Originally part of Kievan Rus, Belarus was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the Polish Partitions in the 18th century. After over a hundred years of Russian rule followed by seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. However under authoritarian rule it has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious steps towards implementation have never been undertaken. Belarus has the honor of being one of the last authoritarian states left in Europe.
Visa requirements, basic information
You can apply the visa from Belarussian Consulate or Embassy. The list can be found from Embassy & consulate list . Quick visa is more expensive, but you will get it within half a day.
Visa fees and processing changes so make sure that you check with the local embassy or consulate before you plan your travel. A visa will take a full page of your passport so make sure you have at least 1 page free.
The easiest way to obtain a visa is doing it on arrival to the National airport Minsk 2 at the Consular office (contact phone + 375 17 279 20 58) at a fee of: in case no consulate or embassy of Belarus is established in the country of residence:
private or business visa - 100 USD
tourist visa - 45 USD
transit visa - 30 USD
in case consulate or embassy of Belarus is established in the country of residence:
private or business visa - 140 USD
tourist visa - 60 USD (for US citizens, 5 day processing: 131 USD single, 232 USD double, 333 USD multiple)
transit visa - 50 USD (for US citizens, 5 day processing: 100 USD single, 177 USD double, 350 USD multiple)
There is no possibility to get a Belarusian entry visa on the border (except for the National airport Minsk-2)
Latest prices and procedures are available from the Embassy Sites . Pre-issued visas save a lot of time on entry.
Belarusian visa is issued in 5 working days, there is also a possibility to get it urgently (in 48 hours) by paying double fee. Normal fee for Belarusian private or business single visa can vary from 40 to 80 USD. Visas for children under 16 are issued free of charge, visa processing fee can be levied in this case by certain Belarusian embassies or consulates.
In order to get a visa you will also need: medical insurance and documents, depending on the type of visa you apply for. There is a compulsory state medical insurance  for visitors to Belarus if you do have a policy valid in Belarus. The fee for this insurance is 0.50 USD per day rounded up to the nearest USD (ie. 1-2 days: 1 USD; 3-4 days: 2 USD; etc.).
To get a Belarusian business visa a foreigner has to present an original invitation of any Belarusian legal person, which is officially registered in the Republic of Belarus. The invitation is to be written on letterhead paper and should contain name, personal and passport details as well as purpose and duration of visit. The invitation is to be signed and bear official seal of the inviting organization. Embassies or consulates (with the exception of Consular office at the National airport) in certain cases can except invitations received by fax. Multiple business visa is obtainable against payment of 300 USD from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Consular department upon presentation of all required documents (contact phone + 375 17 222 26 61).
To get a short-term visa for private purposes (visiting Belarusian relatives, friends, other private matters) with a validity of 30 days, maximum for 1-, 2- or multiple entries for a citizen of EU as well as national of several other countries, such as Australia, Andorra, Argentina, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Chili, Island, Israel, Norway, Swiss Confederation, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Uruguay, Republic of South Africa, Japan NO VISA SUPPORT DOCUMENTS SHALL BE REQUIRED (letter of invitation etc. documents). Short term visas available from Minsk airport, consulates and embassies.
To get a visa for private purposes a foreigner who is planning to stay in the country more than 30 days has to present the invitation issued for a Belarusian resident by his citizenship and migration office. The original invitation should be handed over to the embassy/consulate or Consular office at the National airport in this case, any fax or photocopy is excluded. Multiple private visa is issued upon presentation of the original invitation to foreigners, visiting their close relatives.
Visas can be valid for one, two, three or multiple entries. They are to be used within the period indicated therein. Foreigners visiting Belarus must register within a period of 3 working days with local passport and visa office and have registration put in their passport.If staying in a hotel, this will be arranged by the hotel. Police registration form can be found here.
