Difference between revisions of "American Samoa"
Revision as of 16:05, 20 February 2011
American Samoa  is a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean that lie about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand and about 100 km east of the island country of Samoa, which is part of the same archipelago.
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. The citizens of American Samoa are US "nationals" and not US "citizens," but they are allowed to travel freely between the American Samoa and the US Mainland. They are not required to obtain green cards or visas to stay or work in the United States, and they are allowed to serve in the US armed forces (and often do). There are some ways that American Samoa's special status as an unincorporated territory have interesting legal consequences. The US Constitution is not necessarily the supreme law of the land in American Samoa, and Samoan cultural norms, in particular, those related to the ownership of property and public displays of religion actually trump certain well-settled US constitutional rights in American Samoa.
The main city is Pago Pago and the smaller Fagatogo is constitutionally designated seat of government. The governor's office is located in the village of Utulei, located on the opposite side of Fagatogo from Pago Pago.
Pago Pago (pronounced "Pongo Pongo") - capital city
Population 57,496 (July 2008 est.)
The islands are frequently referred to as Samoa, which is the name of a separate island, and independent country, that used to be known as Western Samoa, that lies about 100 km west of American Samoa. Also the whole island group, including Samoa, are often identified as the Samoan islands.
Settled as early as 1000 BCE by Polynesian navigators, Samoa was reached by European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which Germany (later Britain) and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally occupied its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago in the following year.
American Samoa is warm, humid and rainy year-round, but there is a long, wet summer season (October - May) and a slightly cooler and drier season (June - September). Total annual rainfall is 125 inches at the Tafuna airport and 200+ inches in mountainous areas. Such rainfall gave the English writer Somerset Maugham the name for his short story "Rain", based in Pago Pago, which was subsequently turned into a play and movie.
90% of the land in the group of islands is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US and the greater part of its foreign trade is with the US. The private sector is dominated by tuna fishing and the tuna processing plants, canned tuna being the primary export. Monetary transfers from the US Government also add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. Since the emergence of US influence and control the government of the United States of America has put up resistance to the emergence of local independence movements. In the early 20th century the American Samoa Mau movement was actively suppressed by the U.S. Navy.
The Governor of American Samoa is the head of government and exercises executive power. American Samoa is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the United States, administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Its constitution was ratified in 1966 and came into effect in 1967.
In both American Samoa and (independent) Samoa there is traditional village political system common to all of the Samoa Islands, the "fa'amatai" and the "fa'asamoa" interacts across the current international boundaries. The Fa'asamoa represents language and customs, and the Fa'amatai the protocols of the "fono" (council) and the chief system. The Fa'amatai and the Fono take place at all levels of the Samoan body politic, from the family, to the village and include regional and national matters.
There is one international airport, Pago Pago International Airport (IATA: PPG), with a runway length of 2,750 m (9,000 ft). This is also referred to as Tafuna Airport (or Tafuna International Airport) and is located at Tafuna 5 km (3 mi) miles southwest of the central business district of Pago Pago on the island of Tutuila
Faleolo International Airport (IATA: APW) also serves as an international gateway to the region. That airport located 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of Apia, the capital of (independent) Samoa. Daily inter island flights between the Samoas are operated by Inter Island Airways and Polynesian Airlines. Samoa is in the western part of the Samoan islands archipelago.
The Faleolo airport in nearby Samoa has wider international connections including Air New Zealand to Auckland in New Zealand, Air Pacific to Honolulu USA and Nadi in Fiji, Inter Island Airways to Ofu, Pago Pago, Tau in American Samoa, Polynesian Airlines to Maota in Samoa and Pago Pago in American Samoa, Tongatapu in Tonga, Polynesian Blue (operated by Pacific Blue) to Auckland in New Zealand, Brisbane and Sydney in Australia.
The island of Tutuila has the international seaport of Pago Pago, this port is served by a number of passenger carrying cruise ships and cargo ships.
Inter Island Airways are the only airline providing daily domestic air services between Pago Pago and the Manu'a Island of Tau.
Fitiuta Airport (IATA: FTI), (FAA:FAQ), 975 x 23 m (3,200 x 75 ft) is a public use airport located in the village of Fiti‘uta on the northeast portion of Ta‘ū island.
