Anuradhapura is a city in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.
It is possible to get to Anuradhapura on the A9 highway from Kandy. The drive is approximately five hours. Buses travel along this highway, as well.
Tuk tuks and buses are abundant. The New Town is relatively small, and can be walked from one end to another in half an hour. The Old Town (archaeological site) is quite large, and you can get around by tuk tuk.
The ancient city of Anuradhapura was first settled ca. 900 B.C., and served off and on as the capital of the Sinhalese Kingdom until ca. 1100 A.D., when the capital moved further south. The city was quite large in its heyday, and so there is a lot of archaeology to see. A $20 USD ticket will get you day admission to all the sites of Anuradhapura itself, and admission is included in the Cultural Triangle ticket. Tickets can be purchased at the Archaeology Museum.
Note: It is respectful, and indeed necessary, to remove shoes and hats when walking around sites of Buddhist veneration. The ground, especially the sand, can get quite hot, so step lightly and seek shade if you must. It is also polite to circumambulate to the right; that is, walk to the left around the object so that your right hand, considered to be the clean hand, is constantly facing the object. Women's shoulders should also be covered when exploring Buddhist sites, and respecful clothing should be worn. Sri Lanka is a very polite society, so please dress appropriately. One is also not supposed to turn their back towards a representation of the Buddha. It is generally fine to take pictures, but be careful not to take any pictures of people infront of images of the Buddha. Also note: Beware of the monkeys! Monkeys, particularly macaques (small, red-faced monkeys) can get quite aggressive, and have been known to steal personal belongs, including cameras, if left unattended.
The Sri Maha Bodhiya: The Sri Maha Bodhiya, or Bodhi Tree Temple, is the second most sacred place in Sri Lanka, after the Sri Dalada Maligawa, or Temple of the Tooth, in Kandy. The Bodhi Tree is allegedly a cutting from the original Bodhi tree under which the Buddha gained enlightenment, and has been continuously guarded for over 2000 years, making it the oldest historically authenticated tree in the world. The temple complex is surrounded by walls, and is quite busy with monks and worshippers. Due to terrorist activities in the 1980s, it is not possible to drive up to the temple, and one must go through a metal detector before entering the complex. Bags will be checked, and it is advisable to leave luggage at the hotel, as it will not be allowed near the site. Shoes can be left near the entrance. It is polite to leave a tip.
Ruwanwelisaya: the oldest and most volumous stupa at Anuradhapura, has been fully restored, painted white, and is currently a centre of worship. Walk from the Sri Maha Bodhiya, past the Brazen Palace (an ancient palace that once supported a bronze roof) to the stupa. There are several image houses at the stupa, as well as four smaller stupas in the four corners of the complex. Please be respectful of the worshippers at the site.
The Archaeolgy Museum: Showcases many of the artifacts found at the site, from jewellery and gems to coinage and pottery. The museum is more focused on religious and elite objects, although some commoner artifacts are also shown.
The Folk Museum: Showcases the archaeology of Anuradhapura from a more folk perspective.
Jetavana: Large stupa (Buddhist worship structure. Also known as "Dagoba"), currently undergoing restoration work. At ~120m (400ft.) tall, this was the third tallest structure in the ancient world (after the Great Pyramids at Giza), and the largest in Sri Lanka.
The Citadel: This was the secular centre of the city. The Gedige and other palaces can be found here, as well as the old city walls.
The Moonstone: Moonstones, to be found throughout Anuradhapura, were at the entrances to monasteries, and represented the movement from the secular to the sacred worlds, by following the path to enlightenment, as carved into the moonstone. This moonstone is of particular note, for its size and impressive decoration.
The Western Monasteries: These monasteries represent a different take on worshipping the Buddha than can be found in the main part of the ancient city. Whereas many monasteries were opulant and richly adorned, the Western Monasteries sought a more orthodox existence, without any sort of decoration within the monastery, save for urinal stones. Urinal stones were often very richly adorned, and the symbolism here need not be explicitly stated.
Tissawewa: This large irrigation tank was originally constructed in ancient times, but fell into disuse. It was rebuilt for irrigation purposes in the nineteenth century.
Mihintale: Located approximately 10km. (6.25 miles) to the east of Anuradhapura, Mihintale is a large rock outcrop, approximately 305m (1000 ft.) high. There are two stupas, a rock shelter with inscriptions, a temple with a large Buddha image, and an ancient hospital. There is an excellent view of the surrounding area from the top, and it is possible to see the three largest stupas of Anuradhapura emerging from the forest to the west. The general landscape is quite flat, with large rock outcrops and small mountains dotting the landscape. The parking lot is at the bottom of the mountain, and a large number of stairs must be climbed to reach the top, where the archaeological sites are located. Shoes and hats must be left at the top.
Ritigala: Located approximately 40km. (25 miles) to the southeast of Anuradhapura, on the Anuradhapura to Habarana Road, Ritigala is a small mountain approximately 765m. (2,514 feet) in height. The top of the mountain is a strict nature reserve, due to the unique climate associated with the gain in altitude. However, the mountain was the site of a series of orthodox forest ministeries. There is a parking lot at the base of the mountain, and the visitor can walk up the Meditational Pathways to the various levels and Meditational Platforms. The walk is quite beautiful through a unique, forested environment. The visitor is awarded several nice views, especially from when the pathways cross a ravine. This is an excellent site to visit off the beaten path, as it is much quieter and less visited than Anuradhapura. It is quite likely that you will be the only foreigners visiting the site, should you choose to do so. However, don't expect the oppulence seen at Anuradhapura. The orthodox monks did not believe in accumulating material wealth, but the forest environment is a perfect setting for the rock structures and long, winding paths.
There are numerous other small towns and villages in the area around Anuradhapura, and it is possible to come across modern-day monasteries and temples, as well. It is worth exploring the area, as there are some beautiful and picturesque areas around Anuradhapura.