Difference between revisions of "Chittorgarh"
Revision as of 02:33, 3 June 2010
Chittorgarh is located in the southern part of Rajasthan, lies on the Berach River, a tributary of the Banas, and is the administrative headquarters of Chittorgharh District and a former capital of the Sisodia clans of Rajputs of Mewar. It is 112kms from Udaipur and 182kms from Ajmer is a famous tourist destination for its massive fortress claimed to be the largest amoung all the Rajput fort and has witnessed the legendary tale of Queen Padmini's act of 'jauhar' that fascinates most historians and travellers.
Historically, the Chittorgarh fort was built by the Maurayans in 7th century A.D. The fort is surrounded by a circular wall which has seven huge gates before one can enter inside the main fort area. Some accounts say that the Mori dynasty was in possession of the fort when Bappa Rawal the founder of the kingdom of Mewar seized Chittorgarh (Chittor fort) and made it his capital in 734 AD. While some other accounts say Bappa Rawal received it as a part of the dowry after marriage with the last Solanki princess.
The first attack was by Alauddin Khilji in 1303 A.D., who was enamoured by the beauty of Padmini of which he had only heard. Rani Padmini preferred death to abduction and dishonour and committed jauhar (an act of self immolation by leaping into a large fire) along with all the other ladies of the fort. All the men left the fort in saffron robes to fight the enemy unto death. Chittorgarh was captured in 1303 A.D. by Alauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi who led a huge army. Elderly people then had the responsibility to raise the children. It was recaptured in 1326 A.D. by the young Hammir Singh, a scion of the same Gehlot clan. The dynasty (and clan) fathered by him came to be known by the name Sisodia after the village where he was born.
By the 16th century, Mewar had become the leading Rajput state. Rana Sanga of Mewar led the combined Rajput forces against the Mughal emperor Babur in 1527 A.D., but was defeated at the Battle of Khanua. Later in 1535 A.D., Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat besieged the fort causing immense carnage. It is said that again just like in the case of Jauhar led by Padmini in 1303 A.D., all 32,000 men then living in the fort donned the saffron robes of martyrdom and rode out to face certain death in the war, and their women folk committed Jauhar led by Rani Karnawati. The ultimate sacrifice for freedom, Jauhar was again performed for the third time after the Mughal Emperor Akbar captured Chittorgarh in 1568 A.D.
Chittorgarh is also famous for its association with two very widely known historical figures of India. The first is, Meera Bai the most famous female Hindu spiritual poetess whose compositions are still popular throughout North India. Her poems follow the Bhakti tradition and she is considered to be most passionate worshipper of lord Krishna.
Chittorgarh remains replete with historic associations and holds a very special place in the hearts of Rajputs, as it was a bastion of the clan at a time when every other stronghold had succumbed to invasion. The fort and the city of Chittorgarh also hosts the biggest Rajput festival "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, not the one by Padmini which is most famous. This festival is to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three Jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh. A huge number of Rajputs which include the descendants of most of the princely families do a procession to celebrate the Jauhar.
The completed Golden Quadrilateral highway system will pass through Chittorgarh, connecting it to much of the rest of India. Also crossing the East West Corridor (Express Highway). The Chittorgarh is situated at National Highway No. 76 & 79, both the Highways are crossing at Chittorgarh It is well connected with Jaipur, Jodhpur, Indore, Ujjain, Ratlam, Ajmer and Fatehabad by many metre gauge trains. The town still lacks connectivity to Ahemdabad, Bhopal, Gwalior, Ajmer, Jabalpur and Nagpur, so in order to catch trains for further cities one has to reach either Kota, Nagda, or Ratlam.
The prime tourist attraction in Chittorgarh is the fort of Chittogarh, which is located on a steep hill beside the main township. The chhatris or memorials of Jaimal and Kalla which mark the spots where they fell while bravely defending the fort during a siege in 1586 speaks for the valor of Rajputs. Rana Kumbha Palace is an important spot and it is believed that Queen Padmini had performed jauhar in one of its cellars. The Archeological Museum, the Singa Chowri Temple, and the Fateh Prakash Palace and Museum adjacent to Rana Kumbha Palace are worth visiting. The Victory Tower or Vijay Stambh is one of the main tourist attractions of the fort. The Tower of Fame or Kirti Stambh is another important monument. built in 12th century and is dedicated to Adinath, the first Jain Tirthankara (spiritual leader).