Tau Airport (IATA: TAV) 661 x 30 m (2,170 x 100 ft) is a privately-owned, private-use airport 2 km (1 mi) southeast of the village of Ta‘ū in the northwest corner of Ta‘ū island. It is not normally utilised for scheduled services.
Rose Island (Rose Atoll) and Swains Island do not have an airport.
Several car rental facilities are available at or near the Tutuila airport. On Tutuila taxis are available at the airport, and near the market in Fagatogo. The island of Tutuila has good public transportation (frequent, but unscheduled) via “aiga” or “family” buses. For 50 cents to a dollar you can be taken around Pago Pago Harbor, and to the more remote parts of the island. Buses originate and terminate at the market in Fagatogo, the village next to Pago Pago. The roads are generally too narrow and the traffic too busy for bicycles.
Hail an aiga bus with a wave of your hand. Many Samoans carry a quarter or two in their ears for bus fare as the wraparound skirts (lavalava) don't have pockets. When you want off, tap the window a few times and the bus will stop and pay the driver by tossing your fare (a quarter up to a dollar depending on the route and distance traveled) onto the dashboard on your way out.
A weekly ferry service from Pago Pago to the Manu’a Islands is provided government operated excursion boat. This service travels around Tutuila, calling at the north coast villages of Afono, Vatia and Fagasa.
The native language is Samoan, a Polynesian language related to Hawaiian and other Pacific island languages. English is widely spoken, and most people can at least understand it. Most people are bilingual to some degree.
Some commons words/phrases:
Hello - Talofa (tah-low-fah)
Please - Fa'amolemole (fah-ah-moh-lay-moh-lay)
Thank you - Fa'afetai (fah-ah-feh-tie)
Tutuila has a wide variety of places to eat--from familiar fast food stops to fine restaurants. The outer islands have far less variety. Restaurants offer a variety of cuisines, including American, Chinese, Japanese, Italian and Polynesian.
There is hotel-style lodging on all islands except Olosega.
The tuna industry is very prominent, but about 30% of the population is unemployed.
American Samoa has few health risks of concern for normally healthy persons visiting the islands. Bring necessary medications with you, for supplies may not be available. Medical care is limited and there is none available on the Manu’a Islands. The LBJ Tropical Medical Center is on Tutuila island and located in the village of Faga'alu. It was once a highly regarded regional health centre however it has fallen on hard times, it has staffing problems and only provides marginal service. A serious illness or injury will generally be evacuated to a hospital in Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand or Australia. When travelling in the region carry some basic medications such as aspirin or paracetamol (acetaminophen/Tylonol), cold capsules, band-aids, sun screen, vitamins, anti-diarrhea pills, and a good insect repellant.
American Samoa has low crime rates, though it's best to stay where the crowds are while in the beach. While swimming, don't go too far out, as the rip tides are common.
There might be some dangerous animals around, but mosquitoes will likely be the biggest culprits during your stay—don't forget your insect repellent.
Except for perhaps a few thousand individuals nearly all inhabitants of American Samoa are indigenous Samoans of Polynesian ancestry. More than any other U.S. or Polynesians peoples, Samoans are oriented toward traditional customs and lifestyles. They closely follow the social customs and hierarchies developed prior to the arrival of the first Europeans in the region. This Samoan way, or fa'asamoa is still deeply ingrained in American Samoa culture.
The most apparent character is the Samoan matai system of organization and philosophy. In general, each village is made up of a group of aiga, or extended families, which include as many relatives as can be claimed. Each aiga is headed by a chief, or matai, who represents the family on all matters including the village council, or fono. Matais hold title to all assets of the aigas, or families; they represent and are responsible for law enforcement and punishment of infractions occurring in their villages.
The fono consists of the matais of all the aiga associated with the village. The highest chief of the matais of all the village aigas is the highest chief, or the ali’i, and heads the fono. Also, each village has a pulenu’u (somewhat like a police chief or mayor), and one or more talking chiefs, tulafale.
Over the centuries, distinct cultural traits emerged that we now call fa'asamoa (fah-ah-SAH-mo-ah). Whether you are a guest or simply passing through a village, please observe these customs as a sign of respect.
Follow the Samoan Way: