Difference between revisions of "Bornholm"
Revision as of 16:45, 22 June 2008
Bornholm  is Denmark's crown jewel. `The Pearl of the Baltic' has sandy beaches on the south of the island which are renowned for their Mediterranean light and feel. Its forests impart a more rugged feel than found elsewhere in densly-populated Denmark. Though practically unknown to Americans, this island of light is a favorite vacation spot for Scandinavians, Germans, and Poles. Its position in the middle of the Baltic (it is closer to Sweden, Poland and Germany than to rest of Denmark) gives both a secluded, yet international feel.
Bornholm is an island located in the Baltic Sea 37 km south of Sweden. The island is roughly 588 square kilometres and has 158 km of coastline. Bornholm is widely known for its smoked herring, high quality arts and crafts and its beautiful nature.
As of January 2003 Bornholms five regions assembled into one administrative and political unit called Bornholms Regionskommune. As of January 2007 Bornholm belongs to the Capital Region. (Hovedstadenregionen) This means that Bornholm has been administrativly fused with Copenhagen.
Bornholm has a long history as a military and political center in the Baltic ocean. The history goes back to the famous Vikings. Numerous findings at southern Bornholm indicate that Bornholm was a well established trading point. Poland, Sweden and Germany are all in the range of 100km. That made Bornholm attractive for the Danish king and the archbishop of Lund and the city of Lübeck during the medieval. Catholics who fasted were only allowed to eat fish and other similar things, so that in the 13th century herring was the main income source on Bornholm.
The European plague struck Bornholm in the middle 1300 century and halved the population. It was also during that time Hammershus was constructed as well as the famous ‘round churches’. From 1525 to 1576 Bornholm was in pawn to Lübeck, because the Danish king Frederik I had been supported in his rebellion against Christian II. The people of Bornholm were suppressed with high taxes and forced work. The people of Bornholm tried to break free but the revolt was fought down in the battle of Ugleenge.
A battle between Denmark and Sweden in 1645 leads to Sweden to take over the island but they leave again the same year. In the Roskildepeace of 1658 Bornholm, Skaane , Halland and Blekinge were given to Sweden. Again the people were forced to pay high taxes to the suppressive force. The Danish king advised the people of Bornholm fight back and in 1658 the Swedish commander of Bornholm was killed in Rønne, and the people of Bornholm freed themselves from years of foreign command. Bornholm was given to the Danish king as ‘his island’. Jens Kofoed, Poul Anker, Peder Olsen and Villum Clausen became champions of liberty. The same four men have in modern time given name to the ferries from Bornholmstrafikken.
World war two 1940-1946
Bornholm was Danish until world war two, and then was it taken over by the Germans and freed by the Russians in 1945; the Russian wouldn’t leave Bornholm because of the progressing cold war and only left after being given some special privileges.
The Cold war 1946 - 1989
Bornholm was NATO’s Fist towards east, but a Russian (Soviet) declaration after World War II stated that the placement of "foreign soldiers" (NATO) wasn’t allowed. So it was only Danish soldiers who were in duty at Bornholm. Because they were able to listen to Soviet, Polish and East German military radio transmissions from a location much further to the east of any other NATO members, enabling military movements and reinforcements deep within the Soviet Union to be monitored, Denmark's contribution to shared NATO intelligence was very highly valued, particularly at times of international tension. More recently NATO radar installations have been placed on the island.
As anywhere else Bornholm grew during the 1800 century and in 1843 its Hasle klinker (clinker)is established, it was one of the biggest export ventures since the herring in the medieval ages. Also the underground of Bornholm was and still is today a major part of the Bornholm industry. Bornholm is a island of Granite. Bornholmstrafikken (formerly known as ‘Dampskibsselskabet af 1866’ Steamshipcompany of 1866) is founded in 1866 and is the first regular route away and to Bornholm.
Bornholms main income source has, as an island, always been the ocean around, and in the 1970-1980 was the fishermen at the island so successful that many of them became really wealthy. No one ever wondered about the quantity of fish they pulled up in their boats until the beginning of the 1990. The harbors and processing facilities were all rebuilt to be prepared for a new season of fishing, but the season were called of by marine biologists, the sea was empty, there were no fish in it. That led to a crash in the industry because one man at sea could keep 6 on shore at work – in processing facilities, shopping, service and maintenance.
Today is Bornholm a popular travel destination for many people in the Baltic region and tourists from Sweden, Norway, Germany, Poland and Denmark is a common sight in the summer land.
As Bornholm has many tourists each year most people speak either English, German or Swedish, the exception being most of the older population. Almost all tourist folders are to be found in English, German, Polish and a Scandinavian language.
There is an airport in Rønne and numerous regular flights on a daily basis to Copenhagen are operated by Cimber Air and Danish Air Transport. Also, Bornholm Airport is an international gateway fulfilling all requirements linked to this fact. Naturally direct booking and luggage check-in to foreign destinations via Copenhagen Airport is available at the ticket office in our air terminal.
International Departures and Arrivals
Domestic Departures and Arrivals
International Departures and Arrivals
Domestic Departures and Arrivals
You can get to the island by ferry or airplane, but the island also provides excellent opportunities for arriving by private boat. It’s easy getting around either by car, bus or bicycles.
You can hail a taxi on the street, or call for one to come pick you up at a specific address. A taxi can be ordered at + 45 59 95 23 01.
The charge for a trip from the airport to Rønne is approximately €7, and a trip from Rønne to Nexø(longest distance) is €50.
There are 9 bus lines connecting cities and attractions. Some stops are designed for getting off, walking a scenic route and getting on a bus at the next stop.
The easiest way to explore Bornholm is by bike, the longest distance on the island is 36km. there are excellent biking facilities all over Bornholm. It is easy to rent a bike at Bornholm an the charge varies from place to place but about €10 for a day and €20 for a whole week.
Bornholm is famous for its many high quality crafts such as blown glass and textiles. Visit the different shops and exhibits.