Canyonlands National Park
Canyonlands National Park  is a United States National Park that is located in Utah's Canyon Country. The small town of Moab is the gateway to this and the nearby Arches National Park. It is divided into three districts not connected by roads interior to the park: the Island in the Sky, the Needles, and the Maze (including Horseshoe Canyon). The Island in the Sky offers sweeping vistas over the lower two districts; the Needles and the Maze are more rugged, backcountry districts that offer excellent backcountry hikes and camping.
From the 1880s to 1975, local ranchers used much of Canyonlands for winter pasture, constructing trails to move their stock across the rugged terrain. In the 1950s the growth of America's nuclear arms program created a high demand for uranium. To encourage prospectors, the Atomic Energy Commission offered monetary incentives and built almost 1,000 miles of road in southeast Utah. In Canyonlands, these roads include the popular White Rim Road at the Island in the Sky. Though the region produced substantial amounts of uranium, miners discovered very little in what is now Canyonlands. However, the newly created roads led to other discoveries. For the first time, much of Canyonlands could be seen from a car. Tourism slowly increased as more people learned about the area’s geologic wonders. By opening canyon country to travel, the miners blazed the trail for the creation of a National Park.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, Arches National Monument Superintendent Bates Wilson advocated the creation of a National Park in what is now Canyonlands. On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed Public Law 88-590 establishing Canyonlands National Park. Initially consisting of 257,640 acres, Congress expanded Canyonlands to its present size of 337,598 acres in 1971.
Canyonlands National Park preserves one of the last relatively undisturbed areas of the Colorado Plateau, a geological province that encompasses much of the Colorado River and its tributaries. Carved out of vast sedimentary rock deposits, this landscape of canyons, mesas, and deep river gorges possesses remarkable natural features that are part of a unique desert ecosystem. Elevations within the park range from 3,700 to 7,200 feet above sea level.
The foundation of Canyonlands' ecology is its remarkable geology, which is visible everywhere in cliff profiles that reveal millions of years of deposition and erosion. These rock layers continue to shape life in Canyonlands today, as their erosion influences elemental features like soil chemistry and where water flows when it rains.
Flora and fauna
The desert animals that live in the park are mostly nocturnal and include kangaroo rats, woodrats (also called packrats) and most other small desert rodents, skunks, ringtails, foxes, bobcats, mountain lions, bats and owls. Other animals are most active during dawn and dusk hours and include mule deer, desert bighorn, coyotes, porcupines, desert cottontails, black-tailed jackrabbits, and many songbirds. The handful of animals likely to be seen during the day include rock squirrels, antelope squirrels, chipmunks, lizards, snakes, hawks, and eagles.
Plants in the park include drought escapers (those which make use of favorable conditions when they exist) and drought resistors (those capable of growing with little water). Drought escapers are usually annuals that grow only when enough water is available. Seeds may lie dormant for years if conditions are not favorable. Most grasses are escapers, as are wildflowers that bloom after seasonal rains during spring or late summer. Drought resistors are typically perennials. Many have small, spiny leaves that reduce the impact of solar radiation, and some may drop their leaves if water is unavailable. Spines and hairy leaves act to reduce exposure to air currents and solar radiation, limiting the amount of water lost to evaporation. Cacti, yuccas and mosses are examples of drought resistors. Yuccas have extensive taproots that are able to use water beyond the reach of other plants. Moss, a plant not commonly associated with deserts, thrives because it can tolerate complete dehydration: when rains finally return, mosses green up immediately.
Southeast Utah is part of the Colorado Plateau, a "high desert" region that experiences wide temperature fluctuations, sometimes over 40 degrees in a single day. The temperate (and most popular) seasons are spring (April through May) and fall (mid-September through October), when daytime highs average 60 to 80°F and lows average 30 to 50°F. Summer temperatures often exceed 100°F, making strenuous exercise difficult. Late summer monsoon season brings violent storm cells which often cause flash floods. Winters are cold, with highs averaging 30 to 50°F, and lows averaging 0 to 20°F. Though large snowfalls are uncommon (except in nearby mountains), even small amounts of snow or ice can make local trails and roads impassable.