In case of need, private or business visa can be extended up to 90 days when staying in Belarus. It will be done by Minsk city citizenship and migration office (contact phone + 375 17 231 38 09) or Regional citizenship and migration office in Hrodna, Brest, Minsk, Mahilyou, Homel upon presentation of all required documents. Exit permits required for all foreigners intending to leave the country with expired visas. They are issued by Minsk city passport and visa office or Regional passport and visa offices in Hrodna, Brest, Minsk, Mahilyou, Homel.
ENTRY FROM LITHUANIA There are Visa/tourist offices at Kaunas and Vilnius Train Station. Here you can apply for Visa very easily. They also do easy visas for Russia.
According to this  source, visa free travel for EU citizens might be available in the near future for the years 2010-2011 only. First attemps for visa free traveling are made in the Polish and Lithuanian border areas where people will be able to travel visa free in the 50km border area.
If you do go through Moscow via Sheremyetovo airport, there are two terminals and you will need transportation from terminal 2 (the international terminal) to terminal 1 (the domestic terminal). There is a free shuttle that runs between the two terminals every 30 minutes. You can catch the Aeroexpress shuttle bus on the ground floor of the recently completed airport train station. Taxi fares between the two terminals start at $200, but you can easily negotiate lower fares with individual drivers.
Several European airlines have flights to Minsk (operating at National airport Minsk  situated approximately 40 km from capital Minsk). Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, Lot Polish airlines, Air Baltic, Czech Airlines, and some other carriers offer this destination. The only national airlines - Belavia  and Gomelavia - could be competitive due to attractive ticket prices.
Flying directly to Belarus is expensive if you do not book tickets early in advance. For example, Estonian Air  sells tickets for €92 if you make reservations 4 months in advance. If you buy the same ticket a week before the trip, the price is much higher. If you have time and want to save some money, fly to Vilnius or Kaunas, Lithuania and take a train to Minsk. The train ride from Vilnius is only four hours and generally trains leave twice per day. You will save a great deal of money compared to a short notice direct flight.
Some of the entry/exit points along the Poland/Belarus border include:
You can take a local train between the two corresponding border towns.
Timetable information are available on sites like: Deutsche Bahn (DB) , Polish trains PKP (english)  (polish) , Commonwealth of independent states (CIS) trains (and others) , Latvia trains 1 , Latvia trains 2  Lithuania train timetables  trains and bus timetables at Baltic countries  Belarussian railway timetables: 
NOTE! There is no direct train from Estonia, but via track Tallin-Tartu- Valga/Valka (Valga/Valka is city at Estonia Latvia border. There are few trains that go to Riga. Station name in Valka is Lugazi. There are plans that in 2010 trains will go directly, without need for changing, from Estonia, Tallin to Latvia, Riga.
Passport, customs controls
Passport controls happen in the train itself. In the get in to Belarus direction, they happen typically even before the train leaves the station in Poland.
Customs controls happen in a room of the train station in the Belarus train station. As of 2005, you are most likely to have a short chat with a customs officer - the system of green (nothing to declare) and red (something to declare) streams and random checks of suspicious looking people in the green stream - everyone is presumed to be suspicious. In practice, the rules seem to be fairly standard - declare expensive goods, you can import/export a small quantity of alcohol, cigarettes, computer equipment for personal use. However, the formal content of the customs form asks whether you are carrying any publications. So if you have, e.g. a US passport and are carrying a whole bunch of do-it-yourself-color-revolution materials and you have that subversive look about you, then you will probably be giving the customs people have a legal reason to detain you and/or deport you.
Warning: the customs room in the train station where you exit Belarus may be difficult to find (especially if you walk around the station rather casually and your Cyrillic is weak) and it closes a long time before the train leaves; if you arrive only 10 minutes before the train leaves, you will be refused customs control and access to the train. Customs may also be carried out at the border while on the train. It adds over an hour to the trip, but other than that, the officials are efficient and friendly.
