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Andorra

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Europe : Iberia : Andorra
Revision as of 03:45, 8 August 2003 by CIAWorldFactbook2002 (Talk | contribs)

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Quick Facts
CapitalAndorra la Vella
Governmentparliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Currencyeuro (EUR); French franc (FRF); Spanish peseta (ESP)
Areatotal: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 468 sq km
Population68,403 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageCatalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
ReligionRoman Catholic (predominant)

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.


Geography

An-map.png
Map of Andorra
Location 
Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates 
42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map references 
Europe
Area 
total: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 468 sq km
Area - comparative 
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries 
total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
Coastline 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims 
none (landlocked)
Climate 
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Terrain 
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resources 
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use 
arable land: 2.22%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.78% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
NA sq km
Natural hazards 
avalanches
Environment - current issues 
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note 
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

People

Population 
68,403 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 15.2% (male 5,456; female 4,951)
15-64 years: 71.9% (male 25,855; female 23,311)
65 years and over: 12.9% (male 4,425; female 4,405) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
1.11% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
9.97 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
5.57 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
6.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
4.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 83.48 years
female: 86.58 years (2002 est.)
male: 80.58 years
Total fertility rate 
1.26 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
NA
Nationality 
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groups 
Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Religions 
Roman Catholic (predominant)
Languages 
Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Literacy 
definition: NA
total population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Government type 
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Capital 
Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions 
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence 
1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)
National holiday 
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Constitution 
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993
Legal system 
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan Marti ALANIS (since 31 January 1971), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA%
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994)
Legislative branch 
unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD 23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, independents 2
Judicial branch 
Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Political parties and leaders 
Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [leader NA]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Marc Forne MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU Cassany]; Social Democratic Party or PSD (formerly part of National Democratic Group of AND) [leader NA]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO Coma]
note: there are two other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders 
NA
International organization participation 
CCC, CE, ECE, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V. PIA-COMELLA
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
Diplomatic representation from the US 
the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705
Flag description 
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy

Economy - overview 
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
3.8% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line 
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
4.3% (2000)
Labor force 
33,000 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate 
0%
Budget 
revenues: $385 million
expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
Industries 
tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, tobacco, banking
Industrial production growth rate 
NA%
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: NA%
other: NA%
nuclear: NA%
hydro: NA%
Electricity - consumption 
NA kWh
Electricity - exports 
NA kWh
Electricity - imports 
NA kWh
note: most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
Agriculture - products 
small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
Exports 
$58 million f.o.b. (1998)
Exports - commodities 
tobacco products, furniture
Exports - partners 
France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)
Imports 
$1.077 billion (1998)
Imports - commodities 
consumer goods, food, electricity
Imports - partners 
Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)
Debt - external 
$NA
Economic aid - recipient 
none
Currency 
euro (EUR); French franc (FRF); Spanish peseta (ESP)
Currency code 
EUR; FRF; ESP
Exchange rates 
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997); Spanish pesetas per US dollar - 149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
32,946 (December 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
14,117 (December 1998)
Telephone system 
general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: landline circuits to France and Spain
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 
16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
0 (1997)
Televisions 
27,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.ad
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
1 (2000)
Internet users 
24,500 (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
0 km
Highways 
total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km (1994 est.)
Waterways 
none
Ports and harbors 
none
Airports 
none (2001)

Military

Military branches 
no regular military forces, but there is a police force
Military - note 
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
border is undemarcated in sections

Variants

Actions

Destination Docents

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