Canyonlands Field Airport , from which Great Lakes Airlines provides daily commuter service to Denver, is located on US Route 191 just 16 miles north of downtown Moab.
To reach the Islands in the Sky district take US Highway 191 to Utah Highway 313 (10 mi/16 km north of Moab, or 22 mi/35 km south of I-70) and then drive southwest 22 mi/35 km. Driving time to the visitor center from Moab is roughly 40 minutes.
The Needles district can be reached by driving 40 miles (60 km) south of Moab or 14 miles (22 km) north of Monticello on US Highway 191, then take Utah Highway 211 roughly 35 miles (56 km) west. Highway 211 ends in the Needles, and is the only paved road leading in and out of the district.
The Maze district is one of the most inaccessible areas in the continental United States. The outskirts of the Maze can be reached by driving two and one-half hours from Green River. From I-70, take Utah Highway 24 south for 24 miles. A left hand turn just beyond the turnoff to Goblin Valley State Park will take you along a two-wheel-drive dirt road 46 miles (76 km) southeast to the ranger station. From the ranger station, the canyons of the Maze are another 3 to 6 hours by high-clearance, 4WD (more if traveling by foot). Another four-wheel-drive road leads into the Maze north from Highway 95 near Hite Marina (driving time is 3+ hours to the park boundary).
Entrance fees are $5 for individuals on foot, bike or motorcycle, and $10 for private vehicles (fees are good for seven days). A Local Passport may be purchased for $25 and allows unlimited entry to Canyonlands National Park, Arches National Park, Hovenweep National Monument and Natural Bridges National Monument for one year. Alternatively, the $80 National Parks Pass allows entry to all National Park areas for one year.
Fees may be waived for groups whose purpose is educational rather than recreational; check with the park in advance for fee waiver details.
Travel to Canyonlands generally requires a car. Once in the park, each district offers different opportunities for exploration. The Island in the Sky is the most accessible district and the easiest to visit in a short period of time. All other destinations require some boating, hiking or four-wheel driving to see the area's attractions.
Daily air tours to Canyonlands National Park in a Cessna aircraft are provided from the Canyonlands Field Airport. The aircraft seats about 7 people (including the pilot). The flights take you over all of the most scenic parts of Canyonlands including the Maze District, Island in the Sky, Dead Horse Point, the Colorado River and more. Typically flights last about 1-2 hours. Helicopter flights are also available as a tour-by-air option.
Island in the Sky District
The Island in the Sky District encompasses the northern section of the park, offering an overlook of much of Canyonlands. The 34-mile (round-trip) scenic drive passes several overlooks, providing dramatic views.
The Needles District forms the southeast corner of Canyonlands and was named for the colorful spires of Cedar Mesa Sandstone that dominate the area. The district’s extensive trail system provides many opportunities for long day hikes and overnight trips.
The Maze District is accessible only by unpaved roads and is considered one of the most remote areas in the lower-48 states. The Maze District is also well known as a previous hideout for famous outlaws Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. The Hans Flat Ranger Station is open year-round from 8 AM to 4:30 PM and offers books and maps for sale. There are no entrance fees charged in the Maze District, and no services or amenities are available.
The park is a mecca for hikers. The Joint Trail is a particularly famous trail due to the unique terrain through which it passes, although nearly all of the park's trails lead through unique geological areas.
Islands in the Sky District
Trails in the Maze are primitive and lead into canyons and to various viewpoints, with access limited by the nature and depth of Maze canyons. Routes into the canyons are often marked with cairns from mesa top to canyon bottom, but routes through washes are often unmarked. Many of the canyons look alike and are difficult to identify without a topographic map. The Maze Overlook Trail and other routes in the district require basic climbing maneuvers in order to negotiate sections of steep slickrock and pour-offs. A 25-foot length of rope is often essential for raising or lowering packs in difficult spots. Some canyons will require rappelling and / or swimming to pass obstacles. Many routes may make hikers with a fear of heights uncomfortable. The challenges were sufficient for Backpacker Magazine to include the Maze in its list of America's 10 Most Dangerous Hikes.