On a local train between two border towns, chances are high that you will be accompanied/befriended by women trading underpants, soap powder, strawberries, cigarettes etc across the border. They may be friendly and casual or (leaving Belarus) they might put pressure on you to help them in their trade by carrying cigarettes over the border for them - the idea is that you buy it cheap in Belarus and that you resell it to them once you're in Poland. Chances are also good that their friendly mafia boss is with them and you'll all travel together in the same train carriage, so chances of you getting away and reselling the cigarettes independently are probably weak. Instead, just smile, use your common sense and probably best not to provoke them. If you take their cigarettes, make sure not to take more than a legal allowance and return them to the women in Poland. Don't expect to be paid for it. Don't look to the border guards for help. They know the women traders and seem to have some informal deal with them (e.g. not being strict about visas, etc) - the Belarus border guards are worried only about political subversives; they have higher priorities than defending you against women trading underpants and cigarettes.
At the Terespol/Brest crossing, there are about six different controls. As of August 2009, the Polish side seems to work quite slowly. Being on the outer border of the European Union, they check whether one isn't exporting a stolen car, isn't wanted by European authorities etc.
After crossing the bridge over river Bug and getting on the Belarusian side, one has to show passports and gets a piece of paper with the car's registration mark on it. Then one goes to either green or red channel depending on whether a customs control is needed. In the green channel one has to complete two checks, the completion of each check is recorded on the paper received on entering the Belarusian side.
First passport/visa/migration card checks are done by an officer who comes towards your car. They also check medical insurance and it is quite likely you will be forced to purchase the state cumpulsory medical insurance at the border. The cost for two weeks was about 5 euros.
Second is the transport/car check, for which one needs to go to a special window towards the end of the customs area. You will be required to produce a "green card" (proof of insurance) valid for Belarus, or will have to purchase a compulsory car insurance at the border. In August 2009, the insurance for 14 days was 17 euros (just over 20$), and there was no problem buying it at the Terespol/Brest crossing. You will also get another piece of paper with your car registration mark. You will need to show this one on the way back.
With the stamped paper, one can go forward towards the last barrier. The officer there just takes the paper, checks that you have completed the controls, and lets you into Belarus.
It would be nice to believe that there's a geiger counter to check for stuff which is radioactive from the Chernobyl accident, but it's unclear if this is used in practice - it's not done in any obvious way.
On leaving Belarus, one has to pay a special "environmental" tax before being allowed to enter the border control area. It costs 1 euro, and in Brest is sold in a large building just before the border on the right.
Taking a bus from any border of the country of Belarus is easy. From all the Baltic countries there is a lot of bus traffic to Belarus here are some samples:
Belarus shares many rivers with its neigbouring countries, so it's no big surprise that in Belarus each major city has a riverport and possibilities for river cruises. The easiest way to check departure times, routes and availability is to call Belarussian River Steamship Company  and/or Belarusian tourist companies . PLEASE NOTE! Cruice inquiries are recommended to do with phone. If you cannot reach one number it is good to call other numbers that same company have (Phone numbers and e-mail addresses change in rapid phase in Belarus)
Belarusian border crossing cruises are such as from Belarus, Polotsk into Latvia's Daugavpilis and Poland's Augustow chanel. Augustow chanal cruises departure from Belorussian city called Grodno and the route is via Neman river.
By a canoe
kayak paddeling, rowing and canoeing are popular hobbies in Belarus.
In some cases with special pre-planning and preparations with the autorities and tourist agents one can cross the border also by canoeing.
If you're at one of the double town crossings, e.g.
there may be some places where you can cross by foot - e.g. because you're on the last day of your Belarus visa and you want to be sure not to overstay - but more likely you'll have to befriend some people in a car who will adopt you for a few hours and will (implicitly) pretend that you're travelling with them. The border guards have no problem with this. Remember that the people in the car are taking a risk as well as you - as far as they know you might be a National Endowment for Democracy agent who will be discovered by the Belarus border guard and get them into a heap of trouble. So if they are Belarusians and they ask for a fee of US$5 consider it fair. See the section By car above for what happens in your adopted car.