The fort, plainly known as Chittor, was the capital of Mewar and is today situated several kilometres by road south of Bhilwara. It sprawls majestically over a hill 180 m (590.6 ft) in height spread over an area of 280 ha (691.9 acres) above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River. A winding hill road of more than 1 km (0.6 mi) length from the new town leads to the west end main gate, called Ram Pol, of the fort. Within the fort, a circular road provides access to all the gates and monuments located within the fort walls. The fort that once boasted of 84 water bodies has only 22 of them now. These water bodies are fed by natural catchment and rainfall, and have a combined storage of 4 billion litres that could meet the water needs of an army of 50,000. The supply could last for four years. These water bodies are in the form of ponds, wells and step wells. The fort has seven gates (in local language, gate is called "Pol"), namely the Padan Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jodla Pol, Laxman Pol and the main entry gate of Ram Pol (Lord Rama's Gate). All the gateways to the fort have been built as massive stone structures with secure fortifications for military defense. The doors of the gates with pointed arches are reinforced to fend off elephants and cannon shots. The top of the gates have notched parapets for archers to shoot at the enemy army. A circular road within the fort links all the gates and provides access to the numerous monuments (ruined palaces and 130 temples) in the fort.
One of the most important townships of the Mauryan era in Rajasthan, situated on the banks of river Bairach. It was formerly known as Madhyamika, which flourished from the Maurya to Gupta era. The excavations overhere have unearthed many interesting facts and have showed signs of strong Hindu and Buddhist influence. BAROLO (140 Km-Tehsil-Rawatbhata)
The ruins of the famous temples of babaroli, near Rawatbhata. This town is worth visiting, because of the group of ancient temples situated here.
BASSI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY(25Km-Tehsil-Chittorgarh)
The wildlife sanctuary covers an area of 50 Sq.Km. near Bassi village. The key fauna of the sanctuary are panther, wild boar, antelopes and mongoose. Migratory birds also visit the sanctuary. For entry into the sanctuary, prior permision is to be obtained from the District Forst Officer, Chittaurgarh. SANWARIYA JI TEMPLE (40 Km-Tehsil-Bhadesar)
The temple is dedicated to Lord Krishn, situated on the Chittaurgarh - Udaipur highway. This is not a very old structure and is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. MATRI KUNDIYA TEMPLE (45 Km-Tehsil-Rashmi)
Also famous as the "Haridwar of Mewar", the shrine is dedicated to Lord Shiva. BHAINSORGARH WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
The sanctuary lies in the lush green environs of Bhainsrogarh, invaluable archaeological remains can also be seen here. BIJAIPUR
The 350 year old castle built by Rao Shakti Singh, the youngest brother of Maharaja Pratap, is the major attraction. it has now been covered into a hotel. SITAMATA SANCTUARY
The sanctuary is dpread over the Aravali and Vindhyachal ranges and is the only forest where teak trees of building value are found. The thickly vegetated sanctuary has about 50% teak trees besided salar, tendu, amla, bamboo and bel etc. three rivers flow through the forest Jakham and Karmoi are the major ones. A huge dam has been constructed over the Jakham river for irrigation, and wild animals in the sanctuary.
The key fauna of the sanctuary are leopard, hyena, jackal, fox, jungle cat, porcupine, spotted dear, wild bear, four horned antelope and nilgai etc.
The most important and conspicuous animal of the sanctuary is the flying squirrel, which can be observed gliding between the trees during night, this nocturnal creatures hides in the daylight, the best time to watch the squirrel is in the months of February and March at Arampura Guest House, when most trees shed their leaves making it easier to spot the squirrel.
The sanctuary is also associated with mythological events it is believed that sita wife of Lord Ram stayed here during the period of her exile in the ashram of Saint Valmiki.
DEOGARH (125 Km) The 16th century fort near Pratapgarh, is famous for the palaces, their murals and Jain temple.
MENAL (90 Km) This is also known as the "mini khajauraho", blessed with natures beauty, this picnic spot is situated on the Chittaur - Bundi raod, and is famous for the ancient temples, waterfalls and beautiful forests.
GOTMESHWAR (130 Km) The place is famous for the ancient temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.
JOGNIYA MATA JI This temple of Goddess Yogini is said to be 300 years old
NATHDAWARA (SHRI NATH JI TEMPLE)