Most trailheads start from four-wheel-drive roads. Visitors with two-wheel-drive vehicles may park at the North Point Road junction, approximately 2.5 miles southeast of the Hans Flat Ranger Station, and hike 15 miles to the Maze Overlook. Depending on the vehicle, hikers may also be able to negotiate the 14-mile road to park at the top of the Flint Trail switchbacks.
Notable features of the Maze include the Dollhouse, the Harvest Scene pictographs, and the Colorado/Green River overlook.
This park is more rugged and remote than most, with the Maze District in particular being renowned as one of the most remote backpacking destinations in the lower-48.
The park offers some of the most challenging four-wheel drive roads to be found in the United States. Check with rangers about road conditions on the roads you plan to explore -- some "roads" are little more than nearly undriveable rocky trails that will be unpassable to all but the most skillful drivers in vehicles with high ground clearance.
Nearly any of the park's 4WD roads can be traversed by mountain bike, with the exception of the Horse Canyon Road which can be too sandy for mountain biking; inquire with rangers. Bikers should carry plenty of water, and be aware that permits are required for all overnight stays. In addition, many of the park's backcountry roads connect to BLM lands outside of the park, making for interesting itinerary possibilities.
Rafting on the rivers is popular, although all visitors must have permits. Numerous outfitters based out of Moab can help arrange trips.
The visitor centers have gift shops selling books and souvenirs, but otherwise there is nothing to be bought within the park. Supplies, groceries, hardware, and a variety of souvenirs can be purchased in towns outside of the park.
There is no food available within the park. Visitor centers sell water, but everything else will either need to be brought into the park or purchased in towns outside of the park.
The park has two organized campgrounds, with additional camping options available outside of the park on public land.
Permits are required for all overnight stays in the backcountry, including backpacking, four-wheel drive or mountain bike camping, and river trips. Permits are also required for day use by vehicles, bikes and horses in Horse/Salt Creek and Lavender canyons in the Needles District. Permits are not required for day hiking. Permits costs vary in price from $15 to $30 depending on activity, and are valid for groups of as many as fifteen people.
Permits can be obtained at the visitor centers, and all permits can be reserved in advance. Those not reserved in advance are available to walk-ins first-come, first-served (see http://nps.gov/cany/reserve.htm for more information). Walk-in permits are only available the day before or the day of a trip. Permits are issued up to one hour before the close of business each day. River permits are issued (usually in advance) from the Reservation Office in Moab.
Permits (except day use) are good for a maximum of fourteen days. Exact sites/zones and dates must be determined when the permit is issued. Backpackers may stay up to seven consecutive nights in any site or zone. Visitors using the designated vehicle camps may stay a maximum of three consecutive nights at a camping area before having to relocate.
Reservation office staff are available by phone to answer questions and assist with trip planning Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. (MST), at (435) 259-4351. When workload permits, phones may be answered until 4:00 p.m. Please have a map available if you would like assistance with trip-planning. Visitors may also email questions to firstname.lastname@example.org. Reservations may not be made over the phone or by email.
The park's greatest danger is weather. Summer temperatures often exceed 100 ° F, but even during the spring and fall visitors should plan on drinking one gallon of water per day. When hiking be aware that it can be easy to get lost in the twisting canyons, so let someone know where you are going and bring more food and water than you think you'll need. During storms avoid high open areas which can be prone to lightning strikes. In addition, be extremely cautious in narrow canyons as flash floods can occur with even just a small amount of precipitation. If you are in a canyon and it begins to rain, look for higher ground immediately; if you can hear the sounds of floodwaters approaching or notice rising water around you it is already too late to seek safety. During winter ice can make roads dangerous, and visitors may want to consider bringing tire chains.