Traveling by car implies frequent stops by the transportations authorities. You do not need to commit a crime, or to be resembling a criminal everybody is looking for, in order to get pulled over on the highway. You just need to look suspicious, or foreign, or simply well-off, so that authorities may want to inspect you. Do not try to argue about rights, especially if you violated traffic law. Other than the problem with the check stops, traveling by car will get you far, since the infrastructure in Belarus was well developed after World War II. Traveling by train around the country will get you to a lot of desired destinations relatively cheap and fast (make sure that you book an express train). Also, you will get a chance to capture a glimpse of Belarusian nature, as the forests and plains often start right on the edges of the cities. Notice how there are almost no elevations in this part of Europe - it is all vast green plain. Do not count on being lucky to spot wild animals by the railroad tracks - they are normally afraid of loud noises and savage passengers. Belarus is not a large country, and a traveller can reach from one side of its border to the other in less than a day.
Belarusian and Russian are the two official languages, but Russian is more widely spoken. It will be difficult to get by without some Russian. The two languages are closely related, together with Ukrainian, so even the Belarusian monolinguals understand some Russian and Ukrainian. Polish is spoken in the western parts, especially around Grodno.
Inside of Belarus, you can get Belarusian rubles (as well as US dollars and sometimes Euros) from automatic bank machines for standard types of credit/debit cards, and you can change US dollars and euros into Belarusian rubles or vice/versa at many exchange kiosks in big railway stations and centers of big cities. Converting Belarusian rubles back into hard currency once you are outside of Belarus will probably be extremely difficult (except in Moldova, strangely enough). However, if you exchange all your rubles before leaving, any last-minute purchases (or fines for overstaying, customs, whatever) would have to be paid in dollars/euros.
Be very careful, exchange kiosks will not exchange any bill that is damaged or marked on in any way. Approximately half of the bills you currently have in your wallet will be rejected for exchange in Belarus. Be sure to take ONLY relatively new and undamaged foreign money with you.
A very rough conversion (March 2010) is about 2950 Belarusian rubles = US$1.
Most larger supermarkets, stores and hotels have credit card terminals, but smaller shops often do not. Visa and MasterCard are accepted, while American Express is not.
Prices are typically much lower than in Western Europe, especially for supermarket food and service industry. However, hotels and restaurants are not cheaper than Western Europe (and often a lot more expensive than neighboring Poland)
Potatoes, pork, beef, bread - in a nutshell.
If you are looking for a national gourmet meal - you are in the right place. Most of the products and ingredients are organic, and radiation levels are constantly checked in the food to avoid contamination.
"Take fresh aurochs, and if you do not have any, you can use the elk instead". From 18th century Belarusian cookbook
Modern Belarusian cookery is based on old national traditions which have undergone a long historical evolution. But the main methods of traditional Belarusian cuisine are carefully kept by the people. Common in Belarusian cuisine were dishes from potato which is called among people "the second bread". The Belarusians bring fame to their beloved potato in their verses, songs, dances. There are special potato cafes in the country where you can try various potato dishes. Potato is included into many salads, it is served together with mushrooms, meat; different pirazhki (patties) and baked puddings are made from it. The most popular among the Belarusians are traditional draniki (known as "latkes" to North Americans, but eaten with sour cream, not apple sauce), thick pancakes prepared from shredded potatoes. A wide spread of potato dishes in Belarusian cuisine can be explained by natural climatic conditions of Belarus which are propitious for growing highly starched and tasty sorts of potatoes. A lot of place in the diet of the Belarusians belongs to meat and meat products, especially to the pork and salted pork fat. One of the people's proverbs says: "There is no fish more tasty than tench, as well as there is no meat better than pork". The salted pork fat is used slightly smoked and seasoned with onions and garlic. Pyachysta is one of the traditional holiday dishes. This is boiled, stewed or roasted sucking pig, fowl or large chunks of pork or beef. Dishes prepared from meat are usually served together with potatoes or vegetables such as carrot, cabbage, black radish, peas, etc. It is characteristic that many vegetable and meat dishes are prepared in special stoneware pots. Among dishes from fish the Belarusians prefer yushka, galki and also baked or boiled river-fish without special seasonings. In general, what concerns the most common seasonings such as onions, garlic, parsley, dill, caraway seeds, pepper, they are used very moderately in Belarusian cookery. The national dishes are hearty and tasty nonetheless. The choice Belarusian food are fresh, dried, salted and pickled mushrooms, and also berries such as bilberry, wild strawberries, red whortlberry, raspberries, cranberry and some others. Of flour dishes the most popular is zacirka. Pieces of specially prepared dough are boiled in water and then poured over with milk or garnished with salted pork fat. The Belarusians prefer to use whole milk which affected some methods of making yoghurt and the so called klinkovy cottage cheese. In Belarusian cuisine the milk is widely used for mixing in vegetable and flour dishes. Myadukha, berezavik, kvas, beer are traditional Belarusian drinks.
