the saffron robes of martyrdom and rode out to face certain death in the war, and their women folk committed Jauhar led by Rani Karnawati. The ultimate sacrifice for freedom, Jauhar was again performed for the third time after the Mughal Emperor Akbar captured Chittorgarh in 1568 A.D.
Chittorgarh is also famous for its association with two very widely known historical figures of India. The first is, Meera Bai the most famous female Hindu spiritual poetess whose compositions are still popular throughout North India. Her poems follow the Bhakti tradition and she is considered to be most passionate worshipper of lord Krishna.
Chittorgarh remains replete with historic associations and holds a very special place in the hearts of Rajputs, as it was a bastion of the clan at a time when every other stronghold had succumbed to invasion. The fort and the city of Chittorgarh also hosts the biggest Rajput festival "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, not the one by Padmini which is most famous. This festival is to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three Jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh. A huge number of Rajputs which include the descendants of most of the princely families do a procession to celebrate the Jauhar.
The climate of Chittorgarh is quite dry and parched. The summer season extends from April to June and is quite hot. The average temperature in summers falls between 43.8° C to 23.8° C. The winter season lasts from October to February. Chittorgarh weather in the winters is pretty cool. The temperature averages around 28.37° C to 11.6° C. The monsoon season falls during the months of June to August.
As far as climatic conditions of Chittorgarh, Rajasthan in monsoon are concerned, there is only slight rainfall that averages around 60 cm to 80 cm. The best time to visit Chittorgarh is between September to March.
The nearest airport is the Maharana Pratap Airport at Udaipur, about 90 km from Chittorgarh.
Chittorgarh is well connected by rail to other cities and towns of Rajasthan and India. The Chittorgarh railway station connects Chittorgarh to cities such as Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Ajmer, Kota, Udaipur, and Delhi. In addition to this, you also have the option to travel by the Palace on Wheels luxury train.
The completed Golden Quadrilateral highway system will pass through Chittorgarh, connecting it to much of the rest of India. Also crossing the East West Corridor (Express Highway). The Chittorgarh is situated at National Highway No. 76 & 79, both the Highways are crossing at Chittorgarh
Rajasthan roadways (RSRTC) provide a very good service for visiting areas around Chittorgarh. Numbers of private bus services are available in Chittorgarh, connecting all major cities in India. There are regular bus services from Chittorgarh to other cities in Rajasthan and India. Bus services operate for Delhi, Mount Abu, Jaipur, Indore, and Ajmer.
Much of the district, particularly the Chittorgarh Fort, lends itself leisure to explore and trek.
Rent a bicycle to explore the magnificent fort. It is a fairly tough climb up to the fort, but once at the top it is mainly flat. You can climb to the top of this tower and from the top, the view is outstanding.
Alternatively, have a tour by auto-rickshaw costs around Rs 125-150, which includes waiting time. You should work out the waiting time in advance. Auto-rickshaws for a tour of the fort can be arranged at the tourist office.
Many of the historical sights are in ruins and within the fortress compound. It takes approximately 3 hours to see everything. If you are planning a full-day tour in the area, a morning visit to the fort followed by visiting some of the nearby attractions makes a good itinerary.
[Admission Fee: INR 5.00 for Indian nationals, foriegn tourists: INR. 100.00.] The fort, plainly known as Chittor, was the capital of Mewar and is today situated several kilometres by road south of Bhilwara. It sprawls majestically over a hill 180m (590.6ft) in height spread over an area of 280ha (691.9acres) above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River. A winding hill road of more than 1km (0.6 mi) length from the new town leads to the west end main gate, called Ram Pol, of the fort.
Within the fort, a circular road provides access to all the gates and monuments located within the fort walls. The fort that once boasted of 84 water bodies has only 22 of them now. These water bodies are fed by natural catchment and rainfall, and have a combined storage of 4 billion litres that could meet the water needs of an army of 50,000. The supply could last for four years. These water bodies are in the form of ponds, wells and step wells.
The fort has seven gates (in local language, gate is called "Pol"), namely the Padan Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jodla Pol, Laxman Pol and the main entry gate of Ram Pol (Lord Rama's Gate). All the gateways to the fort have been built as massive stone structures with secure fortifications for military defense. The doors of the gates with pointed arches are reinforced to fend off elephants and cannon shots. The top of the gates have notched parapets for archers to shoot at the enemy army. A circular road within the fort links all the gates and provides access to the numerous monuments (ruined palaces and 130 temples) in the fort.
Chittorgarh Fort is a large space, and visitors may find it useful to compartmentalise the different sections.
Some of the popular destinations around Chittorgarh that would spice your stay at Chittorgarh. Rent a car or buy a ticket from conducted travel agents to explore the outskirts of Chittorgarh.
Nagri (20km from Chittorgarh) - One of the most important townships of the Mauryan era situated on the banks of River Bairach. The place which flourished during Maurayan and Gupta era now consists excavations and ruins unearthened. Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary (25km from Chittorgarh) - The wildlife sanctuary covers an area of 50 sq. km. near Bassi village and house to panther, wild boar, antelopes and mongoose. Migratory birds also visit the sanctuary. For entry into the sanctuary, prior permision is to be obtained from the District Forst Officer, Chittorgarh. Sanwariyaji Temple (40km from Chittorgarh) - The temple is dedicated to Lord Krishna, situated on the Chittaurgarh - Udaipur highway. This is not a very old structure and is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. Bijolia (50km east of Chittorgarh) - The place has three ancient Central Indian-style temples. The Undeswara Temple has a yoni and linga in the inner sanctums, and some excellent carvings. Menal (90km from Chittorgarh) - One of the excavated area consists a group of well-preserved 12th century temples. Deogarh (125km from Chittorgarh) - The 16th century fort near Pratapgarh, is famous for the palaces, their murals and Jain temple. Barolo (140km from Chittorgarh) - This town is worth visiting, because of the group of ancient temples situated here especially the ruins of the famous temples of Babaroli.
The prime tourist attraction in Chittorgarh is the fort of Chittogarh, which is located on a steep hill beside the main township. The chhatris or memorials of Jaimal and Kalla which mark the spots where they fell while bravely defending the fort during a siege in 1586 speaks for the valor of Rajputs. Rana Kumbha Palace is an important spot and it is believed that Queen Padmini had performed jauhar in one of its cellars. The Archeological Museum, the Singa Chowri Temple, and the Fateh Prakash Palace and Museum adjacent to Rana Kumbha Palace are worth visiting. The Victory Tower or Vijay Stambh is one of the main tourist attractions of the fort. The Tower of Fame or Kirti Stambh is another important monument. built in 12th century and is dedicated to Adinath, the first Jain Tirthankara (spiritual leader).
To feel the existence of Rani Padmavati, stroll down the marble gallery of Padmini Palace, also watch the reflection of yours on the crystal clear water of the Pond inside the Palace.
Fairs and festivals
Jauhar Mela [Annual Fair. February - March]: The fort and the city of Chittorgarh host the biggest Rajput festival called the "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, but no specific name is given to it. It is generally believed that it commemorates Padmini's jauhar, which is most famous. This festival is held primarily to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh Fort. A huge number of Rajputs, which include the descendants of most of the princely families, hold a procession to celebrate the Jauhar. It has also become a forum to air once views on the current political situation in the country.
Chittorgarh has many bazaars that sell various items including metalwork, fabrics, Thewa jewelry, leather shoes and handmade toys. Thewa jewelry is made up of golden designs that are later embedded in glass. Some of the best places to shop around are Sadar Bazaar, Rana Sanga Market, New Cloth Market, Fort Road Market, Gandhi Chowk, and Station Circle. The Akola printed fabrics that are made from vegetable dyes is one of the major draws and is available only in certain parts of India.
There are many roadside local joints to eat. Some of the popular places to eat:
Most of the bars belong to the high end hotels in the town. Visitors can visit these bars to enjoy the night time.
The heat in Chittaurgarh can be torturous and one would need sufficient sun protection such as shades and caps. It would also do to bring along a sunscreen lotion for those with delicate skin to avoid heat burn. Wear a strong pair of shoes while climbing the Chittaurgarh fort to avoid getting hurt and spraining ones ankles.
The monkeys at the fort generally do not harm anyone but always keep a safe distance as they are unpredictable creatures. Besides be careful while resting under a tree as some monkey sitting above might just drop their excreta on you!
The fort is massive and hiring bicycles would ensure that your exploration of the place is not as tiring. One could get lost in the fort, so make sure that you travel in groups and with local guides.