You can get soft drinks and beers everywhere in Belarus. Vodka and bundy rum is the most common alcoholic drink.
"Legal theft". Most hotels in Minsk are safe. However, be aware of the Belarusian trick. Since Belarusians are very afraid of the authorities and thus of committing a crime, some corrupt hotels may practice a very annoying way of stealing, so called "legal theft" involving maids (often in conspiracy with the reception personnel). While cleaning your room (in your absence) they may hide your personal belongings in the most outrageous parts of your room, combining bizarre sets of items, such as a cellular phone with a piece of bread, a wallet with a cheap magazine or a pair of glasses (!). The trick is: if you miss them, the maid will come and collect them later, if you report the items missing (or find them by yourself) you won't be able to do a thing (since the items never left the room, it is not considered a theft). The personnel may also ridicule your allegation by pointing out why on earth they would want to hide some bread or a hotel magazine - they just accidentally tucked the items away while cleaning. Avoid such unpleasant situations by always locking your valuables in the hotel safe or at least taking them with you. Before checking out, always search the room thoroughly (wardrobes, cabinets, deep shelves, behind sofas and radiators).
Aforementioned demonstrations can be identified by seeing a red and white banner, a white background, with a strip of red going horizontally across in the center, forming a white red white flag. If you see said flag, do your best to stay away from the demonstration.
The KGB in Belarus has not changed its name since the days of the Soviet Union - it is still called the KGB, and its habits have probably not changed much either.
Some ethnic Polish journalists and journalists with Polish citizenship had hassles with the authorities  (ranging from refused entry to a dozen or so days in prison) during 2005. If you have a Polish sounding name, you had better have good evidence that you're not a journalist.
In Belarus, there is a big institute and lots of funding for studying the after effects of the Chernobyl disaster, which happened in 1986 in a nuclear power plant on the Ukraine-Belarus border, in the food chain. In principle, food inspectors check food not only for bacterial contamination but also for radiation levels, and except for the banned region within about 50 kilometers of the Chernobyl plant itself and a second hotspot starting from the point where Russia, Ukraine and Belarus all touch each other, and running roughly 100 km to the North of this point, food is considered safe.
Many American nationals have found that food items purchased in nearby Lithuania and then brought by train to Belarus avoid issues of radiological contamination. In addition, travelers are also advised to avoid Belorussian cow's milk for similar reasons.
Since Belorussian, Ukrainian and Russian cultures are very close and thus share much in common, many of the same principles of behavior that can be applied to Russians and Ukrainians, are also applicable to the Belarus populace.
There are 3 major GSM providers in Belarus:
All of them offer no-contract GSM SIM-cards and USB modems for Internet access. Cellular communications are very affordable and popular in Belarus. Each of these companies has numerous stores in Minsk, Brest and other regional centers. You will need your passport to purchase a SIM card.